AI News, The Computer Revolution/Artificial Intelligence/Intelligence Agents
The Computer Revolution/Artificial Intelligence/Intelligence Agents
Intelligent agents-programs used to perform certain tasks to help make user’s work setting more effective or entertaining.
-Entertainment bots-their main task is to provide entertainment, in a form of an animated character to play games with or virtual pet to take care of.
-Application assistants-offer assistance or help with specific tasks, some of them can detect when user might have trouble with the program, and they automatically provide appropriate advice.
Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Information Systems
A system is a group of procedures and different elements that work together in order to complete a task.
Some information systems are meant to be used by all levels of employees while others are specifically designed to handle the needs of employees with certain responsibilities.
At the ground level, employees generally make job-related decisions that are based on 'on-the-job' input without having to consider how those decisions will affect other departments or employees in other positions.
These decisions are usually aimed at a farther sighted goal than those of Operational managers and often need more intelligence pulled from data systems in order to reach these objectives.
Middle managers might be more concerned with how to improve yearly gains and may use systems that will deliver more detailed information about specific locations of factories or retailers in certain states.
Even though there are many systems, the four that will be elaborated are the following: transaction processing systems, customer relationship management systems, business intelligence systems, and knowledge management systems.
This system helps businesses keep record of customer activities, purchasing trends, product defects, and customer inquiries.
Although they may seem simple because we use them everyday, Document Processing and Document/Content Management Systems can be very complicated when taken to a larger scale because it includes not only the organization and creation of a database, but also ensuring the security of the documents within the system.
Three types of widely used accounting systems are accounts payable systems, accounts receivable systems, and general ledger systems.
Accounts payable systems keep track of how much a seller owes a buyer, while accounts receivable systems keep track of how much a buyer owes a consumer.
An enterprise system is an integrated information system that is made to support business processes, information flows, reporting, and data analytics in complex organizations.
Some of these application processes may include sales and distribution, financial accounting, investment management, materials management, production planning, maintenance, and human resources.
An example would be a university or college that uses an enterprise system to manage all student records, enrollment applications and acceptance, finances, human resources, etc.
Many companies are starting to implement enterprise systems because it is an easy way to combine the core functions of the company with technological advancements.
It is an easy way because the enterprise system is a single software architecture that fuses all the core processes of a business to function as one unit.
The synchronized functioning of the processes makes it easier and more efficient to for multiple departments to work together and it is also helpful for managers as they can better oversee multiple tasks and project at one time.
It just refers to any 'process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information'—in other words, taking a lot of data about anything, including public information, and analyzing it with software to a useful end that can't easily be reached by a human alone.
For example, supermarkets regularly have computers analyze massive amounts of data on which items are more or less frequently purchased in which locations so that they can stock stores with items that will be purchased by more individuals in that store's location.
They also might change the prices of items slightly on certain days when those items are more commonly purchased, and they stock items close to one another that are often purchased together.
There are many other uses of data mining besides just these (which are examples that have actually occurred, not just hypothetical ones), but in general, data mining is most frequently used via corporations to cut costs or increase revenues.
Because prediction is the main goal, predictive data mining is the most common type of data mining, with popular and practical business application.
Begins with data preparation which may involve the cleaning and transformation of data, selecting subsets of records, or performing preliminary feature selection operations (to bring the number of variables or fields to a manageable range).
It also may involve simple, straightforward predictors for a regression model, in order to identify the most relevant factors and determine the complexity, and/or a general nature of models.
Involves considering various models and choosing the best one based on their predictive performance (offering stable results across samples).
Many techniques (Bagging, Boosting, Stacking, and Meta-Learning) developed to achieve this are based on so-called 'competitive evaluation of models,' which uses different models on the same data, analyzing their performance, and choosing the best.
Using the model selected as best in the previous stage and applying it to new data in order to generate predictions or estimates of the expected outcome.
CAM is used to control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturing of work pieces.CAM can also assist in all operations of a manufacturing plant, including planning, management, transportation and storage.
Compared to manual machines, there are several advantages to using CAM such as speed (CAM is faster because machining speeds are higher), greater accuracy, greater consistency (every finished product is the same), efficiency (production can run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) and sophistication (CAM is able to machine difficult shapes, eg tracks on a circuit boards).
You may not realize it, but whenever you fly on an airline, a massive amount of data has to go through a series of programs and locations and be approved before your flight can occur.
At a center, flight data information such as weather, weight, passenger information, and gate availability are all put together and interpreted to make a safe flight.
With constant advancement in technology pertaining to artificial intelligence, one would be well advised to seek out the possible effects of these “life like” computers.
Ray Kurzwell, author, inventor and futurist, proposes the idea that artificial intelligence, genetics, nanotechnology and robotics will soon result in a human-machine civilization.
He believes that in the not so near future, due to advancements in genetics that will allow for scientists to reprogram genes to eliminate disease and curb the aging process, man and machine will merge, “allowing one to transcend biological mortality.” Mr. Kurzwell may be a bit ahead of his time with his ideas and theories, but at the rate technology progresses in this age, it is hard to predict the heights it will reach.
Reinforcement learning is a process in which a computer works to answer a question or solve a problem and then associates the positive outcome of solving the problem with the actions it took to solve it.
Generative adversarial networks are systems consisting of one network that generates new data after learning from a training set, and another network that tries to discriminate between real and fake data producing realistic synthetic data.
Real-world uses for this could be to make video game scenery, to de-blur pixelated video footage, or to apply stylistic changes to computer-generated designs.
IBM Watson, developed by a research team led by David Ferrucci, is a question answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language.
Cognitive computing, with still no official definition, refers to hardware/software that mimics the functioning of the human brain and helps to improve human decision-making.
Business analysts make a strategic plan, look at the business model analysis, process design the organization's work, and then interpret for technical systems.
These steps are as follows: preliminary investigation, system analysis, system design, system acquisition, system implementation, and system maintenance.
The main point of doing a preliminary investigation is to determine what problems need to be fixed and what is the best way to go about solving those problems, if solutions do in fact exist.
This second step, system analysis, is used to investigate the problem on a larger scale and fine tune all the information a company has on the issue.
Use case diagrams are used to describe the behavior of the target system from an external point of view, while also illustrating the users who interact with the system.
As mentioned above, system analysis is the phase of system development where the problem area is fully studied in depth and the needs of system users are assessed.
The tools that will help accomplish this phase of collecting data and data analysis are entity-relationship diagrams (ERDs), data flow diagrams (DFDs), decision tables and decision trees, business process modeling notation (BPMN), and class diagrams and use case diagrams.
To describe the use of these tools in depth you will need to understand that any tools or processes used during this phase will aid in understanding the problems or issues of the current systems and how to improve them.
In addition to a data dictionary, the systems analyst also has to create input designs to help illustrate the input screens and other user interfaces that will be used to input data into the new system.
To ensure that the data is input accurately and secured against data loss, it is essential for the system design to contain some form of a security feature.
Also, an output design helps identify the specific outputs required to meet the information requirements, select methods required for presenting that information, and design reports, or other documents that carry the information.
Lastly, once the new system has finally been designed, a cost-benefit analysis is performed to determine whether the expected benefits (tangible or intangible benefits) of the new system are worth the expected cost.
The company, in order to make the most profit, should evaluate each bid and figure out which one has charged the lowest price while also reaching the necessary criteria for the company’s system.
Some determinants used for the test include examining for the amount of workload that a system is capable of processing, the capability of solving complex scientific problems using a range of computations, offering legitimate data for the system to process and viewing the performance and scalability of the software, and many more.
Sometimes benchmarks are not capable of being performed due to a company’s location or accessibility, but for the most part they are a great way to assist in evaluating which bid is the best.
There are four ways of converting data to new a system: direct conversion- the old system is deactivated and the new one is implemented right away;
System maintenance includes modifying existing software or adding completely new features to the existing software, as well as fixing any glitches or bugs and checking security.
Once a major change is determined to be the best option for a software, an organization must go through the system development life cycle again to replace the old system from scratch.
However, the exact sequence and tasks performed during each phase, and the names and number of the phases, may vary depending on the organization and the type of system being developed.
For example, smaller systems in smaller companies may skip or condense some activities, while other development projects may go back and repeat a previous step to refine the process before moving on.
The analyst focuses on three basic elements: the output that must be provided by the system, the source data, or input that the user will provide to the system, the processing needed to produce the output, given the input.
The fourth phase is system acquisition financial institutions should ensure that systems are developed, acquired, and maintained with appropriate security controls.
This leads us to the last step which is system implementation, in this phase, the production system is installed, initial user training is completed, user documentation is delivered, and the post implementation review meeting is held.
Installation the biggest aspect is that the entire system is planned and built and built before anyone gets to use it or test it, so every aspect to every phase is essential to the traditional approach for system development.
With that, the iterative approach acts as a response to the traditional development cycle, which is more likely to have “higher software costs and poor estimates of time and cost” due to the expense of changing a finished product.
As opposed to the iterative or traditional approach, which both focus on professional users, the end-user development approach is focused solely on configuring the development of the system and is often done using tools or programs.
Instead of having to be highly educated and a professional in the area of software or programming, someone trying to develop a simplistic and easy system can use these programming tools and develop something of their own.
This is usually used in small businesses, tasks, or daily projects, and is not something that an intricate business would ever use to run their day-to-day software programs.
support system: A type of information system typically used by upper management that provides people with the tools and capabilities to organize and analyze their decision making information. enterprise
information system: An information system that combines geographic information with other types of data (such as information about customers, sales, and so forth) in order to provide a better understanding of the relationships among the data. intelligent
agent: A program that performs specific tasks to help make a user’s work environment more efficient or entertaining and that typically modifies its behavior based on the user’s actions. management
lifecycle management (PLM) system: A system designed to manage a product as it moves through the various stages of its life cycle, from design to retirement. robot:
- On Friday, January 18, 2019
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