AI News, Using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks for Speaker Verification

Using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks for Speaker Verification

This repository contains the code release for our paper titled as 'Text-Independent Speaker

code is aimed to provide the implementation for Speaker Verification (SR) by using 3D convolutional neural networks following

For running a demo, after forking the repository, run the following scrit:

We leveraged 3D convolutional architecture for creating the speaker model in order to simultaneously capturing

In the enrollment stage, the trained network is utilized to directly create a speaker

The aforementioned three phases are usually considered as the SV protocol.

models based on averaging the extracted features from utterances of the speaker, which

In our paper, we propose the implementation of 3D-CNNs for direct speaker model creation in

The MFCC features can be used as the data representation of the spoken utterances at the frame level.

This operation disturbs the locality property and is in contrast with the local characteristics of the convolutional operations.

sound sample, 80 temporal feature sets (each forms a

of ζ × 80 × 40 which is formed from 80 input frames

The code architecture part has been heavily inspired by Slim and Slim image classification library.

If you used this code please kindly cite the following paper: The license is as follows: Please refer to LICENSE file for further detail.

Code-switching

Some scholars use either term to denote the same practice, while others apply code-mixing to denote the formal linguistic properties of language-contact phenomena and code-switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by multilingual persons.[4][5][6] In the 1940s and the 1950s, many scholars considered code-switching to be a substandard use of language.[7] Since the 1980s, however, most scholars have come to regard it as a normal, natural product of bilingual and multilingual language use.[8][9] The term 'code-switching' is also used outside the field of linguistics.

Some scholars of literature use the term to describe literary styles that include elements from more than one language, as in novels by Chinese-American, Anglo-Indian, or Latino writers.[10] In popular usage, code-switching is sometimes used to refer to relatively stable informal mixtures of two languages, such as Spanglish, Taglish, or Hinglish.[11] Both in popular usage and in sociolinguistic study, the name code-switching is sometimes used to refer to switching among dialects, styles or registers.[12] This form of switching is practiced, for example, by speakers of African American Vernacular English as they move from less formal to more formal settings.[13] Such shifts, when performed by public figures such as politicians, are sometimes criticized as signalling inauthenticity or insincerity.[14]

Some sociolinguists describe the relationships between code-switching behaviours and class, ethnicity, and other social positions.[15] In addition, scholars in interactional linguistics and conversation analysis have studied code-switching as a means of structuring speech in interaction.[16][17][18] Some discourse analysts, including conversation analyst Peter Auer, suggest that code-switching does not simply reflect social situations, but that it is a means to create social situations.[19][20][21] The Markedness Model, developed by Carol Myers-Scotton, is one of the more complete theories of code-switching motivations.

Rather than focusing on the social values inherent in the languages the speaker chooses ('brought-along meaning'), the analysis concentrates on the meaning that the act of code-switching itself creates ('brought-about meaning').[16][23] The communication accommodation theory (CAT), developed by Howard Giles, professor of communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara, seeks to explain the cognitive reasons for code-switching, and other changes in speech, as a person either emphasizes or minimizes the social differences between himself and the other person(s) in conversation.

Generally, borrowing occurs in the lexicon, while code-switching occurs at either the syntax level or the utterance-construction level.[1][2][3] The equivalence constraint predicts that switches occur only at points where the surface structures of the languages coincide, or between sentence elements that are normally ordered in the same way by each individual grammar.[32] For example, the sentence: 'I like you porque eres simpático' ('I like you because you are nice') is allowed because it obeys the syntactic rules of both Spanish and English.[34] Cases like the noun phrases the casa white and the blanca house are ruled out because the combinations are ungrammatical in at least one of the languages involved.

The sentence: 'The students had visto la película italiana' ('The students had seen the Italian movie') does not occur in Spanish-English code-switching, yet the free-morpheme constraint would seem to posit that it can.[35] The equivalence constraint would also rule out switches that occur commonly in languages, as when Hindi postpositional phrases are switched with English prepositional phrases like in the sentence: 'John gave a book ek larakii ko' ('John gave a book to a girl').

The phrase ek larakii ko is literally translated as a girl to, making it ungrammatical in English, and yet this is a sentence that occurs in English-Hindi code-switching despite the requirements of the equivalence constraint.[32] The Sankoff and Poplack model only identifies points at which switching is blocked, as opposed to explaining which constituents can be switched and why.[32] Carol Myers-Scotton's Matrix Language-Frame (MLF) model is the dominant model of insertional code-switching.[32] The MLF model posits that there is a Matrix Language (ML) and an Embedded Language (EL).

holds that code-switching cannot occur between a functional head (a complementizer, a determiner, an inflection, etc.) and its complement (sentence, noun-phrase, verb-phrase).[35] These constraints, among others like the Matrix Language-Frame model, are controversial among linguists positing alternative theories, as they are seen to claim universality and make general predictions based upon specific presumptions about the nature of syntax.[4][40] Myers-Scotton and MacSwan debated the relative merits of their approaches in a series of exchanges published in 2005 in Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, issues 8(1) and 8(2).

Selvamani also uses the word tsé ('you know', contraction of tu sais) and the expression je me ferrai pas poigné [sic] ('I will not be handled'), which are not standard French but are typical of the working-class Montreal dialect Joual.[42] Researcher Paul Kroskrity offers the following example of code-switching by three elder Arizona Tewa men, who are trilingual in Tewa, Hopi, and English.[43] They are discussing the selection of a site for a new high school in the eastern Hopi Reservation: In their two-hour conversation, the three men primarily speak Tewa;

Using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks for Speaker Verification

This repository contains the code release for our paper titled as 'Text-Independent Speaker

code is aimed to provide the implementation for Speaker Verification (SR) by using 3D convolutional neural networks following

For running a demo, after forking the repository, run the following scrit:

We leveraged 3D convolutional architecture for creating the speaker model in order to simultaneously capturing

In the enrollment stage, the trained network is utilized to directly create a speaker

The aforementioned three phases are usually considered as the SV protocol.

models based on averaging the extracted features from utterances of the speaker, which

In our paper, we propose the implementation of 3D-CNNs for direct speaker model creation in

The MFCC features can be used as the data representation of the spoken utterances at the frame level.

This operation disturbs the locality property and is in contrast with the local characteristics of the convolutional operations.

sound sample, 80 temporal feature sets (each forms a

of ζ × 80 × 40 which is formed from 80 input frames

The code architecture part has been heavily inspired by Slim and Slim image classification library.

If you used this code please kindly cite the following paper: The license is as follows: Please refer to LICENSE file for further detail.

Pragmatics

Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology.[1] Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or 'coded' in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (e.g., grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance,[2] any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.[3] In this respect, pragmatics explains how language users are able to overcome apparent ambiguity, since meaning relies on the manner, place, time, etc.

For example, it could mean: Similarly, the sentence 'Sherlock saw the man with binoculars' could mean that Sherlock observed the man by using binoculars, or it could mean that Sherlock observed a man who was holding binoculars (syntactic ambiguity).[8] The meaning of the sentence depends on an understanding of the context and the speaker's intent.

As defined in linguistics, a sentence is an abstract entity — a string of words divorced from non-linguistic context — as opposed to an utterance, which is a concrete example of a speech act in a specific context.

The word pragmatics derives via Latin pragmaticus from the Greek πραγματικός (pragmatikos), meaning amongst others 'fit for action',[9] which comes from πρᾶγμα (pragma), 'deed, act',[10] and that from πράσσω (prassō), 'to pass over, to practise, to achieve'.[11] Pragmatics was a reaction to structuralist linguistics as outlined by Ferdinand de Saussure.

notably the Anglo-American pragmatic thought and the European continental pragmatic thought (also called the perspective view).[12] When we speak of the referential uses of language we are talking about how we use signs to refer to certain items.

The former relies on context (indexical and referential meaning) by referring to a chair specifically in the room at that moment while the latter is independent of the context (semantico-referential meaning), meaning the concept chair.

Michael Silverstein has argued that 'nonreferential' or 'pure' indices do not contribute to an utterance's referential meaning but instead 'signal some particular value of one or more contextual variables.'[14] Although nonreferential indexes are devoid of semantico-referential meaning, they do encode 'pragmatic' meaning.

For instance, when a couple has been arguing and the husband says to his wife that he accepts her apology even though she has offered nothing approaching an apology, his assertion is infelicitous—because she has made neither expression of regret nor request for forgiveness, there exists none to accept, and thus no act of accepting can possibly happen.

The six constitutive factors of a speech event Addresser---------------------Addressee The six functions of language Emotive-----------------------Conative There is considerable overlap between pragmatics and sociolinguistics, since both share an interest in linguistic meaning as determined by usage in a speech community.

Morris, pragmatics tries to understand the relationship between signs and their users, while semantics tends to focus on the actual objects or ideas to which a word refers, and syntax (or 'syntactics') examines relationships among signs or symbols.

[17] This process, integral to the science of Natural language processing, involves providing a computer system with some database of knowledge related to a topic and a series of algorithms which control how the system responds to incoming data, using contextual knowledge to more accurately approximate natural human language and information processing abilities.

Particularly interesting cases are the discussions on the semantics of indexicals and the problem of referential descriptions, a topic developed after the theories of Keith Donnellan.[19] A proper logical theory of formal pragmatics has been developed by Carlo Dalla Pozza, according to which it is possible to connect classical semantics (treating propositional contents as true or false) and intuitionistic semantics (dealing with illocutionary forces).

In Excitable Speech she extends her theory of performativity to hate speech and censorship, arguing that censorship necessarily strengthens any discourse it tries to suppress and therefore, since the state has sole power to define hate speech legally, it is the state that makes hate speech performative.

Code Switching: Definition, Types and Examples

There are a number of possible reasons for switching from one language to another, and these will now be considered, as presented by Crystal (1987).

Others in the elevator who do not speak the same language would be excluded from the conversation and a degree of comfort would exist amongst the speakers in the knowledge that not all those present in the elevator are listening to their conversation.

The socio-linguistic benefits have also been identified as a means of communicating solidarity, or affiliation to a particular social group, whereby code switching should be viewed from the perspective of providing a linguistic advantage rather than an obstruction to communication.

Further, code switching allows a speaker to convey attitude and other emotives using a method available to those who are bilingual and again serves to advantage the speaker, much like bolding or underlining in a text document to emphasize points.

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