AI News, Why businesses fail at machine learning
Why businesses fail at machine learning
I’d like to let you in on a secret: when people say ‘machine learning’ it sounds like there’s only one discipline here.
If you’re opening a bakery, it’s a great idea to hire an experienced baker well-versed in the nuances of making delicious bread and pastry.
What they don’t tell you is that all those machine learning courses and textbooks are about how to build ovens (and microwaves, blenders, toasters, kettles… the kitchen sink!) from scratch, not how to cook things and innovate with recipes.
Instead, leaders try to start their kitchens by hiring those folks who’ve been building microwave parts their whole lives but have never cooked a thing.
If you’re innovating in recipes to sell food at scale, you need people who figure out what’s worth cooking / what the objectives are (decision-makers and product managers), people who understand the suppliers and the customers (domain experts and social scientists), people who can process ingredients at scale (data engineers and analysts), people who can try many different ingredient-appliance combinations quickly to generate potential recipes (applied ML engineers), people who can check that the quality of the recipe is good enough to serve (statisticians), people who turn a potential recipe into millions of dishes served efficiently (software engineers), people who keep the interdisciplinary team on track (project/program managers), and people who ensure that your dishes stay top notch even if the delivery truck brings you a ton of potatoes instead of the rice you ordered (reliability engineers).
Speaking of outsourcing, if your team has tried all existing tools and can’t make a recipe that meets your business objectives, it makes sense to think about adding skills in building appliances (researcher).
Whether or not you hire that person to your permanent staff or outsource the job to an experienced algorithms research firm depends on the scale and maturity of your operation.
Another reason to connect with researchers is that your prototype is so successful that using custom-built appliances makes sense at the massive scale you’re lucky enough to operate at.
To put it another way, if research machine learning is building microwaves and applied machine learning is using microwaves, decision intelligence engineering is using microwaves safely to meet your goals and using something else when you don’t need a microwave.
How the microwave was invented by a radar engineer who accidentally cooked a candy bar in his pocket
createPerformanceMark('first image displayed');Creative Commons/nowiknow.comThe microwave has evolved into one of the most popular household appliances in the world, but few people know that it was invented entirely by accident.
Different wavelengths of microwaves are being used to keep an eye on weather conditions and even rain structures via satellites, and are able to penetrate clouds, rain, and snow, according to NASA.
Police are also known to use radar guns to monitor a vehicle's speed, which continually transmit microwaves to measure the waves' reflections to see how fast you're driving.
Two years later, Raytheon launched the RadaRange as the first commercial microwave oven, which cost $5,000 at the time ($52,628 in 2015 dollars), weighed 750 pounds, and stood just shy of six feet tall.
'The early microwave ovens, and we had one, were as large as a refrigerator, would take twenty minutes to warm up before you could cook anything, but they were ten times more powerful than anything you can buy today, so a potato was cooked in thirty seconds,' Spencer said.
'The microwave oven eventually became known as Raytheon's largest commercial failure, and the reason why was that like so many other failures, they saw the cool technology but they didn't understand the market,' Spencer said.
Eventually, the refridgerator-sized appliance was shrunk down to a more manageable, countertop size, and according to the University of Southern California, sales of the microwave oven 'surpassed those of gas ranges' by 1975.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Printer Friendly Version Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace for their employees.
The handbook should help small business employers meet the legal requirements imposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (the Act), and achieve an in-compliance status before an OSHA inspection.
This handbook is not a legal interpretation of the provisions of the Act and does not place any additional requirements on employers or employees.
The materials in this handbook are based upon Federal OSHA standards and other requirements in effect at the time of publication and upon generally accepted principles and activities within the job safety and health field.
While the programs in these State Plan States may differ in some respects from Federal OSHA, this handbook can be used by employers in any state because the standards imposed by State Plan States must be at least as effective as Federal OSHA standards.
A list of states that operate their own safety and health programs can be found on OSHA's websit at www.osha.gov.
This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request by voice phone (202) 693-1999 or teletypewriter (TTY) (877) 889-5627.
Determined to make that dream possible, OSHA is committed to assuring - so far as possible - that every working man and woman in the nation has safe and healthful working conditions.
OSHA believes that providing workers with a safe workplace is central to their ability to enjoy health, security and the opportunity to achieve the American dream.
OSHA is paring down its regulatory agenda so that it more accurately reflects realistic goals that best serve the needs of American employers and employees.
Confronted by the realities and demands to keep pace with the workforce and problems of the future, OSHA is developing new strategies to reduce occupational fatalities, injuries and illnesses.
Coupled with strong, effective and fair enforcement, OSHA strives to provide improved outreach, education and compliance assistance to America's employers and employees.
In October 2002, OSHA created the Office of Small Business Assistance to provide small business direction, to facilitate information sharing and to help in finding and achieving regulatory compliance.
The office also works to educate small businesses on using up-to-date tools and materials, and facilitates opportunities to comment on OSHA's regulatory agenda.
Years of experience show us that voluntary collaborative relationships between OSHA, the private sector and other government entities lead to improved safety and health.
State workplace safety and health programs frequently lead the way in developing innovative approaches to making America's workplaces safer and healthier.
States that operate their own worker safety and health plans must provide worker protection that is "at least as effective as"
OSHA's Training Institute, located in Arlington Heights, IL, provides training for OSHA compliance safety and health officers as well as for the general public and safety and health staff from other Federal agencies.
These OSHA education centers operate in conjunction with universities, colleges and learning centers to conduct OSHA courses for the private sector and other Federal agencies, making safety and health training and education more accessible to those who need it.
For more information about OSHA's Training Institute, OSHA's education centers, or to obtain training catalogs with course schedules, write the OSHA Training Institute, 2020 South Arlington Heights Road, Arlington Heights, IL 60005 or call (847) 297-4810.
OSHA's extensive website provides employers and employees with practical, easy-to-understand and up-to-date guidance on regulations, compliance assistance and learning
OSHA's web pages include MyOSHA, which allows users to create their own personalized OSHA web page with customized content and links.
Quick Start is another tool on OSHA's Compliance Assistance web page that allows the user to identify many of the major OSHA requirements and guidance materials that apply to their individual workplaces or industry sectors.
If you would like to receive regular updates from OSHA about new programs, tools, best practices and other useful information, subscribe to the agency's e-news memo, QuickTakes.
Recent estimates place the business costs associated with occupational injuries at close to $170 billion-expenditures that come straight out of company profits.
When workers stay whole and healthy, the direct cost-savings to businesses include: Safety and health also make big reductions in indirect costs, due to: Employees and their families benefit from safety and health because: Simply put, protecting people on the job is in everyone's best interest-our economy, our communities, our fellow workers and our families.
You wager your business acumen against larger, perhaps more heavily financed corporate groups and other free-spirited, self-employed individuals like yourself.
There is excitement and challenge in such a venture, but to succeed you need good management information, an ability to be a good manager of people and the intelligence and inner strength to make the right decisions.
For this reason, many owners or managers do not understand why there is controversy about the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), job safety and health standards, inspections, citations, etc.
We believe that, when you make job safety and health a real part of your everyday operations, you will not lose in the long run.
A serious fire, a permanent injury, or the death of an employee or owner can cause the loss of profit or even an entire business.
Worker exposure to toxic chemicals or harmful levels of noise or radiation may happen in conjunction with routine work as well as by accident.
While having a safety and health plan based on these four elements does not guarantee compliance with OSHA standards, the approach will help you toward full compliance and beyond.
It will certainly give you a way to express and document your good faith and commitment to protecting your workers' health and safety.
Developing a health and safety protection plan does not have to be expensive and generally does not require additional employees, especially in smaller businesses.
As you implement the plan and incorporate it into your business culture, safety and health awareness will become second nature to you and your employees.
Box 37535, Washington, DC 200013-7535, or call (202) 693-1888.) Although voluntary, these guidelines represent OSHA's policy on what every worksite should have in place to protect workers from occupational hazards.
If you are not interested in preventing employee injury and illness, your employees will probably not give safety and health much thought either.
Therefore, it is essential that you demonstrate at all times your personal concern for employee safety and health, and the priority you place on them in your workplace.
If you seriously involve your employees in identifying and resolving safety and health problems, they will bring their unique insights and energy to achieving the goals and objectives of your program.
Here are some actions to consider: WORKSITE ANALYSIS It is your responsibility to know what items or processes that helps you make sure that you know what you need to keep your workers safe.
For help in getting started with these processes, you can call on your state on-site Consultation Program and have an experienced health and safety professional visit your workplace for free and confidentially.
(See OSHA Publications at page 42 for ordering information.) Here are some actions to consider: HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL Once you have identified your existing and potential hazards, you are ready to implement the systems that prevent or control those hazards.
Here are some actions to consider: To fulfill the above requirements, consider the following: TRAINING FOR EMPLOYEES, SUPERVISORS AND MANAGERS An effective accident prevention program requires proper job performance from everyone in the workplace.
As an owner or manager, you must ensure that all employees know about the materials and equipment they work with, known hazards and how to control the hazards.
Each employee needs to know that: You may be able to combine safety and health training with other training, depending upon the types of hazards in your workplace.
Essential records, including those legally required for workers' compensation, insurance audits and government inspections must be maintained as long as the actual need exists or as required by law.
Keeping records of your activities, such as policy statements, training sessions, safety and health meetings, information distributed to employees, and medical arrangements made, is greatly encouraged.
Maintaining essential records also will demonstrate sound business management as supporting proof for credit applications, for showing "good faith"
in reducing any proposed penalties from OSHA inspections, for insurance and other audits, and aid efficient review of your current safety and health activities for better control of your operations and to plan improvements.
The primary purpose of OSHA-required recordkeeping is to retain information about accidents that have happened to help determine the causes and develop procedures to prevent a recurrence.
Small businesses with 10 or fewer employees throughout the year are exempt from most of the requirements of the OSHA recordkeeping rules, as are a number of specific industries in the retail, service, finance, insurance and real estate sectors that are classified as low-hazard.
The employer is required to report to OSHA within eight hours of the accident, all work-related fatalities or multiple hospitalizations that involve three or more employees.
Even if your business is exempt from routine recordkeeping requirements, you may be selected by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) or a related state agency for inclusion in an annual sample survey.
EXPOSURE RECORDS AND OTHERS In addition to injury/illness records, certain OSHA standards require records on the exposure of employees to toxic substances and hazardous exposures, physical examination reports and employment records.
The action plan described in this section provides the most direct route to getting yourself organized to complete the Four-Point Program outlined in the previous section.
Whether you choose to work with a consultant or to develop your program yourself, many publications are available from your state on-site Consultation Program or from OSHA that spell out in greater detail the steps you can take to create an effective safety and health program for your workplace.
Whoever you choose should be committed to workplace safety and health, have the time to develop and manage the program, and be willing to take on the responsibility and accountability that goes with operating an effective program.
Federal occupational safety and health law allows a state to develop and operate its own occupational safety and health program in place of the Federal OSHA program.
It is possible that the regulatory aspect of the law (setting of mandatory minimum standards and conducting inspections of workplaces) is being operated by your state government as opposed to Federal OSHA.
If you are not sure what agency is responsible for administering workplace safety and health in your state, contact the nearest OSHA Area Office to find out.
You will need certain Federal OSHA publications (or comparable state publications) for use in your safety and health activities, such as: Poor housekeeping can contribute to low morale and sloppy work.
Before making changes in your safety and health operations, you should gather information about the current conditions and business practices that comprise your safety and health program.
Your workplace assessment should be conducted by the person responsible for your safety and health management system and/or a professional safety and health consultant.
The assessment consists of two major activities: After gathering facts, see if any major problem areas emerge such as interruptions in your normal
compensation carriers, local safety councils, trade associations, state agencies, major suppliers or
From this standpoint, you can design a step-by-step process to take you from the idea stage to an effective safety and health management system.
The best way to create a safe and healthful workplace is to institute the Four-Point Program discussed at page 8 of this handbook.
A good safety and health program makes it clear that each and every employee, from you through the supervisory levels to the line worker, carries responsibility for his or her part of the program.
Whenever feasible, engineering, administrative or work practice controls should be instituted even if they do not eliminate the hazard or reduce exposure.
The basic formula for controlling workplace hazards, in order of preference, includes: Establish and provide ongoing training for employees, supervisors and managers to ensure that everyone at your worksite can recognize hazards and how to control them.
These points are crucial to a safe and healthful workplace for you and your employees, making it more difficult for accidents to occur and for work-related health problems to develop.
Developing an action plan to build a safety and health program around the four points can serve as a "road map"
worksheet to help you design an overall action plan and describe specific action steps appears in
Putting your action plan into operation at your workplace will be a major step toward implementing an effective safety and health program.
Developing new action plans to implement these improvements will continue progress toward an effective safety and health program, reduce your safety and health risks, and increase efficiency and profit.
The best way to evaluate the success of your safety and health program is to have documentation of what you have done, which provides guidance on how you can make it work even better.
Establishing a quality safety and health management system will take time and involve some resources, but you should be pleased with the results.
The tangible and intangible rewards for a solid safety and health program far outweigh the cost of an accident, injury or workplace fatality.
The most widely accepted way to identify hazards is to conduct safety and health inspections because the only way to be certain of an actual situation is to look at it directly from time to time.
Add information from your completed checklists to injury information, employee information, and process and equipment information to build a foundation to help you determine what problems exist.
Once the hazards have been identified, institute the control procedures described at page 9 and establish your four-point safety and health program.
checklists are typical for general industry but not for construction or maritime industries.) EMPLOYER POSTING RECORDKEEPING SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM MEDICAL SERVICES AND FIRST AID FIRE PROTECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING GENERAL WORK ENVIRONMENT WALKWAYS FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS ELEVATED SURFACES EXITING OR EGRESS - EVACUATION EXIT DOORS PORTABLE LADDERS HAND TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT PORTABLE (POWER OPERATED) TOOLS AND
EQUIPMENT ABRASIVE WHEEL EQUIPMENT GRINDERS POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS MACHINE GUARDING LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING COMPRESSORS AND COMPRESSED AIR COMPRESSORS/AIR RECEIVERS COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS HOIST AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS - FORKLIFTS SPRAYING OPERATIONS ENTERING CONFINED SPACES ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL EXPOSURE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES COMMUNICATION ELECTRICAL NOISE FUELING IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS MATERIALS HANDLING TRANSPORTING EMPLOYEES AND MATERIALS CONTROL OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES BY
Cost: $3.75 Internet - There is an enormous amount of compliance assistance information on OSHA's website that can be useful to the small business owner, found at http://www.osha.gov/employers/.
call (800) 667-2968 or write to: American National Red Cross National Headquarters Safety Programs 2025 E Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY Many local or university libraries contain information on
The following statements provide examples that can be used or modified by employers to help prevent employee injury and illness.
To the greatest degree possible, management will provide all mechanical and physical facilities required for personal safety and health in keeping with the highest standards."
To be successful, such a program must embody the proper attitudes toward injury and illness prevention on the part of supervisors and employees.
"Our objective is a safety and health program that will reduce the number of injuries and illnesses to an absolute minimum, not merely in keeping with, but surpassing, the best experience of operations similar to ours.
Suggested Safety Rules Use of Tools and Equipment Machinery and Vehicles OSHA has four separate sets of standards: General Industry (29 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1910), Construction (29 CFR 1926), Maritime Employment (29 CFR 1915-1919), and Agriculture (29 CFR 1928).
OSHA has regulations on posting and other administrative matters in 29 CFR 1903 and on recording and reporting of injuries and illnesses in 29 CFR 1904.
The OSH Act also has a general duty clause, section 5(a)(1), 29 U.S.C. 654(b)(1), which provides that: (a) Each employer -- (1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.
The general duty clause does not apply if there is an OSHA standard dealing with the hazard, unless the employer knows that the standard does not adequately address the hazard.
For example, if you are engaged in retail trade or service and you do not have compressed gases, flammables, or explosives on your premises, you can eliminate Hazardous Materials (Subpart H) as not applying to your business.
In 1996, Congress passed the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act, or SBREFA, in response to concerns expressed by the small business community that Federal regulations were too numerous, too complex and too expensive to implement.
SBREFA was designed to give small businesses assistance in understanding and complying with regulations and more of a voice in the development of new regulations.
Under SBREFA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and other Federal agencies must: Commenting on Enforcement Actions Under a law passed by Congress in 1996, the Small Business Administration (SBA) has established an SBA Ombudsman and SBA Regional Fairness Boards to investigate small business complaints about Federal agency enforcement actions.
For more information on SBREFA the following web links may prove helpful: http://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbaprograms/ombudsman/index.htmlhttp://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbaprograms/ombudsman/aboutus/OMBUD_ABOUTUS.htmlhttp://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbaprograms/ombudsman/faq/index.htmlhttp://www.sba.gov/advo/http://www.sba.gov/advo/laws/is_oshapanel.html NOTE: Filing a complaint with the SBA Ombudsman does not affect any obligation that you may have to comply with an OSHA citation or other enforcement action.
553-5930 *These states and territories operate their own OSHA-approved job safety and health programs (Connecticut, New Jersey, New York and Puerto Rico plans cover public employees only).
321-OSHA OSHA's Non-Retaliation Policy The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has a long-established policy that information inquiries received by the agency regarding safety and health regulations or other safety-related subjects shall not trigger an inspection.
Contacts for information initiated by employers or their representatives shall not trigger an inspection, nor shall such employer inquiries protect them against regular inspections conducted pursuant to guidelines established by the agency.
Further, if an employer or its representatives indicates that an imminent danger exists or that a fatality or catastrophe has occurred, the Area Director shall act in accordance with established inspection priority procedures.
While exceptions to this policy exist, such as the presence of an imminent danger or the occurrence of a fatality, OSHA policy is to provide assistance to help employers prevent and reduce workplace fatalities, illnesses and injuries.
An executive’s guide to machine learning
It came into its own as a scientific discipline in the late 1990s as steady advances in digitization and cheap computing power enabled data scientists to stop building finished models and instead train computers to do so.
In 2007 Fei-Fei Li, the head of Stanford’s Artificial Intelligence Lab, gave up trying to program computers to recognize objects and began labeling the millions of raw images that a child might encounter by age three and feeding them to computers.
By being shown thousands and thousands of labeled data sets with instances of, say, a cat, the machine could shape its own rules for deciding whether a particular set of digital pixels was, in fact, a cat.1 1.Fei-Fei Li, “How we’re teaching computers to understand pictures,”
games, it has created predictive models that allow a coach to distinguish between, as CEO Rajiv Maheswaran puts it, “a bad shooter who takes good shots and a good shooter who takes bad shots”—and to adjust his decisions accordingly.
GE already makes hundreds of millions of dollars by crunching the data it collects from deep-sea oil wells or jet engines to optimize performance, anticipate breakdowns, and streamline maintenance.
But Colin Parris, who joined GE Software from IBM late last year as vice president of software research, believes that continued advances in data-processing power, sensors, and predictive algorithms will soon give his company the same sharpness of insight into the individual vagaries of a jet engine that Google has into the online behavior of a 24-year-old netizen from West Hollywood.
In Europe, more than a dozen banks have replaced older statistical-modeling approaches with machine-learning techniques and, in some cases, experienced 10 percent increases in sales of new products, 20 percent savings in capital expenditures, 20 percent increases in cash collections, and 20 percent declines in churn.
Last fall, they tested the ability of three algorithms developed by external vendors and one built internally to forecast, solely by examining scanned résumés, which of more than 10,000 potential recruits the firm would have accepted.
Interestingly, the machines accepted a slightly higher percentage of female candidates, which holds promise for using analytics to unlock a more diverse range of profiles and counter hidden human bias.
As ever more of the analog world gets digitized, our ability to learn from data by developing and testing algorithms will only become more important for what are now seen as traditional businesses.
More recently, in the 1930s and 1940s, the pioneers of computing (such as Alan Turing, who had a deep and abiding interest in artificial intelligence) began formulating and tinkering with the basic techniques such as neural networks that make today’s machine learning possible.
New technologies introduced into modern economies—the steam engine, electricity, the electric motor, and computers, for example—seem to take about 80 years to transition from the laboratory to what you might call cultural invisibility.
Without strategy as a starting point, machine learning risks becoming a tool buried inside a company’s routine operations: it will provide a useful service, but its long-term value will probably be limited to an endless repetition of “cookie cutter”
Access to troves of useful and reliable data is required for effective machine learning, such as Watson’s ability, in tests, to predict oncological outcomes better than physicians or Facebook’s recent success teaching computers to identify specific human faces nearly as accurately as humans do.
Too often, departments hoard information and politicize access to it—one reason some companies have created the new role of chief data officer to pull together what’s required.
This will help recruit grassroots support and reinforce the changes in individual behavior and the employee buy-in that ultimately determine whether an organization can apply machine learning effectively.
Today’s cutting-edge technology already allows businesses not only to look at their historical data but also to predict behavior or outcomes in the future—for example, by helping credit-risk officers at banks to assess which customers are most likely to default or by enabling telcos to anticipate which customers are especially prone to “churn”
In our experience, though, the last decade’s IT investments have equipped most companies with sufficient information to obtain new insights even from incomplete, messy data sets, provided of course that those companies choose the right algorithm.
For example, an international bank concerned about the scale of defaults in its retail business recently identified a group of customers who had suddenly switched from using credit cards during the day to using them in the middle of the night.
If distributed autonomous corporations act intelligently, perform intelligently, and respond intelligently, we will cease to debate whether high-level intelligence other than the human variety exists.
Providing Amazing Service to Keep Your Vending Accounts For Life
You work the way you want to achieve the results you’re looking for.Today’s hard work earns money for you, not someone else Instead of working your tail off for years earning more money for someone else, the hard work you pour into your business pays dividends for you and your family.
Unlike a traditional job, a business is an asset that grows in value over time and can be sold for a large profit down the road (if you choose to sell it).You gain the freedom to spend time doing the things you want Vending machines generate passive income, so that already allows you lots of able-to-be-absent time, but they also don’t have office hours.
Starting a business puts you in the driver’s seat. Vending is a very scalable business too, so you can grow your business as large as you want.Your business has a positive impact on the community With increased legislation and higher demand from consumers for healthy products, vending has shifted into a way of helping people make healthier decisions throughout their day.
- On 10. juli 2020
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