AI News, What Happens When Humans and Robots Collide

What Happens When Humans and Robots Collide

German researchers are exploring a new dimension of human-robot interaction: the 'interaction' that occurs when a 200-kilogram industrial robot accidentally strikes a 90-kilogram person in the head, torso, or pelvis.

Rather, dummy is a crash test dummy, or actually a crash test dummy computer model called FAT ES-2, developed by DYNAmore and other companies in collaboration with the German Association for Automotive Research.

In the first scenario, a seated worker is struck by the robotic arm on the left side of the head, the robot moving with a rotational velocity of up to 50 degrees/second around its vertical axis.

Existing injury criteria (the methods to translates head acceleration, rib deflection, and pelvis force into medical assessments like minor bruise, severe concussion, fracture, death) were developed for car accidents, which usually involve impact intervals of around 15 to 30 milliseconds.

The injury criteria for car crashes was developed by biomechanics researchers by performing a variety of experiments using cadavers, animals like pig carcasses, and human volunteers.

Crash test dummy

A crash test dummy is a full-scale anthropomorphic test device (ATD) that simulates the dimensions, weight proportions and articulation of the human body, and is usually instrumented to record data about the dynamic behavior of the ATD in simulated vehicle impacts.

The Crash Test Dummy is widely used by researchers and automobile companies to predict the biomechanics, force, impact, and injury of a human being in an automobile crash.[1] This data can include variables such as velocity of impact, crushing force, bending, folding, or torque of the body, and deceleration rates during a collision for use in crash tests.

Hybrid IIIs use dummies that directed towards a specific age, for example, a typical ten year old, six year old, three year old, and a grown man.[3] There are certain testing procedures for Hybrid IIIs to ensure that they obtain a correct humanlike neck flexure, and to ensure that they would react to a crash in a similar way that human bodies would.

Using cadavers for these topics of research is more realistic than using a dummy for physiologic reasons, but it arises many moral dilemmas.[4] Going across a moral ethics line, automobile companies have used a human cadaver, a pig, and people have volunteered to be tested upon impact.

A pig was used specifically for steering wheel impact because they have an internal structure similar to humans, and can be easily placed correctly via sitting up right in the vehicle.[5] Human cadavers along with animals are not personally able to give consent to research studies, although animal testing is not prevalent today.[6] There are studies that use specific cadavers including obese cadavers, and children cadavers.

Since then, over 20 million people worldwide have died due to motor vehicle accidents.[improper synthesis?] The need for a means of analyzing and mitigating the effects of motor vehicle accidents on humans was felt soon after commercial production of automobiles began in the late 1890s, and by the 1930s, when the automobile became a common part of daily life and the number of motor vehicle deaths were rising.

Death rates had surpassed 15.6 fatalities per 100 million vehicle-miles and were continuing to climb.[citation needed] In 1930 cars had dashboards of rigid metal, non-collapsible steering columns, and protruding knobs, buttons, and levers.

As late as the 1950s, car manufacturers were on public record as saying that vehicle accidents simply could not be made survivable because the forces in a crash were too great.[citation needed] Detroit's Wayne State University was the first to begin serious work on collecting data on the effects of high-speed collisions on the human body.

Body weight is a vital factor when it comes to automobile accidents, and body mass is distributed differently in an obese person versus a non-obese person.[9] At the University of Michigan, obese cadavers were tested and compared to non-obese cadavers, and they found that the obese cadavers had more injuries in their lower extremities.

He and his students allowed themselves to be smashed in the chest with heavy metal pendulums, impacted in the face by pneumatically driven rotary hammers, and sprayed with shattered glass to simulate window implosion.[11] While admitting that it made him 'a little sore', Patrick has said that the research he and his students conducted was seminal in developing mathematical models against which further research could be compared.

'We saw chimpanzees riding rocket sleds, a bear on an impact swing...We observed a pig, anesthetized and placed in a sitting position on the swing in the harness, crashed into a deep-dish steering wheel at about 10 mph.'[12] One important research objective which could not be achieved with either cadavers or live humans was a means of reducing the injuries caused by impalement on the steering column.

This seems to lessen ethical dilemmas in contrast to animal testing, because there is no sufficient way to get consent to use an animal.[4] Although animal test data were still more easily obtained than cadaver data, the fact that animals were not people and the difficulty of employing adequate internal instrumentation limited their usefulness.

The animals were put under anesthesia, so there was no pain put upon them, but the aftereffects can not justify this.[13] The General Motors corporation used animals for testing, and also suggested that they put the animals under anesthesia and then would kill the animals after the testing is complete.[6] Although the University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Institute did get bad publicity, it was suggested that this is not the reason why they stopped using baboons.

The disadvantage though to using an instrumental dummy or a human cadaver, is that the tissue is not alive and will not elicit the same response as, for an example, a live animal.[13] Today, it is not common to see animals being tested upon for automobile accidents because of the advance in computers and technology.[6] It is, although, difficult to use cadavers instead of animals because of human rights, and it is difficult to obtain permission from the families, especially with children.

Consent for a research and testing can occur only if the person responsible for giving consent is a competent person and one who also comprehends the research and testing procedures fully.[14] The information gleaned from cadaver research and animal studies had already been put to some use in the construction of human simulacra as early as 1949, when 'Sierra Sam'[15] was created by Samuel W.

In 1973, a 50th percentile male dummy was released, and the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA)[17] undertook an agreement with General Motors to produce a model exceeding Hybrid II's performance in a number of specific areas.[18] Though a great improvement over cadavers for standardized testing purposes, Hybrid I and Hybrid II were still very crude, and their use was limited to developing and testing seat belt designs.

The primary benefit provided by the Hybrid III is improved neck response in forward flexion and head rotation that better simulates the human.[21] The Hybrid III dummy for three-, six- and ten-year olds has its implications, and does not provide the same physical outcome a human would encounter with a frontal crash.

This model is accurate for males in the 50th percentile, and it can not easily relate to three-year olds when dealing with neck and head injuries which are responsible for 57 percent of car crash fatalities.[3] Instead, the FE model can be appropriately implemented for this criteria.[7] Every Hybrid III undergoes calibration prior to a crash test.

This system includes a booster seat and a proper belt that fits the child's criteria including age, weight and height.[3] Hybrid IIIs are designed to research the effects of frontal impacts, and are less useful in assessing the effects of other types of impact, such as side impacts, rear impacts, or rollovers.

Crashing Drones Into Test Dummies for Safety

Hank sat impassively on a Virginia Tech athletic field, ready to take it on the chin for the future of drone commerce.

The 21-pound drone tilted forward, accelerated sharply and slammed into Hank’s head, smacking the crash-test dummy’s neck backward and embedding shards of shattered propeller in his plastic face.

And it paves the way for the use of commercial drones weighing up to 55 pounds, which are needed for deliveries and other business uses, but could pose a hazard if they fly off course or their batteries run out mid-flight.

Reports of errant drone flights—a handful of which were crashes or near misses with planes or helicopters—rose more than 50 percent from January through September 2016 compared to the same period a year earlier.

While the research is still under FAA review, there are early indications of at least one piece of good news for the industry: When small consumer drones made of plastic strike an object like a human head, they tend to break apart, lessening the impact, according to David Arterburn, a researcher at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.

Arterburn heads the FAA’s research effort to determine how badly a drone would hurt a person, and whether it’s possible to create a class of vehicle that’s so light and soft they aren’t a hazard.

SZ DJI Technology Co., the world’s largest drone manufacturer, on Monday released a study arguing that craft weighing up to 4.9 pounds (2.2 kilograms)—which includes its best-selling Phantom models—pose minimal risk to people.

The network is so far the only company to receive an FAA waiver to fly over the public with a small drone copter that is tethered to the ground to restrict its movements.

Even though the dense center of the drone missed, arms holding its rotor blades struck the dummy’s face, rocking the neck back and forth.

“If you’re operating a large, multi-rotor aircraft in really close proximity to people and treating it as it’s a toy, then I think it’s asking for some pretty severe outcomes.”

A Smarter Kind of Crash Test Dummy

“By simulating real-world crashes, we can study the effect of vehicle design parameters, safety features, and occupant factors and propose solutions that would prevent and mitigate occupant injury,” says Ashley Weaver, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at the university and a key member of the research team.

Digital simulations such as the one designed by the Wake Forest team, by contrast, allow researchers to examine the effects of a crash to a far greater degree, testing a variety of body shapes and sizes and different body positions at the moment of impact.

“Digital crash dummies [allow us] to determine the best methods to modify vehicle chassis, interiors, seats, headrests, safety belts, dashes, and active safety systems, such as airbags, to improve safety very early in the vehicle-design process,” says Bill Veenhuis, an engineer at Nvidia, which provides commercial hardware for crash simulations to more than a dozen car manufacturers.

Using an advanced digital model that contains no fewer than 1.8 million elements that combine to accurately reproduce the human form, from precise bone strength to the structure of organs, and which is capable of predicting injuries to both soft and bony tissues, the team ran simulations until the model accurately mimicked the effects of different crashes on real-world crash victims.

Researchers are Crashing Hundreds of Drones into Dummy Heads

We will soon have hundreds of thousands of drones flying our friendly skies, so we should take a number of safety precautions, and study some potential dangerous situations posed by the errand runners in the sky.  Currently, drones are primarily used for surveillance, photography, and even capture some pretty unique shots at live events, but they pose a significant risk to humans on the ground if they ever lose control and crash.

After all, it's not just the sheer weight of the flying object, which in tests has ranged from 2.2 pounds to a staggering 19.8 pounds, but the four propellers that would likely mark up your mug as well.  The researchers hope that the data will inspire more informed drone regulations, perhaps even designated routes that would travel less population dense areas.

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