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Foreign policy of the Donald Trump administration

The stated aims of the foreign policy of the Donald Trump administration include a focus on security, by fighting terrorists abroad and strengthening border defenses and immigration controls;

The foreign policy positions expressed by Trump during his presidential campaign changed frequently, making it 'difficult to glean a political agenda, or even a set of clear, core policy values ahead of his presidency.'[2]

He also stated that his administration would 'seek friendship and goodwill with the nations of the world,' and that he understands the 'right of all nations to put their own interests first.'[3]

During the 2016 election campaign, Trump 'repeatedly defined American global interests almost purely in economic terms,' with the nation's 'roles as a peacekeeper, as a provider of a nuclear deterrent against adversaries like North Korea, as an advocate of human rights and as a guarantor of allies' borders' being 'quickly reduced to questions of economic benefit to the United States.'[4]

Trump and his advisors continued this theme throughout the presidency, emphasizing their view that other countries need to increase their financial commitment to their own defense or compensate the United States for providing it.[7]

and in his first budget proposal as president in March 2017, Trump proposed a $54 billion (10%) increase in defense spending, to a total of $639 billion for fiscal year 2018.

He said the increase would be needed to fight terrorism, improve troop readiness, and build new ships and planes and would be paid for by deep cuts to other agencies, including a 28% cut from the State Department budget.

He repeatedly expressed support for the use of torture by the U.S. for the purpose of trying to get information from suspected terrorists, and said the law should be changed to allow waterboarding and other forms of torture.[12][14]

In many cases Trump has given important foreign policy assignments to advisors within the White House, particularly former chief political strategist Steve Bannon and senior advisor Jared Kushner.[17]

By the closing months of 2017, a survey by the Chicago Council on Global Affairs think tank found that President Trump's most passionate supporters solidly supported his core views on foreign policy, but Republicans with less favorable views of the president are far less enthusiastic and their attitudes more closely match with the overall population.[24]

On March 3, 2019, National Security Advisor John Bolton invoked the Monroe Doctrine in describing the Trump administration's policy in the Americas, saying 'In this administration, we're not afraid to use the word Monroe Doctrine...It's been the objective of American presidents going back to [President] Ronald Reagan to have a completely democratic hemisphere.'[25][26]

At the meeting Trump and Trudeau also discussed increased cooperation at the Canada–United States border, combating opioid abuse, clean energy, and establishing a joint council to promote women in business.[35]

In April 2017 the Trump administration took action on the longstanding Canada–United States softwood lumber dispute, raising the possibility of a trade war.

Following Trump's comment that Canada's lumber trade practices are unfair, the Commerce Department announced plans to impose a retroactive duty of 30-40% on Canadian wood shipments to the United States.

On June 20, 2019, Trump and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau met and held 'positive' talks at the White House on topics regarding ratifying the USMCA, the detentions of Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou and Canadian nationals Michael Spavor and Michael Kovrig, confronting China, and tariff negotiations.

Trump called Trudeau a 'friend' and, following Trudeau's trip, both Canadian and U.S. officials and media generally considered the talks constructive and helped thaw relations between the two allies, which had noticeably chilled in the early years of Trump's presidency.[38]

In campaign speeches Trump repeatedly pledged to build a wall along the U.S.'s southern border, saying that Mexico would pay for its construction through increased border-crossing fees and NAFTA tariffs.[48][49][50]

The survey by the Pew Research Center said 93 percent of Mexicans had 'no confidence in the U.S. president to do the right thing regarding world affairs.[65]' The president's decision for a wall along the Mexican border had a proposed 2018 budget that included a request for $1.6 billion to begin construction.

Funding for the border wall remained a divisive topic well into 2019, with a partial government shutdown beginning in December 2018 after Trump refused to sign a budget bill that didn't have appropriated funding for the border wall.

Over the course of the civil unrest in Nicaragua that started in April 2018, the Trump administration has placed numerous sanctions and condemnations against President Daniel Ortega and his Sandinista Government for human rights abuses.

President Trump further stated on 11 August 2017, days after the Constituent National Assembly was sworn in, that 'Venezuela is not very far away and the people are suffering, and they are dying' and that the United States had 'many options for Venezuela', including a possible 'military option'.[76]

McMaster, strongly recommended to President Trump to not pursue a military option in Venezuela, explaining that Latin American governments were against foreign intervention in the region, though Trump raised some questions about the option.[77]

Trump did not formulate any deadlines or specific purposes to be met, only stating that a U.S. withdrawal was no option now because it would play into the hands of terrorists and put at risk the safety of the U.S. and its allies.[82]

Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid condemned Trump's speech: 'It looks like America does not want to put an end to its longest war and instead of realizing the realities, is still arrogant on its might and force'.[83]

He pledged to carry out 'swift, robust and unequivocal' action against Chinese piracy, counterfeit American goods, and theft of U.S. trade secrets and intellectual property.

At his confirmation hearing in January 2017, Secretary of State-designate Rex Tillerson expressed strong opposition to the Chinese practice since 2014 of building artificial islands in the South China Sea as a way of claiming sovereignty over it, saying China should be blocked from accessing the islands.

On 23 January 2017, White House spokesman Sean Spicer said 'It's a question of if [the Spratly Islands] are in fact in international waters and not part of China proper, then yeah, we're going to make sure that we defend international territories from being taken over by one country.'[93]

During the campaign Trump said that he would be willing to meet North Korean supreme leader Kim Jong-un, whom he described as a 'maniac' who also deserves credit for being able to overcome his rivals in order to succeed his father.[101][102]

He indicated that he did not want to get involved in any conflict between North and South Korea, an attitude which resulted in an editorial in the North Korean state media that hailed him as a 'wise politician' and a 'far-sighted presidential candidate' who could be good for North Korea.[103]

His comment, and its apparent confirmation by Defense Department officials, 'fueled a war frenzy at major newspapers and networks' and led to the North Korean government warning of a possible thermonuclear war.[108]

However, on April 18 the Pentagon clarified that the strike group had instead headed south for scheduled training exercises with the Australian navy but would be arriving at the Korean peninsula the following week.[109][110]

Trump doubled down on his 'fire and fury' warning, saying that 'maybe that statement wasn't tough enough' and adding that if North Korea took steps to attack Guam, 'Things will happen to them like they never thought possible.'[115]

They signed a joint statement agreeing to new peaceful relations, security guarantees for North Korea, reaffirmation of North Korea's promise to work toward denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, recovery of soldiers' remains, and follow-up negotiations between high-level officials.[125]

January 2019 American intelligence community assessment found that North Korea was unlikely to relinquish its nuclear arsenal, directly contradicting a core tenet of Trump's stated foreign policy.[127]

But according to the Pakistan government, in a cordial post-election telephone conversation with Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Trump lavished praise on Pakistan and its 'fantastic' people, said he would love to visit the country, and offered to help Pakistan solve any outstanding problems.[131]

Duterte expressed strong hostility toward then-President Obama and threatened to sever the long-standing ties between the two countries due to the latter's criticism on the issue of human rights in Duterte's policy on the War on Drugs.

A statement from the Trump team said the two leaders 'noted the long history of friendship and cooperation between the two nations, and agreed that the two governments would continue to work together closely on matters of shared interest and concern'.

Duterte claimed afterward that Trump had praised Duterte's controversial 'war on drugs' which has killed thousands of people without trial, and that Trump said the Philippines are 'doing it as a sovereign nation, the right way.'[134]

In advance of the 2017 French presidential election Trump was reported to have expressed support for Marine Le Pen, calling her the 'strongest candidate', although he did not explicitly endorse her.[137]

In May 2017 at a meeting with European leaders in Brussels, Trump denounced Germany concerning the trade deficit as 'bad, very bad', adding 'Look at the millions of cars they sell in the US.

This was bolstered by the broadly shared neo-nationalist values between President Donald Trump and President of Poland Andrzej Duda along with Poland's desire for strengthened military ties with the United States in order to counter Russian influence in Europe, particularly following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea.[155]

He also said: 'Our strong alliance with Poland and NATO remains critical to deterring conflict and ensuring that war between great powers never again ravages Europe, and that the world will be a safer and better place.

In June 2019, during a trip to the United States to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Poland's membership in NATO and the 30th anniversary of communism's downfall in the country, President Andrzej Duda visited the White House where he and President Trump signed a joint defense agreement to increase military cooperation.

In a separate deal, Poland ordered 32 F-35 fighter jets from the U.S.; Trump celebrated the agreement with two F-35 jets conducting flybys over the White House in a rare U.S. military display.[163][164]

Also on that day, Polish state-owned natural gas company PGNiG signed an agreement with U.S. company Venture Global LNG to buy 1.5 million metric tons of liquefied natural gas per year as part of an initiative to seek alternative supplies of gas other than Russia's Gazprom.

The deal is seen as part of the Trump administration's 'energy dominance' economic policy, in which the U.S. slashes domestic regulations on energy production to boost oil and gas exports to allies and trade partners, such as Poland, serving as an alternative to Russian gas pipelines.[165]

During the campaign, Trump hinted that he would consider recognizing Crimea as Russian territory and lifting the sanctions on Russia that were imposed after Russia began military invention in an attempt to undermine the new, pro-Western Ukrainian government.[171]

On February 6, 2017, talking to Bill O'Reilly on Fox News, Trump questioned the veracity of O'Reilly′s claim that ″within 24 hours of you on the phone with the Russian leader, the pro-Russian forces step[ed] up the violence in Ukraine″.

Tillerson told the press afterwards, 'As we search for new common ground, we expect Russia to honor its commitment to the Minsk agreements and work to de-escalate the violence in Ukraine'.[181]

News reported in June 2017 that during the early weeks of the Trump administration, State Department employees were told to develop proposals to lift the sanctions which had been imposed on Russia after its military incursions into Ukraine and its interference in the November election.

The proposals were dropped after resistance from State Department employees and a realization that such an action would look bad politically in light of the investigations into a Russia connection to the Trump campaign.

According to a poll conducted by the SSRS, approximately 70% of Americans find that the federal investigation into Russia's efforts to influence the 2016 presidential election in the US should be able to look into President Donald Trump's finances.

After a joint press conference at the conclusion of the meeting, Trump drew harsh bipartisan criticism in the United States for appearing to side with Putin's denial of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, rather than accepting the findings of the United States intelligence community.[189][190]

Trump called the conversation 'positive' and tweeted there was 'Tremendous potential for a good/great relationship with Russia,' and later relayed to reporters Putin's assurances that Russia isn't seeking to 'get involved' with the ongoing 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, despite Trump's national security advisors saying otherwise.

However early in the campaign Trump opposed U.S. involvement in the Ukrainian crisis, describing Crimea as 'Europe's problem;' in a rally in July 2016 he implied that such involvement could have led to World War III and criticized Germany and other European countries for not doing more to support Ukraine.[195][196]

Theresa May's spokesperson condemned Trump, saying 'The British people overwhelmingly reject the prejudiced rhetoric of the far-right, which is the antithesis of the values that this country represents — decency, tolerance and respect.

During the campaign, Trump described the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, as a 'fantastic guy,' praising his handling of various political events in Egypt, such as a massive uprising in late June 2013 in Egypt against former President Mohamed Morsi, which was followed by Morsi being removed from office by el-Sisi on July 3, 2013.[206]

He opposed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA or 'Iran nuclear deal') that was negotiated with the United States, Iran, and five other world powers in 2015, calling it 'terrible' and saying that the Obama administration negotiated the agreement 'from desperation.'[209]

The Trump administration officially put Iran 'on notice' following their ballistic missile tests on January 29, 2017, just days after taking office.[212]

this likely violated the terms of the JCPOA, which expressly states that the U.S. may not pursue 'any policy specifically intended to directly and adversely affect the normalization of trade and economic relations with Iran.'

On May 24, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo declared an 'emergency' over Iran, allowing for the U.S. to sell around $8 billion worth of weapons to Saudi Arabia, without any congressional review, in the 'national security interest of the United States'.[220]

On May 28, the International Atomic Energy Agency certified that Iran was abiding by the main terms of the Iran nuclear deal, although questions were raised on certified that how many advanced centrifuges Iran was allowed to have, as that was only loosely defined in the deal.[221]

During the 2016 campaign, Trump repeatedly advocated that the United States should 'take the oil' from Iraq as 'spoils of war', a decision which technically would require an invasion and occupation of the country.[222][223]

Trump's statements caused criticism and controversy, as most legal experts agreed that the action would be an illegal war crime under the Geneva Conventions and because many believed that it would increase support for Islamic fundamentalism across the Middle East.[224][225]

After sharp criticism, public protests as well as lawsuits against the executive order, Trump relaxed the travel restrictions somewhat and dropped Iraq from the list of non-entry countries in March 2017.[231][232][233]

Although Russian anti-missile defenses such as S-300's failed to deter the missile attack, Russian forces suffered minimal damage, as the United States had deliberately avoided striking areas of the base used by Russia.[238]

In response to the Douma chemical attack in Syria, in April 2018, Trump announced missile strikes against the Assad regime targeting alleged chemical weapons compounds;

Jonathan Russell, head of policy for the anti-radicalization think tank Quilliam, warned that Trump's 'anti-Muslim rhetoric' helps ISIL's 'narrative', saying 'Trump will contribute to Islamist radicalization as his comments will make Muslims feel unwelcome in America.'[252]

Some U.S. military officials openly rebuked Trump's comments, saying that 'it is nearly impossible to move tens of thousands of troops into position without alerting the enemy' and asserting that it was vital to warn civilians of impending military action.[253]

With the arrival of the Trump administration, a change in policy was instituted regarding the disclosure of troop levels abroad as well as the timing of any additional deployments to the Middle East, following through on his campaign promises to utilize the 'element of surprise.'

By 2 April 2017, the U.S. troop level, or 'force management level' — the number of full-time troops deployed, was around 5,200 in Iraq and 500 in Syria, with about 1,000 more troops there on a temporary basis.[255]

They manned an artillery battery whilst additional infantrymen from the unit provided security and resupplies were handled by part of the expeditionary force's combat logistics element.[256]

On December 11, 2018, anti-ISIL envoy Brett McGurk indicated in a press briefing that the war against ISIL in Syria was not over, stating, 'It would be reckless if we were just to say, well, the physical caliphate is defeated, so we can just leave now.”[262]

The Pentagon and State Department tried to change Trump's mind on the decision, with several of his congressional and political allies expressing concerns about the sudden move, specifically that it would 'hand control of the region' to Russia and Iran, and 'abandon' America's Kurdish allies.[264][265]

Friends news program, which Trump himself often watches, sharply criticized Trump's decision as 'totally irresponsible,' adding 'nobody thinks ISIS is defeated' and that the president had 'blindsided' the Pentagon and State Department.[266]

On 30 December Senator Lindsey Graham, a known Congressional confidant of the president that hours after the announcement of a withdrawal said it was 'a stain on the honor of the United States,' said that while he agrees that it's possible to reduce the American footprint in Afghanistan, Syria, and Iraq, the US must keep troops in Syria to ensure ISIL can't regroup and that he and a group of generals will urge the President to reconsider his withdrawal plans during a luncheon later that day.[273]

On January 6, 2019, national security advisor John Bolton added conditions to the pullout, announcing America would remain in Syria until ISIL is eradicated and until Turkey guarantees it would not strike America's Kurdish allies.[275]

On 22 February 2019, the administration stated that instead of the initially announced 'total' pullout, 400 residual U.S. troops would remain in Syria indefinitely post-withdrawal to serve as a contingency force.

Press secretary Sarah Sanders initially characterized the troops as 'peacekeepers', although a senior administration official later disputed that label as the term technically implied restricted rules of engagement.

Trump had been eager to announce ISIL's defeat since late 2018 due to the SDF's multi-year campaign, which deprived the jihadists of swathes of territory, culminating into a final assault, akin to Tora Bora in 2001.[279]

On March 22, 2019, in response to developments in the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani, where ISIL had put up stubborn resistance to U.S.-backed forces there, Trump showed reporters two maps comparing the extents of the Islamic State's occupation of Syria and Iraq, stating “Here’s ISIS on Election Day.

Trump administration officials and allies cautiously hailed the territorial collapse of the extremist group in Syria while stressing the need to keep a presence in Syria to keep up pressure and to stop a territorial resurgence of the terror group that retained global reach and offshoots in various countries.[282]

During the campaign he broke with long-standing bipartisan U.S. policy that Israel should stop building additional Israeli settlements in the West Bank as a precursor to negotiations with the Palestinians, saying that the Israelis 'have to keep going' and 'I don't think there should be a pause.'[287]

Of course, the recognition of Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state is also a major sticking point, with the current Palestinian leadership repeatedly refusing to meet that basic condition.'[285]

In March 2017, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson approved the resumption on the sale of guided munitions to Saudi Arabia, a move that had been halted late in the Obama administration because of criticisms of the Saudi government's approach to civilian casualties in the Yemeni Civil War.[298]

When asked if Erdoğan was exploiting the coup attempt to purge his political enemies, Trump did not call for the Turkish leader to observe the rule of law, or offer other cautions for restraint.

In a meeting with congressional leaders on January 11, 2018, Trump asked during a discussion of immigration from Africa why America would want people from 'all these shithole countries', suggesting that it would be better to receive immigrants from countries like Norway.

report in the Washington Post on February 2, 2017 claimed that Trump berated Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull and hung up 35 minutes earlier than planned over a refugee resettlement deal that President Obama had made with Australia where the United States agreed to take 1,250 refugees from camps in Nauru and Manus Island.[318]

In fact the United States sanctioned the EU's creation to foster peace, prevent another catastrophic war, and create a 'strong European market to consume American-made goods to help fuel American economic growth.'[325]

During the campaign, Trump called for a 'rethink' of American involvement in NATO, stating that the United States pays too much to ensure the security of allies, stating that 'NATO is costing us a fortune, and yes, we're protecting Europe with NATO, but we're spending a lot of money'.[326]

In a July 2016 interview, Trump 'explicitly raised new questions about his commitment to automatically defend NATO allies,' questioning whether he, as president, would automatically extend security guarantees to NATO members.[4]

Asked about a prospective Russia attack on NATO's Baltic members, Trump stated that he would decide whether to come to their aid only after reviewing whether those nations 'have fulfilled their obligations to us.'[4]

With regard to the alliance's enacted guideline that members should spend a minimum of 2 percent of their national GDP for defense by 2024, Trump said that 'Twenty-three of the 28 member nations are still not paying what they should be paying for their defense'.

Media fact-checking commented that, while most members of the alliance had yet to reach the 2% target for their national defense spending in 2017, technically they are not in arrears and they 'do not owe anything' to the United States or to NATO.[331][332]

In early April 2019, during a trip to the U.S. to hail NATO's 70th anniversary, Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg affirmed that the NATO alliance remained 'strong' and downplayed the severity of the disputes and uncertainties that emerged during the Trump administration.

During a speech to Congress on April 3, Stoltenberg acknowledged that 'there are differences,' noting disputes over trade, energy, climate change policy, the Iran nuclear agreement and burden sharing among NATO allies – all issues raised by Trump.

When announcing his candidacy in June 2015, Trump said that his experience as a negotiator in private business would enhance his ability to negotiate better international trade deals as President.[49][335] Trump

January 2019 intelligence community assessment concluded that Trump's trade policies and unilateralism had 'damaged' traditional alliances and induced foreign partners to seek new relationships.[127]

According to an analysis by Capital Economics, Trump's proposed tariff may hurt U.S. consumers by driving U.S. retail price of Chinese made goods up 10 percent, because of few alternative suppliers in key product classes that China sells to the U.S.[346] The goods trade deficit with China in 2015 was $367.2 billion.[347]

The Economic Policy Institute (EPI) reported in December 2014 that 'Growth in the U.S. goods trade deficit with China between 2001 and 2013 eliminated or displaced 3.2 million U.S. jobs, 2.4 million (three-fourths) of which were in manufacturing.'

After taking office, White House press secretary Sean Spicer noted that Trump was considering imposing a 20% tariff on Mexican imports to the United States as one of several options that would pay for his proposed border wall.[349]

When asked at March 2016 campaign town hall with MSNBC's Chris Matthews whether he would rule out the use of nuclear weapons, Trump answered that the option of using nuclear weapons should never be taken off the table.[355][356][357]

During the campaign, Trump was critical of Pakistan, comparing it to North Korea, calling it 'probably the most dangerous country' in the world, and claiming that Pakistan's nuclear weapons posed a 'serious problem.'

Cisco Identity Services Engine Administrator Guide, Release 2.6

the Administration node that can be used for monitoring and controlling network

ANC supports wired and wireless deployments and requires a

ANC to change the authorization state without having to modify the overall authorization policy of the system.

ANC allows you to set the authorization state when you quarantine an endpoint as a result of established authorization policies

You can unquarantine an endpoint for full network access.

on the network attached system (NAS) that disconnects the endpoint from the network.

number of users that can be quarantined at one time, and there are no time

operations to monitor and control network access through

operations can be triggered from the session directory reports for active

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