# AI News, Visualizing neural networks from the nnetpackage

- On Tuesday, March 6, 2018
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## Visualizing neural networks from the nnetpackage

If you’re a regular reader of my blog you’ll know that I’ve spent some time dabbling with neural networks.

Supervised neural networks (e.g., multilayer feed-forward networks) are generally used for prediction, whereas unsupervised networks (e.g., Kohonen self-organizing maps) are used for pattern recognition.

For example, a supervised network is developed from a set of known variables and the end goal of the model is to match the predicted output values with the observed via ‘supervision’

Development of unsupervised networks are conducted independently from the analyst in the sense that the end product is not known and no direct supervision is required to ensure expected or known results are obtained.

Although my research objectives were not concerned specifically with prediction, I’ve focused entirely on supervised networks given the number of tools that have been developed to gain insight into causation.

The weights that connect variables in a neural network are partially analogous to parameter coefficients in a standard regression model and can be used to describe relationships between variables.

That is, the weights dictate the relative influence of information that is processed in the network such that input variables that are not relevant in their correlation with a response variable are suppressed by the weights.

This characteristic is advantageous in that it makes neural networks very flexible for modeling non-linear functions with multiple interactions, although interpretation of the effects of specific variables is of course challenging.

method proposed by Garson 19912 (also Goh 19953) identifies the relative importance of explanatory variables for specific response variables in a supervised neural network by deconstructing the model weights.

The basic idea is that the relative importance (or strength of association) of a specific explanatory variable for a specific response variable can be determined by identifying all weighted connections between the nodes of interest.

The model is created from eight input variables, one response variable, 10000 observations, and an arbitrary correlation matrix that describes relationships between the explanatory variables.

Note that these values indicate relative importance such that a variable with a value of zero will most likely have some marginal effect on the response variable, but its effect is irrelevant in the context of the other explanatory variables.

An obvious question of concern is whether these indications of relative importance provide similar information as the true relationships between the variables we’ve defined above.

A logical question to ask next is whether or not using a neural network provides more insight into variable relationships than a standard regression model, since we know our response variable follows the general form of a linear regression.

I hope the modified algorithm will be useful for facilitating the use of neural networks to infer causation, although it must be acknowledged that a neural network is ultimately based on correlation and methods that are more heavily based in theory could be more appropriate.

The names of the weights in the commented code above describe the correct order, e.g., Hidden 1 11 is the bias layer weight going to hidden node 1, Hidden 1 12 is the first input going to the first hidden node, etc.

- On Thursday, March 8, 2018
- By Read More

## Variable importance in neuralnetworks

If you’re a regular reader of my blog you’ll know that I’ve spent some time dabbling with neural networks.

Supervised neural networks (e.g., multilayer feed-forward networks) are generally used for prediction, whereas unsupervised networks (e.g., Kohonen self-organizing maps) are used for pattern recognition.

For example, a supervised network is developed from a set of known variables and the end goal of the model is to match the predicted output values with the observed via ‘supervision’

Development of unsupervised networks are conducted independently from the analyst in the sense that the end product is not known and no direct supervision is required to ensure expected or known results are obtained.

Although my research objectives were not concerned specifically with prediction, I’ve focused entirely on supervised networks given the number of tools that have been developed to gain insight into causation.

The weights that connect variables in a neural network are partially analogous to parameter coefficients in a standard regression model and can be used to describe relationships between variables.

That is, the weights dictate the relative influence of information that is processed in the network such that input variables that are not relevant in their correlation with a response variable are suppressed by the weights.

This characteristic is advantageous in that it makes neural networks very flexible for modeling non-linear functions with multiple interactions, although interpretation of the effects of specific variables is of course challenging.

method proposed by Garson 19912 (also Goh 19953) identifies the relative importance of explanatory variables for specific response variables in a supervised neural network by deconstructing the model weights.

The basic idea is that the relative importance (or strength of association) of a specific explanatory variable for a specific response variable can be determined by identifying all weighted connections between the nodes of interest.

The model is created from eight input variables, one response variable, 10000 observations, and an arbitrary correlation matrix that describes relationships between the explanatory variables.

Note that these values indicate relative importance such that a variable with a value of zero will most likely have some marginal effect on the response variable, but its effect is irrelevant in the context of the other explanatory variables.

An obvious question of concern is whether these indications of relative importance provide similar information as the true relationships between the variables we’ve defined above.

A logical question to ask next is whether or not using a neural network provides more insight into variable relationships than a standard regression model, since we know our response variable follows the general form of a linear regression.

I hope the modified algorithm will be useful for facilitating the use of neural networks to infer causation, although it must be acknowledged that a neural network is ultimately based on correlation and methods that are more heavily based in theory could be more appropriate.

The names of the weights in the commented code above describe the correct order, e.g., Hidden 1 11 is the bias layer weight going to hidden node 1, Hidden 1 12 is the first input going to the first hidden node, etc.

- On Thursday, March 8, 2018
- By Read More

## ORIGINAL ARTICLEArtificial neural network and response surface methodology modeling in mass transfer parameters predictions during osmotic dehydration of Carica papaya L.

In this study, a comparative approach was made between artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the mass transfer parameters of osmotic dehydration of papaya.

The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), standard error of prediction (SEP), model predictive error (MPE), chi square statistic (χ2), and coefficient of determination (R2) based on the validation data set.

- On Thursday, March 8, 2018
- By Read More

## Model Extremely Complex Functions, Neural Networks

Many concepts related to the neural networks methodology are best explained if they are illustrated with applications of a specific neural network program.

Neural networks have seen an explosion of interest over the last few years, and are being successfully applied across an extraordinary range of problem domains, in areas as diverse as finance, medicine, engineering, geology and physics.

This sweeping success can be attributed to a few key factors: Neural networks are also intuitively appealing, based as they are on a crude low-level model of biological neural systems.

Neural networks are applicable in virtually every situation in which a relationship between the predictor variables (independents, inputs) and predicted variables (dependents, outputs) exists, even when that relationship is very complex and not easy to articulate in the usual terms of 'correlations' or 'differences between groups.'

specifically, attempts to mimic the fault-tolerance and capacity to learn of biological neural systems by modeling the low-level structure of the brain (see Patterson, 1996).

It became rapidly apparent that these systems, although very useful in some domains, failed to capture certain key aspects of human intelligence.

The brain is principally composed of a very large number (circa 10,000,000,000) of neurons, massively interconnected (with an average of several thousand interconnects per neuron, although this varies enormously).

For example, in the classic Pavlovian conditioning experiment, where a bell is rung just before dinner is delivered to a dog, the dog rapidly learns to associate the ringing of a bell with the eating of food.

The synaptic connections between the appropriate part of the auditory cortex and the salivation glands are strengthened, so that when the auditory cortex is stimulated by the sound of the bell the dog starts to salivate.

Recent research in cognitive science, in particular in the area of nonconscious information processing, have further demonstrated the enormous capacity of the human mind to infer ('learn') simple input-output covariations from extremely complex stimuli (e.g., see Lewicki, Hill, and Czyzewska, 1992).

Thus, from a very large number of extremely simple processing units (each performing a weighted sum of its inputs, and then firing a binary signal if the total input exceeds a certain level) the brain manages to perform extremely complex tasks.

Of course, there is a great deal of complexity in the brain which has not been discussed here, but it is interesting that artificial neural networks can achieve some remarkable results using a model not much more complex than this.

To capture the essence of biological neural systems, an artificial neuron is defined as follows: If the step activation function is used (i.e., the neuron's output is 0 if the input is less than zero, and 1 if the input is greater than or equal to 0) then the neuron acts just like the biological neuron described earlier (subtracting the threshold from the weighted sum and comparing with zero is equivalent to comparing the weighted sum to the threshold).

A simple network has a feedforward structure: signals flow from inputs, forwards through any hidden units, eventually reaching the output units.

When the network is executed (used), the input variable values are placed in the input units, and then the hidden and output layer units are progressively executed.

Many financial institutions use, or have experimented with, neural networks for stock market prediction, so it is likely that any trends predictable by neural techniques are already discounted by the market, and (unfortunately), unless you have a sophisticated understanding of that problem domain, you are unlikely to have any success there either.

This relationship may be noisy (you certainly would not expect that the factors given in the stock market prediction example above could give an exact prediction, as prices are clearly influenced by other factors not represented in the input set, and there may be an element of pure randomness) but it must exist.

In general, if you use a neural network, you won't know the exact nature of the relationship between inputs and outputs - if you knew the relationship, you would model it directly.

In the above examples, this might include previous stock prices and DOW, NASDAQ, or FTSE indices, records of previous successful loan applicants, including questionnaires and a record of whether they defaulted or not, or sample robot positions and the correct reaction.

If the network is properly trained, it has then learned to model the (unknown) function that relates the input variables to the output variables, and can subsequently be used to make predictions where the output is not known.

Numeric data is scaled into an appropriate range for the network, and missing values can be substituted for using the mean value (or other statistic) of that variable across the other available training cases (see Bishop, 1995).

As the number of variables increases, the number of cases required increases nonlinearly, so that with even a fairly small number of variables (perhaps fifty or less) a huge number of cases are required.

If you have a larger, but still restricted, data set, you can compensate to some extent by forming an ensemble of networks, each trained using a different resampling of the available data, and then average across the predictions of the networks in the ensemble.

The transfer function of a unit is typically chosen so that it can accept input in any range, and produces output in a strictly limited range (it has a squashing effect).

The illustration below shows one of the most common transfer functions, the logistic function (also sometimes referred to as the sigmoid function, although strictly speaking it is only one example of a sigmoid - S-shaped - function).

The function is also smooth and easily differentiable, facts that are critical in allowing the network training algorithms to operate (this is the reason why the step function is not used in practice).

The limited numeric response range, together with the fact that information has to be in numeric form, implies that neural solutions require preprocessing and post-processing stages to be used in real applications (see Bishop, 1995).

They can be represented using an ordinal encoding (e.g., Dog=0,Budgie=1,Cat=2) but this implies a (probably) false ordering on the nominal values - in this case, that Budgies are in some sense midway between Dogs and Cats.

Unfortunately, a nominal variable with a large number of states would require a prohibitive number of numeric variables for one-of-N encoding, driving up the network size and making training difficult.

Examples include credit assignment (is this person a good or bad credit risk), cancer detection (tumor, clear), signature recognition (forgery, true).

In regression, the objective is to predict the value of a (usually) continuous variable: tomorrow's stock price, the fuel consumption of a car, next year's profits.

In the vast majority of cases, therefore, the network will have a single output variable, although in the case of many-state classification problems, this may correspond to a number of output units (the post-processing stage takes care of the mapping from output units to output variables).

If you do define a single network with multiple output variables, it may suffer from cross-talk (the hidden neurons experience difficulty learning, as they are attempting to model at least two functions at once).

This is the type of network discussed briefly in previous sections: the units each perform a biased weighted sum of their inputs and pass this activation level through a transfer function to produce their output, and the units are arranged in a layered feedforward topology.

The error of a particular configuration of the network can be determined by running all the training cases through the network, comparing the actual output generated with the desired or target outputs.

The most common error functions are the sum squared error (used for regression problems), where the individual errors of output units on each case are squared and summed together, and the cross entropy functions (used for maximum likelihood classification).

The price paid for the greater (non-linear) modeling power of neural networks is that although we can adjust a network to lower its error, we can never be sure that the error could not be lower still.

In a linear model with sum squared error function, this error surface is a parabola (a quadratic), which means that it is a smooth bowl-shape with a single minimum.

Neural network error surfaces are much more complex, and are characterized by a number of unhelpful features, such as local minima (which are lower than the surrounding terrain, but above the global minimum), flat-spots and plateaus, saddle-points, and long narrow ravines.

From an initially random configuration of weights and thresholds (i.e., a random point on the error surface), the training algorithms incrementally seek for the global minimum.

The algorithm is also usually modified by inclusion of a momentum term: this encourages movement in a fixed direction, so that if several steps are taken in the same direction, the algorithm 'picks up speed', which gives it the ability to (sometimes) escape local minimum, and also to move rapidly over flat spots and plateaus.

The initial network configuration is random, and training stops when a given number of epochs elapses or when the error stops improving (you can select which of these stopping conditions to use).

One major problem with the approach outlined above is that it doesn't actually minimize the error that we are really interested in - which is the expected error the network will make when new cases are submitted to it.

In reality, the network is trained to minimize the error on the training set, and short of having a perfect and infinitely large training set, this is not the same thing as minimizing the error on the real error surface - the error surface of the underlying and unknown model (see Bishop, 1995).

A low-order polynomial may not be sufficiently flexible to fit close to the points, whereas a high-order polynomial is actually too flexible, fitting the data exactly by adopting a highly eccentric shape that is actually unrelated to the underlying function.

As training progresses, the training error naturally drops, and providing training is minimizing the true error function, the selection error drops too.

In contrast, if the network is not sufficiently powerful to model the underlying function, over-learning is not likely to occur, and neither training nor selection errors will drop to a satisfactory level.

The problems associated with local minima, and decisions over the size of network to use, imply that using a neural network typically involves experimenting with a large number of different networks, probably training each one a number of times (to avoid being fooled by local minima), and observing individual performances.

However, following the standard scientific precept that, all else being equal, a simple model is always preferable to a complex model, you can also select a smaller network in preference to a larger one with a negligible improvement in selection error.

problem with this approach of repeated experimentation is that the test set plays a key role in selecting the model, which means that it is actually part of the training process.

Its reliability as an independent guide to performance of the model is therefore compromised - with sufficient experiments, you may just hit upon a lucky network that happens to perform well on the test set.

To add confidence in the performance of the final model, it is therefore normal practice (at least where the volume of training data allows it) to reserve a third set of cases - the validation set.

Of course, to fulfill this role properly, the validation set should be used only once - if it is in turn used to adjust and reiterate the training process, it effectively becomes selection data.

If people with incomes over $100,000 per year are a bad credit risk, and your training data includes nobody over $40,000 per year, you cannot expect it to make a correct decision when it encounters one of the previously-unseen cases.

To work, the network would need training cases including all weather and lighting conditions under which it is expected to operate - not to mention all types of terrain, angles of shot, distances...

A network trained on a data set with 900 good cases and 100 bad will bias its decision toward good cases, as this allows the algorithm to lower the overall error (which is much more heavily influenced by the good cases).

In such circumstances, the data set may need to be crafted to take account of the distribution of data (e.g., you could replicate the less numerous cases, or remove some of the numerous cases) (Bishop, 1995).

The combination of the multi-dimensional linear function and the one-dimensional sigmoid function gives the characteristic sigmoid cliff response of a first hidden layer MLP unit (the figure below illustrates the shape plotted across two inputs.

As training progresses, the units' response surfaces are rotated and shifted into appropriate positions, and the magnitudes of the weights grow as they commit to modeling particular parts of the target response surface.

This implies that a network with no hidden layers can only classify linearly-separable problems (those where a line - or, more generally in higher dimensions, a hyperplane - can be drawn which separates the points in pattern space).

network with a single hidden layer has a number of sigmoid-cliffs (one per hidden unit) represented in that hidden layer, and these are in turn combined into a plateau in the output layer.

For example, if accept/reject thresholds of 0.95/0.05 are used, an output unit with an output level in excess of 0.95 is deemed to be on, below 0.05 it is deemed to be off, and in between it is deemed to be undecided.

There are modifications to MLPs that allow the neural network outputs to be interpreted as probabilities, which means that the network effectively learns to model the probability density function of the class.

Nonetheless, these techniques may require a smaller number of iterations to train a neural network given their fast convergence rate and more intelligent search criterion.

We have seen in the last section how an MLP models the response function using the composition of sigmoid-cliff functions - for a classification problem, this corresponds to dividing the pattern space up using hyperplanes.

Before application of the sigmoid activation function, the activation level of the unit is determined using a weighted sum, which mathematically is the dot product of the input vector and the weight vector of the unit;

A point in N dimensional space is defined using N numbers, which exactly corresponds to the number of weights in a dot product unit, so the center of a radial unit is stored as weights.

It is worth emphasizing that the weights and thresholds in a radial unit are actually entirely different to those in a dot product unit, and the terminology is dangerous if you don't remember this: Radial weights really form a point, and a radial threshold is really a deviation.

Second, the simple linear transformation in the output layer can be optimized fully using traditional linear modeling techniques, which are fast and do not suffer from problems such as local minima which plague MLP training techniques.

The clumpy approach also implies that RBFs are not inclined to extrapolate beyond known data: the response drops off rapidly towards zero if data points far from the training data are used.

Often the RBF output layer optimization will have set a bias level, hopefully more or less equal to the mean output level, so in fact the extrapolated output is the observed mean - a reasonable working assumption.

Whether this is an advantage or disadvantage depends largely on the application, but on the whole the MLP's uncritical extrapolation is regarded as a bad point: extrapolation far from training data is usually dangerous and unjustified.

Once centers and deviations have been set, the output layer can be optimized using the standard linear optimization technique: the pseudo-inverse (singular value decomposition) algorithm (Haykin, 1994;

However, RBFs as described above suffer similar problems to Multilayer Perceptrons if they are used for classification - the output of the network is a measure of distance from a decision hyperplane, rather than a probabilistic confidence level.

however, the non-linear output layer still has a relatively well-behaved error surface, and can be optimized quite quickly using a fast iterative algorithm such as conjugate gradient descent.

Whereas in supervised learning the training data set contains cases featuring input variables together with the associated outputs (and the network must infer a mapping from the inputs to the outputs), in unsupervised learning the training data set contains only input variables.

The iterative training procedure also arranges the network so that units representing centers close together in the input space are also situated close together on the topological map.

You can think of the network's topological layer as a crude two-dimensional grid, which must be folded and distorted into the N-dimensional input space, so as to preserve as far as possible the original structure.

The basic iterative Kohonen algorithm simply runs through a number of epochs, on each epoch executing each training case and applying the following algorithm: The algorithm uses a time-decaying learning rate, which is used to perform the weighted sum and ensures that the alterations become more subtle as the epochs pass.

As epochs pass the learning rate and neighborhood both decrease, so that finer distinctions within areas of the map can be drawn, ultimately resulting in fine-tuning of individual neurons.

Often, training is deliberately conducted in two distinct phases: a relatively short phase with high learning rates and neighborhood, and a long phase with low learning rate and zero or near-zero neighborhood.

Individual cases are executed and the topological map observed, to see if some meaning can be assigned to the clusters (this usually involves referring back to the original application area, so that the relationship between clustered cases can be established).

it is folded up into the familiar convoluted shape only for convenience in fitting into the skull!) with known topological properties (for example, the area corresponding to the hand is next to the arm, and a distorted human frame can be topologically mapped out in two dimensions on its surface).

In an SOFM network, the winning node in the topological map (output) layer is the one with the lowest activation level (which measures the distance of the input case from the point stored by the unit).

In regression problems, the objective is to estimate the value of a continuous output variable, given the known input variables. Regression problems are represented by data sets with non-nominal (standard numeric) output(s).

The simplest scaling function is minimax: this finds the minimum and maximum values of a variable in the training data, and performs a linear transformation (using a shift and a scale factor) to convert the values into the target range (typically [0.0,1.0]).

We can probably easily agree on the illustrated curve, which is approximately the right shape, and this will allow us to estimate y given inputs in the range represented by the solid line where we can interpolate.

Second, we might decide that we don't really have sufficient evidence to assign any value, and therefore assign the mean output value (which is probably the best estimate we have lacking any other evidence).

Second, it does not estimate the mean either - it actually saturates at either the minimum or maximum, depending on whether the estimated curve was rising or falling as it approached this region.

A linear activation function in an MLP can cause some numerical difficulties for the back propagation algorithm, however, and if this is used a low learning rate (below 0.1) must be used.

As the input case gets further from the points stored in the radial units, so the activation of the radial units decays and (ultimately) the output of the network decays.

In time series problems, the objective is to predict the value of a variable that varies in time, using previous values of that and/or other variables (see Bishop, 1995) Typically, the predicted variable is continuous, so time series prediction is usually a specialized form of regression.

When the next value in a series is generated, further values can be estimated by feeding the newly-estimated value back into the network together with other previous values: time series projection.

Obviously, the reliability of projection drops the more steps ahead we try to predict, and if a particular distance ahead is required, it is probably better to train a network specifically for that degree of lookahead.

Configuring a network for time series usage alters the way that data is pre-processed (i.e., it is drawn from a number of sequential cases, rather than a single case), but the network is executed and trained just as for any other problem.

The time series training data set therefore typically has a single variable, and this has type input/output (i.e., it is used both for network input and network output).

For example, in a data set, the first two cases are ignored and the third is test, with Steps=2 and Lookahead=1, the first usable pattern has type Test, and draws its inputs from the first two cases, and its output from the third.

To isolate the three sets entirely, contiguous blocks of train, verify, or test cases would need to be constructed, separated by the appropriate number of ignore cases.

Often, we do not know which of a set of candidate input variables are actually useful, and the selection of a good set of inputs is complicated by a number of important considerations: Curse of dimensionality.

Most forms of neural network (in particular, MLPs) actually suffer less from the curse of dimensionality than some other methods, as they can concentrate on a lower-dimensional section of the high-dimensional space (for example, by setting the outgoing weights from a particular input to zero, an MLP can entirely ignore that input).

In dimensionality reduction, the original set of variables is processed to produce a new and smaller set of variables that contains (we hope) as much information as possible from the original set.

The bias is the average error that a particular model training procedure will make across different particular data sets (drawn from the unknown function's distribution).

At the opposite extreme, we can choose a highly complex function that can fit every point in a particular data set, and thus has zero bias, but high variance as this complex function changes shape radically to reflect the exact points in a given data set.

The high bias, low variance solutions can have low complexity (e.g., linear models), whereas the low bias, high variance solutions have high complexity.

Arguably, we can afford to build higher bias models than we would otherwise tolerate (i.e., higher complexity models), on the basis that ensemble averaging can then mitigate the resulting variance.

First, it can be shown (Bishop, 1995) that, on the assumption that the ensemble members' errors have zero mean and are uncorrelated, the ensemble reduces the error by a factor of N, where N is the number of members.

The simplest approach is random (monte carlo) resampling, where the training, testing, and validation sets are simply drawn at random from the data set, keeping the sizes of the subsets constant.

- On Monday, September 23, 2019

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