AI News, Topic: Expert systems (Computer science) artificial intelligence

JMIR Publications

The first idea of a thinking machine was developed in 1945 when a system that could amplify human knowledge was described in Vannevar Bush’s seminal work [1].

Five years later, Alan Turing mentioned a machine being able to imitate human action and gave chess playing as an example of actions that a computer could do [2].

In addition, robotics, a science of dealing with designing and operating robots, with the application of AI, has created robots with improved quality in sensing, vision, and self-awareness [10].

With continuous development and challenges to overcome, AI has been applied in various fields of society such as game playing [11], computer vision [12], speech recognition [13], and expert system in health care [14] and economics [15].

Several AI techniques such as robotics, deep learning, support vector machines, or machine learning have been widely applied in the medical diagnostic system, treatment, and rehabilitation [20-22].

The expert system has been used for diagnosis of diseases such as heart disease [26] and diabetes [27] and has proven to be useful for diagnosis and basic treatment advice [27].

Machine learning has been applied in a predictive model, which could identify patients with symptoms of schizophrenia and attempting to commit suicide with 74% and 80%-90% accuracy, respectively [28,29].

Due to the variety of AI applications in medicine and health care, there is a need to understand the current states of AI applications, major topics, and the research area of AI in medicine and health care and to identify research gaps.

Thus, this study evaluated the global development of scientific publications from 1977 to 2018 and characterized research landscapes and constructs of disciplines applied to AI in medicine and health care.

By decoding these patterns, we can effectively explore the changes in the growth of publications and may therefore provide better information for other researchers and policymakers in priority settings and evaluation.

We chose this database because of its outstanding advantages over other databases such as Scopus or PubMed: It contains bibliographic data since 1900, has a higher scientific journal impact, has more indexes, and is better in representing metadata [34].

We analyzed data based on the characteristic of publication (total papers, publication years, and number of papers by countries), research areas, abstracts (terms and contents of the abstract), citations, and usages (number of downloads).

The mean use rate (download rate) within the last 6 months, of papers published in the year 2018 was three times higher than that of papers published in the previous years.

As shown in Figure 2, a strong relationship among the applications of AI in treatment, diseases, and medical informatics shows that AI assisted surgeons, especially in some diseases for which surgery is key in treatment or diagnosis, such as cancer or cardiovascular diseases.

The combination of information science, computer science, and health care, called health informatics, has created a wide range of applications, from cell level to population level [41].

Additionally, the development of computer sciences has contributed to the advancement of AI in pharmacy, biotechnology, and chemistry in areas such as drug discovery, drug identification and validation, and drug trials.

The major application of computer science has been in medical fields: from cells (gene microbiology information, topic 5), disease (oncology, cardiovascular, topic 7), and diagnosis and treatment (topic 1, topic 6, and topic 9) to health policy (topic 3).

Additionally, AI types were used the most in medicine and health care, including expert systems, artificial neural networks, machine learning, and natural language processing.

By analyzing scientific research publications and modeling their research topics, we generally described the 42-year development and identified the trend of AI application in medicine and health care.

Based on the topics and research areas, we found that the application of AI in medicine and health care has been focused on robot support in surgery (topic 1) and rehabilitation (topic 9), AI in diagnosis and clinical decisions support (topic 2, topic 4, topic 5, topic 7, topic 8, and topic 10), and AI in health care system management (topic 3).

AI has been widely applied in surgery due to its benefits for patients and medical professionals, such as increased accuracy, reduced operation time, minimized surgical trauma, and reduced length of recovery time for patients [49].

Second, AI methods such as machine learning and natural language process analyze complex medical data [20], decrease time spent finding relevant evidence, and reduce medical errors that improve the quality of diagnosis in medical health care [50].

algorithms, ethnic differences in validity of facial recognition technology for genetic diagnosis, medical and behavioral conditions [51,52], and ethnic bias in training data set [53] raise questions about product liability, privacy and data protection, and ethical and legal issues [51].

AI may change the relationship between caregivers and patients, as the direct interaction might reduce due to digital tools such as a free app in the patient’s personal device, which could diagnose the disease in some cases or even lead to self-diagnosis via the Web [54].

In addition, standard guidelines or laws about collecting private information or application of AI in all health care sectors are urgently needed [56], as the application of AI in health care and medicine has potential threats to patients’

In rural areas of developing countries, the shortage of medical doctors and trained nurses and the limitation of medical techniques and machines have reduced the quality of medical services [57].

However, absorptive capacity, local culture, legacy [63], and infrastructure (eg, electricity, internet, or financial source) should be carefully taken into consideration [64].

Office of the University Registrar

The College of Engineering offers two degrees in computer engineering: The CEN degree (computer engineering: software option) is offered by the CISE department and the CEE degree (computer engineering: hardware option) is offered by the ECE department.

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences degree program in computer science: refer to the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences section of the catalog for degree requirements.

Topic: Expert Systems

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