AI News, Understanding Convolutional Neural Networks for NLP
- On Sunday, September 30, 2018
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Understanding Convolutional Neural Networks for NLP
Each entry corresponds to one pixel, 0 for black and 1 for white (typically it’s between 0 and 255 for grayscale images).
(To understand this one intuitively, think about what happens in parts of the image that are smooth, where a pixel color equals that of its neighbors: The additions cancel and the resulting value is 0, or black.
If there’s a sharp edge in intensity, a transition from white to black for example, you get a large difference and a resulting white value)
This results in local connections, where each region of the input is connected to a neuron in the output. Each layer applies different filters, typically hundreds or thousands like the ones showed above, and combines their results.
For example, in Image Classification a CNN may learn to detect edges from raw pixels in the first layer, then use the edges to detect simple shapes in the second layer, and then use these shapes to deter higher-level features, such as facial shapes in higher layers.
Because you are sliding your filters over the whole image you don’t really care where the elephant occurs. In practice, pooling also gives you invariance to translation, rotation and scaling, but more on that later.
Instead of image pixels, the input to most NLP tasks are sentences or documents represented as a matrix. Each row of the matrix corresponds to one token, typically a word, but it could be a character.
In vision, our filters slide over local patches of an image, but in NLP we typically use filters that slide over full rows of the matrix (words).
The height, or region size, may vary, but sliding windows over 2-5 words at a time is typical. Putting all the above together, a Convolutional Neural Network for NLP may look like this (take a few minutes and try understand this picture and how the dimensions are computed.
Clearly, words compose in some ways, like an adjective modifying a noun, but how exactly this works what higher level representations actually “mean”
The simple Bag of Words model is an obvious oversimplification with incorrect assumptions, but has nonetheless been the standard approach for years and lead to pretty good results.
A larger stride size leads to fewer applications of the filter and a smaller output size. The following from the Stanford cs231 website shows stride sizes of 1 and 2 applied to a one-dimensional input: In the literature we typically see stride sizes of 1, but a larger stride size may allow you to build a model that behaves somewhat similarly to a Recursive Neural Network, i.e.
The most common way to do pooling it to apply a operation to the result of each filter. You don’t necessarily need to pool over the complete matrix, you could also pool over a window. For example, the following shows max pooling for a 2×2 window (in NLP we typically are apply pooling over the complete output, yielding just a single number for each filter): Why pooling?
For example, if you have 1,000 filters and you apply max pooling to each, you will get a 1000-dimensional output, regardless of the size of your filters, or the size of your input.
By performing the max operation you are keeping information about whether or not the feature appeared in the sentence, but you are losing information about where exactly it appeared.
In NLP you could imagine having various channels as well: You could have a separate channels for different word embeddings (word2vec and GloVe for example), or you could have a channel for the same sentence represented in different languages, or phrased in different ways.
Convolutions and pooling operations lose information about the local order of words, so that sequence tagging as in PoS Tagging or Entity Extraction is a bit harder to fit into a pure CNN architecture (though not impossible, you can add positional features to the input).
Intuitively, it makes sense that using pre-trained word embeddings for short texts would yield larger gains than using them for long texts.
Building a CNN architecture means that there are many hyperparameters to choose from, some of which I presented above: Input represenations (word2vec, GloVe, one-hot), number and sizes of convolution filters, pooling strategies (max, average), and activation functions (ReLU, tanh).  performs an empirical evaluation on the effect of varying hyperparameters in CNN architectures, investigating their impact on performance and variance over multiple runs.
A few results that stand out are that max-pooling always beat average pooling, that the ideal filter sizes are important but task-dependent, and that regularization doesn’t seem to make a big different in the NLP tasks that were considered.
In addition to the word vectors, the authors use the relative positions of words to the entities of interest as an input to the convolutional layer. This models assumes that the positions of the entities are given, and that each example input contains one relation.
 presents a CNN architecture to predict hashtags for Facebook posts, while at the same time generating meaningful embeddings for words and sentences. These learned embeddings are then successfully applied to another task –
Results show that learning directly from character-level input works very well on large datasets (millions of examples), but underperforms simpler models on smaller datasets (hundreds of thousands of examples).
- On Tuesday, June 18, 2019
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