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Artificial Intelligence Interview Questions And Answers

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Top 50 Spring Interview Questions You Must Prepare In 2019

Spring community is continuously coming up with new things and have spread into a vast ecosystem.Today, it holds the top position in the framework market.

Well, the answer is,because itprovides a comprehensive programming and configuration model for modern Java-based enterprise applications.

For your ease of access, I have categorized the questions under a few topics, namely: You may watch the webinar recording of Spring Interview Questions where our instructor has shared his experience and expertise that will help you to crack any SpringInterview.

The container receives instructions for whichobjects to instantiate, configure, and assemble by reading the configuration metadata provided.

You don’t connect your components and services together in the code directly, but describe which services are needed by which components in the configuration file.

In general, dependency injection can be done in three ways, namely : In Spring Framework, only constructor and setter injections are used.

For defining a bean, the Spring’s XML based configuration metadata provides the use of<bean>element inside the<property>or<constructor-arg>.Inner beans are always anonymous and they are always scoped as prototypes.

Here’s a Student class followed by bean configuration file: Student.java studentbean.xml When beans are combined together within the Spring container, it’s called wiring or bean wiring.

The Spring container needs to know what beans are needed and how the container should use dependency injection to tie the beans together, while wiring beans.

Instead of using XML to describe a bean wiring, the developer moves the configuration into the component class itself by using annotations on the relevant class, method, or field declaration.It acts as an alternative to XML setups.For example: By default, Annotation wiring is not turned on in the Spring container.

Thus, to use annotation based wiring we must enable it in our Spring configuration file by configuring<context:annotation-config/>element.For example: @Component:Thismarks a java class as a bean.

This annotation simply indicates that the affected bean property must be populated at the configuration timewith the help of an explicit property value in a bean definition orwith autowiring.

This annotation is used to autowire bean on the setter methods, constructor, a property or methods with arbitrary names or multiple arguments.

Employee.java EmpAccount.java @RequestMapping annotation is used for mapping a particular HTTP request method to a specific class/ method in controller that will be handling the respective request.Thisannotation can be applied at both levels: Next section of Spring Interview Questions is on Data Access.

The Data Access Object (DAO) support in Spring makes it easy to work with data access technologies like JDBC, Hibernate or JDO in a consistent way.

Aspect-oriented programming or AOP is a programming technique which allows programmers to modularize crosscutting concerns or behavior that cuts across the typical divisions of responsibility.

point during the execution of a program is called JoinPoint, such as the execution of a method or the handling of an exception.In Spring AOP, a joinpoint always represents a method execution.

For example, logging,securityand data transfer are the concerns needed in almost every module of an application, thus they are the cross-cutting concerns.

The process of linking an aspect with other application types or objects to create an advised object is called Weaving.

The Spring web MVC framework provides model-view-controller architecture and ready to use components that are used to develop flexible and loosely coupled web applications.

The MVC pattern helps in separating the different aspects of the application like input logic, business logic and UI logic, while providing a loose coupling between all these elements.

It handles all the HTTP requests and responses.The DispatcherServlet receives the entry of handler mapping from the configuration file and forwards the request to the controller.

If you want to learn Spring and wish to use it while developing Java applications,then check out the Spring Framework Certification Trainingby Edureka, a trusted online learning company with a network of more than 250,000 satisfied learners spread across the globe.

PyTorch Interview Questions

A list of frequently asked PyTorch Interview Questions and Answers are given below.

Click here for more information There are the following elements which are essential in PyTorch: Tensors play an important role in deep learning with PyTorch.

If we transform the other entities in the structure in a regular way, then the tensor will obey a related transformation rule.

The torch.autograd provides classes and functions for implementing automatic differentiation of arbitrary scalar-valued functions.

These steps are as follows: Linear Regression is a technique or way to find the linear relation between the dependent variable and the independent variable by minimizing the distance.

If our prediction is completely off, then the function will output a higher number else it will output a lower number.

Click here for more information MSE stands for Mean Squared Error, which is used to create a criterion the measures the mean squared error between each element in an input x and target y.

The difference between NN and DNN is that there can be only one hidden layer in the neural network, but in a deep neural network, there is more than one hidden layer.

The activation functions are basically divided into two types: The Sigmoid Function curve looks like S-shape and the reason why we prefer sigmoid rather than other is the sigmoid function exists between 0 to 1.

These algorithms are a set of methods which are used to efficiently train artificial neural networks following a gradient descent approach which exploits the chain rule.

Face recognition, scene labeling, objects detections, etc., are the areas where convolutional neural networks are widely used.

The CNN takes an image as input, which is classified and process under a certain category such as dog, cat, lion, tiger, etc.

The Convolutional Neural Network has a convolution layer, which is used filters to convolve an area in input data to a smaller area, detecting important or specific part within the area.

There are the following advantages of Pytorch: Click here for more information It is a self-government machine learning algorithm which uses the backpropagation principle, where the target values are equal to the inputs provided.

Using Conda: conda install pytorch cudatoolkit=10.0 -c pytorch-nightly Using pip: pip install torch -f https://download.pytorch.org/whl/nightly/cpu/torch.html The torch.cuda is a package which adds support for CUDA tensor type.

In Deep learning tools, PyTorch plays an important role, and it is a subset of machine learning, and its algorithm works on the human brain.

The torch.dtype defines the data type, torch.device represents the device on which a torch.Tensor is allocated, and torch.layout represents the memory layout of a torch.Tensor.

The MNIST dataset has a large amount of data which is commonly used to demonstrate the true power of deep neural networks.

Click here for more information It is a collection of the color image which is commonly used to train machine learning and computer vision algorithms.

The CIFAR 10 dataset contains 50000 training images and 10000 validation images such that the images can be classified between 10 different classes.

The CIFAR 10 dataset contains 50000 training images and 10000 validation images such that the images can be classified between 10 different classes.

Max pooling is a sample-based discrete process whose main objective is to reduce its dimensionality, downscale an input representation.

Down-scaling will perform through average pooling by dividing the input into rectangular pooling regions and will compute the average values of each region.

The sub-region for sum pooling or mean pooling will set the same as for max-pooling but instead of using the max function we use sum or mean.

Top 100 Python Interview Questions You Must Prepare In 2019

Some of the commonly used built-in modules are: Global Variables: Variables declared outside a function or in global space are called global variables.

But, arrays can hold only a single data type elements whereas lists can hold any data type elements.

Example: Output: array(‘i’, [1, 2, 3, 4]) [1, ‘abc’, 1.2] Ans: A function is a block of code which is executed only when it is called.

The self variable in the init method refers to the newly created object while in other methods, it refers to the object whose method was called.

Output: array(‘i’, [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]) Ans:Consider the example shown below: The output of the following code is as below.

The method is defined as: The statement random.random() method return the floating point number that is in the range of [0, 1).

This technique is used with a type of object known as generators.That means that if you have a really gigantic range you’d like to generate a list for, say one billion, xrange is the function to use.

This is especially true if you have a really memory sensitive system such as a cell phone that you are working with, as range will use as much memory as it can to create your array of integers, which can result in a Memory Error and crash your program.

Comments in Python start with a # Ans:Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using dump function, this process is called pickling.

is ‘a’) not: returns the inverse of the boolean value in: checks if some element is present in some sequence Ans:Help() and dir() both functions are accessible from the Python interpreter and used for viewing a consolidated dump of built-in functions.

Syntax: The Ternary operator will be given as: [on_true] if [expression] else [on_false]x, y = 25, 50big = x if x <

y else y Example: The expression gets evaluated like if x<y else y, in this case if x<y is true then the value is returned as big=x and if it is incorrect then big=y will be sent as a result.

Ans:We use *args when we aren’t sure how many arguments are going to be passed to a function, or if we want to pass a stored list or tuple of arguments to a function.

**kwargs is used when we don’t know how many keyword arguments will be passed to a function, or it can be used to pass the values of a dictionary as keyword arguments.

The negative index is used to remove any new-line spaces from the string and allow the string to except the last character that is given as S[:-1].

Example: Output: array(‘d’, [1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 3.4]) array(‘d’, [1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 3.4, 4.5, 6.3, 6.8]) array(‘d’, [1.1, 2.1, 3.8, 3.1, 3.4, 4.5, 6.3, 6.8]) Ans: Array elements can be removed usingpop()orremove()method.

Ans:Shallow copy is used when a new instance type gets created and it keeps the values that are copied in the new instance.

These references point to the original objects and the changes made in any member of the class will also affect the original copy of it.Shallow copy allows faster execution of the program and it depends on the size of the data that is used.

The changes made in the original copy won’t affect any other copy that uses the object.Deep copy makes execution of the program slower due to making certain copies for each object that is been called.

Ans:The compiling and linking allows the new extensions to be compiled properly without any error and the linking can be done only when it passes the compiled procedure.

Consider the below example: We can then run the monkey-patch testing like this: The output will be as below: As we can see, we did make some changes in the behavior off()inMyClassusing the function we defined,monkey_f(), outside of the modulem.

Output: Enter the terms 5 0 1 1 2 3 Output: enter number 3 Prime Output: enter sequence 323 palindrome Ans:Let us first write a multiple line solution and then convert it to one-liner code.

Django consists of prewritten code, which the user will need to analyze whereas Flask gives the users to create their own code, therefore, making it simpler to understand the code.

We will add the following lines of code to the setting.py file: Ans:This is how we can use write a view in Django: Returns the current date and time, as an HTML document Ans:The template is a simple text file.

A template contains variables that get replaced with values when the template is evaluated and tags (% tag %) that control the logic of the template.

Django abstracts the process of sending and receiving cookies, by placing a session ID cookie on the client side, and storing all the related data on the server side.

Ans:In Django, there are three possible inheritance styles: Ans:We will use the following code to save an image locally from an URL address Ans:Use the following URL format: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:URLGOESHERE Be sure to replace “URLGOESHERE”

The above code will help scrap data from IMDb’s top 250 list Ans:map function executes the function given as the first argument on all the elements of the iterable given as the second argument.

Ans:We use python numpy array instead of a list because of the below three reasons: For more information on these parameters, you can refer to this section –

Ans:Like 2D plotting, 3D graphics is beyond the scope of NumPy and SciPy, but just as in the 2D case, packages exist that integrate with NumPy.Matplotlibprovides basic 3D plotting in themplot3dsubpackage, whereasMayaviprovides a wide range of high-quality 3D visualization features, utilizing the powerfulVTKengine.

Answer: b) // When both of the operands are integer then python chops out the fraction part and gives you the round off value, to get the accurate answer use floor division.

Answer: a) they are used to indicate a private variable of a class As Python has no concept of private variables, leading underscores are used to indicate variables that must not be accessed from outside the class.

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