# AI News, The mostly complete chart of Neural Networks, explained

- On Sunday, September 30, 2018
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## The mostly complete chart of Neural Networks, explained

This type introduces a memory cell, a special cell that can process data when data have time gaps (or lags).

RNNs can process texts by “keeping in mind” ten previous words, and LSTM networks can process video frame “keeping in mind” something that happened many frames ago.

The structure is well seen in the wikipedia illustration (note that there are no activation functions between blocks): The (x) thingies on the graph are gates, and they have they own weights and sometimes activation functions.

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Recurrent nets are a type of artificial neural network designed to recognize patterns in sequences of data, such as text, genomes, handwriting, the spoken word, or numerical times series data emanating from sensors, stock markets and government agencies.

Since recurrent networks possess a certain type of memory, and memory is also part of the human condition, we’ll make repeated analogies to memory in the brain.1 To understand recurrent nets, first you have to understand the basics of feedforward nets.

Here’s a diagram of an early, simple recurrent net proposed by Elman, where the BTSXPE at the bottom of the drawing represents the input example in the current moment, and CONTEXT UNIT represents the output of the previous moment.

It is often said that recurrent networks have memory.2 Adding memory to neural networks has a purpose: There is information in the sequence itself, and recurrent nets use it to perform tasks that feedforward networks can’t.

That sequential information is preserved in the recurrent network’s hidden state, which manages to span many time steps as it cascades forward to affect the processing of each new example.

It is finding correlations between events separated by many moments, and these correlations are called “long-term dependencies”, because an event downstream in time depends upon, and is a function of, one or more events that came before.

Just as human memory circulates invisibly within a body, affecting our behavior without revealing its full shape, information circulates in the hidden states of recurrent nets.

It is a function of the input at the same time step x_t, modified by a weight matrix W (like the one we used for feedforward nets) added to the hidden state of the previous time step h_t-1 multiplied by its own hidden-state-to-hidden-state matrix U, otherwise known as a transition matrix and similar to a Markov chain.

The sum of the weight input and hidden state is squashed by the function φ – either a logistic sigmoid function or tanh, depending – which is a standard tool for condensing very large or very small values into a logistic space, as well as making gradients workable for backpropagation.

Because this feedback loop occurs at every time step in the series, each hidden state contains traces not only of the previous hidden state, but also of all those that preceded h_t-1 for as long as memory can persist.

Given a series of letters, a recurrent network will use the first character to help determine its perception of the second character, such that an initial q might lead it to infer that the next letter will be u, while an initial t might lead it to infer that the next letter will be h.

Since recurrent nets span time, they are probably best illustrated with animation (the first vertical line of nodes to appear can be thought of as a feedforward network, which becomes recurrent as it unfurls over time).

In the diagram above, each x is an input example, w is the weights that filter inputs, a is the activation of the hidden layer (a combination of weighted input and the previous hidden state), and b is the output of the hidden layer after it has been transformed, or squashed, using a rectified linear or sigmoid unit.

Backpropagation in feedforward networks moves backward from the final error through the outputs, weights and inputs of each hidden layer, assigning those weights responsibility for a portion of the error by calculating their partial derivatives – ∂E/∂w, or the relationship between their rates of change.

Everyone who has studied compound interest knows that any quantity multiplied frequently by an amount slightly greater than one can become immeasurably large (indeed, that simple mathematical truth underpins network effects and inevitable social inequalities).

By maintaining a more constant error, they allow recurrent nets to continue to learn over many time steps (over 1000), thereby opening a channel to link causes and effects remotely.

(Religious thinkers have tackled this same problem with ideas of karma or divine reward, theorizing invisible and distant consequences to our actions.) LSTMs contain information outside the normal flow of the recurrent network in a gated cell.

Those gates act on the signals they receive, and similar to the neural network’s nodes, they block or pass on information based on its strength and import, which they filter with their own sets of weights.

That is, the cells learn when to allow data to enter, leave or be deleted through the iterative process of making guesses, backpropagating error, and adjusting weights via gradient descent.

The black dots are the gates themselves, which determine respectively whether to let new input in, erase the present cell state, and/or let that state impact the network’s output at the present time step.

The forget gate is represented as a linear identity function, because if the gate is open, the current state of the memory cell is simply multiplied by one, to propagate forward one more time step.

If you’re analyzing a text corpus and come to the end of a document, for example, you may have no reason to believe that the next document has any relationship to it whatsoever, and therefore the memory cell should be set to zero before the net ingests the first element of the next document.

You may also wonder what the precise value is of input gates that protect a memory cell from new data coming in, and output gates that prevent it from affecting certain outputs of the RNN.

Here’s what the LSTM configuration looks like: Here are a few ideas to keep in mind when manually optimizing hyperparameters for RNNs: 1) While recurrent networks may seem like a far cry from general artificial intelligence, it’s our belief that intelligence, in fact, is probably dumber than we thought.

Recurrent networks, which also go by the name of dynamic (translation: “changing”) neural networks, are distinguished from feedforward nets not so much by having memory as by giving particular weight to events that occur in a series.

On the other hand, we also learn as children to decipher the flow of sound called language, and the meanings we extract from sounds such as “toe” or “roe” or “z” are always highly dependent on the sounds preceding (and following) them.

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## Long short-term memory

Long short-term memory (LSTM) units are units of a recurrent neural network (RNN).

A common LSTM unit is composed of a cell, an input gate, an output gate and a forget gate.

The cell remembers values over arbitrary time intervals and the three gates regulate the flow of information into and out of the cell.

LSTM networks are well-suited to classifying, processing and making predictions based on time series data, since there can be lags of unknown duration between important events in a time series.

LSTMs were developed to deal with the exploding and vanishing gradient problems that can be encountered when training traditional RNNs.

Relative insensitivity to gap length is an advantage of LSTM over RNNs, hidden Markov models and other sequence learning methods in numerous applications[citation needed].

Among other successes, LSTM achieved record results in natural language text compression,[3]

LSTM networks were a major component of a network that achieved a record 17.7% phoneme error rate on the classic TIMIT natural speech dataset (2013).[5]

As of 2016, major technology companies including Google, Apple, and Microsoft were using LSTM as fundamental components in new products.[6]

In 2017 Microsoft reported reaching 95.1% recognition accuracy on the Switchboard corpus, incorporating a vocabulary of 165,000 words.

The approach used 'dialog session-based long-short-term memory'.[16]

A common architecture is composed of a memory cell, an input gate, an output gate and a forget gate.

An LSTM cell takes an input and stores it for some period of time.

Because the derivative of the identity function is constant, when an LSTM network is trained with backpropagation through time, the gradient does not vanish.

Intuitively, the input gate controls the extent to which a new value flows into the cell, the forget gate controls the extent to which a value remains in the cell and the output gate controls the extent to which the value in the cell is used to compute the output activation of the LSTM unit.

The weights of these connections, which need to be learned during training, determine how the gates operate.

In the equations below, the lowercase variables represent vectors.

contain, respectively, the weights of the input and recurrent connections, where

The compact forms of the equations for the forward pass of an LSTM unit with a forget gate are:[1][2]

refer to the number of input features and number of hidden units, respectively.

The figure on the right is a graphical representation of an LSTM unit with peephole connections (i.e.

Peephole connections allow the gates to access the constant error carousel (CEC), whose activation is the cell state.[20]

To minimize LSTM's total error on a set of training sequences, iterative gradient descent such as backpropagation through time can be used to change each weight in proportion to the derivative of the error with respect to it.

A problem with using gradient descent for standard RNNs is that error gradients vanish exponentially quickly with the size of the time lag between important events.

With LSTM units, however, when error values are back-propagated from the output, the error remains in the unit's memory.

This 'error carousel' continuously feeds error back to each of the gates until they learn to cut off the value.

Thus, regular backpropagation is effective at training an LSTM unit to remember values for long durations.

LSTM can also be trained by a combination of artificial evolution for weights to the hidden units, and pseudo-inverse or support vector machines for weights to the output units.[24]

In reinforcement learning applications LSTM can be trained by policy gradient methods, evolution strategies or genetic algorithms[citation needed].

to find an RNN weight matrix that maximizes the probability of the label sequences in a training set, given the corresponding input sequences.

LSTM has Turing completeness in the sense that given enough network units it can compute any result that a conventional computer can compute, provided it has the proper weight matrix, which may be viewed as its program[citation needed][further explanation needed].

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## Understanding LSTM Networks

In the above diagram, a chunk of neural network, \(A\), looks at some input \(x_t\) and outputs a value \(h_t\).

Consider what happens if we unroll the loop: This chain-like nature reveals that recurrent neural networks are intimately related to sequences and lists.

In the last few years, there have been incredible success applying RNNs to a variety of problems: speech recognition, language modeling, translation, image captioning… The list goes on.

Essential to these successes is the use of “LSTMs,” a very special kind of recurrent neural network which works, for many tasks, much much better than the standard version.

One of the appeals of RNNs is the idea that they might be able to connect previous information to the present task, such as using previous video frames might inform the understanding of the present frame.

If we are trying to predict the last word in “the clouds are in the sky,” we don’t need any further context – it’s pretty obvious the next word is going to be sky.

Consider trying to predict the last word in the text “I grew up in France… I speak fluent French.” Recent information suggests that the next word is probably the name of a language, but if we want to narrow down which language, we need the context of France, from further back.

In theory, RNNs are absolutely capable of handling such “long-term dependencies.” A human could carefully pick parameters for them to solve toy problems of this form.

Long Short Term Memory networks – usually just called “LSTMs” – are a special kind of RNN, capable of learning long-term dependencies.

Schmidhuber (1997), and were refined and popularized by many people in following work.1 They work tremendously well on a large variety of problems, and are now widely used.

The pink circles represent pointwise operations, like vector addition, while the yellow boxes are learned neural network layers.

Lines merging denote concatenation, while a line forking denote its content being copied and the copies going to different locations.

The LSTM does have the ability to remove or add information to the cell state, carefully regulated by structures called gates.

A value of zero means “let nothing through,” while a value of one means “let everything through!” An LSTM has three of these gates, to protect and control the cell state.

This decision is made by a sigmoid layer called the “forget gate layer.” It looks at \(h_{t-1}\) and \(x_t\), and outputs a number between \(0\) and \(1\) for each number in the cell state \(C_{t-1}\).

A \(1\) represents “completely keep this” while a \(0\) represents “completely get rid of this.” Let’s go back to our example of a language model trying to predict the next word based on all the previous ones.

In the example of our language model, we’d want to add the gender of the new subject to the cell state, to replace the old one we’re forgetting.

In the case of the language model, this is where we’d actually drop the information about the old subject’s gender and add the new information, as we decided in the previous steps.

Then, we put the cell state through \(\tanh\) (to push the values to be between \(-1\) and \(1\)) and multiply it by the output of the sigmoid gate, so that we only output the parts we decided to.

For the language model example, since it just saw a subject, it might want to output information relevant to a verb, in case that’s what is coming next.

For example, it might output whether the subject is singular or plural, so that we know what form a verb should be conjugated into if that’s what follows next.

It combines the forget and input gates into a single “update gate.” It also merges the cell state and hidden state, and makes some other changes.

For example, if you are using an RNN to create a caption describing an image, it might pick a part of the image to look at for every word it outputs.

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## Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM): Concept

SOURCE LSTM is a recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture that REMEMBERS values over arbitrary intervals.

LSTM is well-suited to classify, process and predict time series given time lags of unknown duration.

Relative insensitivity to gap length gives an advantage to LSTM over alternative RNNs, hidden Markov models and other sequence learning methods.

If we want to predict the sequence after 1,000 intervals instead of 10, the model forgot the starting point by then.

Cell state is modified by the forget gate placed below the cell state and also adjust by the input modulation gate.

From equation, the previous cell state forgets by multiply with the forget gate and adds new information through the output of the input gates.

The output of the forget gate tells the cell state which information to forget by multiplying 0 to a position in the matrix.

Because the equation of the cell state is a summation between the previous cell state, sigmoid function alone will only add memory and not be able to remove/forget memory.

- On Monday, January 21, 2019

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