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Using artificial intelligence to determine whether immunotherapy is working

And, once again, they're doing it by teaching a computer to find previously unseen changes in patterns in CT scans taken when the lung cancer is first diagnosed compared to scans taken after the first 2-3 cycles of immunotherapy treatment.

'This is no flash in the pan -- this research really seems to be reflecting something about the very biology of the disease, about which is the more aggressive phenotype, and that's information oncologists do not currently have,' said Anant Madabhushi, whose Center for Computational Imaging and Personalized Diagnostics (CCIPD) has become a global leader in the detection, diagnosis and characterization of various cancers and other diseases by meshing medical imaging, machine learning and AI.

Currently, only about 20% of all cancer patients will actually benefit from immunotherapy, a treatment that differs from chemotherapy in that it uses drugs to help your immune system fight cancer, while chemotherapy uses drugs to directly kill cancer cells, according to the National Cancer Institute.

Having a tool based on the research being done now by his lab would go a long way toward 'doing a better job of matching up which patients will respond to immunotherapy instead of throwing $800,000 down the drain,' he added, referencing the four patients out of five who will not benefit, multiplied by annual estimated cost.

This suggests that those CT scans actually appear to capturing the immune response elicited by the tumors against the invasion of the cancer -- and that the ones with the strongest immune response were showing the most significant textural change and most importantly, would best respond to the immunotherapy, he said.

Top Artificial Intelligence (AI) Predictions For 2020 From IDC and Forrester

As a quarter of Fortune 500 enterprises redirects AI investments to more mundane shorter-term or tactical IPA projects with “crystal-clear efficiency gains,” around half of the AI platform providers, global systems integrators, and managed service providers will emphasize IPA in their portfolios.

Instead, they will highlight the importance of designing, testing, and deploying responsible AI systems — with sound AI governance that considers bias, fairness, transparency, explainability, and accountability.” IDC predicts that by 2022, possibly as a result of a few high-profile PR disasters, over 70% of G2000 companies will have formal programs to monitor their 'digital trustworthiness' as digital trust becomes a critical corporate asset.

The real problem, says Forrester, is “sourcing data from a complex portfolio of applications and convincing various data gatekeepers to say yes.” And IDC observes that “effective use of intelligent automation will require significant effort in data cleansing, integration, and management that IT will need to support.

Resolving past data issues in legacy systems can be a substantial barrier to entry, particularly for larger enterprises.” AI adoption is not consistent across all companies and we are seeing a new digital divide, a divide between the AI haves and the AI have-nots, those with or without the required highly-skilled engineers.

In 2020, says Forrester, the “tech elite” will ramp up AI plus design skills while other will “fumble.” Pairing human-centered design skills and AI development capabilities will be key.As for the rest of the workforce, by 2024, 75% of enterprises will invest in employee retraining and development, including third-party services, to address new skill needs and ways of working resulting from AI adoption, predicts IDC.

Another Forrester predictions report indeed warns that in 2020, “the exuberance in AI will crescendo as expectations come back to earth.” While Forrester predicts another new peak in AI funding in 2020, it asserts it will be the last one—“with more than 2,600 companies globally, the AI startup ecosystem is a saturated market.” The most significant signal of the coming slowdown, according to Forrester, is the fact that 20 AI companies have raised unicorn-sized funding rounds in the past 12 months.

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