AI News, The Computer Revolution/Artificial Intelligence/Ethics

The Computer Revolution/Artificial Intelligence/Ethics

In the 1982 science fiction film Blade Runner, Harrison Ford plays Detective Rick Deckard, whose job is to identify and dispose of escapee 'replicants'.

Manufactured for work in a far off planet as laborers under conditions too hostile for humans, as their date of expiration nears, a number of the replicants rebel, escape the work colony, and return to Earth in search of their creator;

Behind the marvel of a manned shuttle that rockets into outer space to collect data for several years, the surreptitious download of spyware on a computer, the mass production of shoes, clothes, cars, animals ect., or the terrifying destruction of a cluster bomb, lies the question of human ethics.

Some unethical behavior doesn't necessarily mean it is an illegal activity, for example lying to a coworker cannot send anyone to jail but in recent years ethics has become very important when relating it to computers.

It’s important to make ethical decisions when dealing with copyrighted materials in web-based articles, movies, and with any use available of tools (work or library computers) and customer information.

Replicant

replicant is a fictional bioengineered or biorobotic android in the 1982 film Blade Runner, in its 2017 sequel Blade Runner 2049, and in the 1997 video game based on the film.

The 'Nexus' series of replicants are virtually identical to adult humans, but have superior strength, speed, agility, resilience, and intelligence, to varying degrees depending on the model.

Nexus 6 replicants also have a safety mechanism, namely a four-year lifespan, to prevent them from developing empathic abilities (and, therefore, immunity to the test).

Two weeks before the starting point of the film, six Nexus 6 replicants escaped the off-world colonies, killing 23 people and taking a shuttle to Earth;

the film focuses on the pursuit of the replicants by Rick Deckard, a category of police-officer bounty-hunter called a 'blade runner', who investigates, tests, and 'retires' (kills) replicants found on Earth.

The Tyrell Corporation 'began to recognize in them a strange obsession', and in order to be able to control them better, started to implant false memories into the replicants in order to give them the years of experiences that humans take for granted;

It revealed most significantly she was an experimental reproductive model of replicant (who ultimately had a daughter with Deckard) with a high degree of human organs in comparison to replicant parts.

Paul Sammon, author of Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner, has suggested in interviews that Deckard may be a Nexus 7, a new generation of replicant who possesses no superhuman strength or intelligence but does have neurological features that complete the illusion of humanity.

The film reveals that Deckard was able to naturally conceive a child with Rachael, and this was possible because she was an experimental prototype (designated 'Nexus-7'), the first and only attempt to design a replicant model capable of procreating on its own.

Niander Wallace, the sinister CEO of the company, captures Deckard and muses to him about how he met her and fell in love: Wallace thinks it sounds too perfect, and ponders if Deckard himself was 'designed' to fall in love with Rachael, as part of Tyrell's experiment to develop replicants that can procreate (in which case Deckard is a replicant) - but Wallace also admits that with Tyrell dead and the records destroyed, he'll never know, and it is equally possible that Tyrell never planned for Rachael and Deckard to fall in love (in which case, Deckard is probably human).

The film also shows that at least certain body parts of a replicant are separately engineered and assembled, as shown with Hannibal Chew, a genetic engineer who specifically made replicant eyes.

During the creation process of a replicant, their physical and mental capacities are separately ranked on a A to C system and designated for each replicant with the C level representing below normal human ability, B level being equal to a normal human and A being above normal human ability, the latter of which leads to superhuman physicality or genius level intelligence.

The sequel retroactively establishes that Rachael was part of a short-lived prototype line of replicants designated 'Nexus-7', which was not only intended as a test to make replicants more mentally stable with implanted memories, but to develop replicants capable of naturally conceiving children on their own (all other models before or since are sterile).

The Nexus-8 went into mass production, but a new wave of replicant rebellions occurred, culminating in rogue Nexus-8's detonating a nuclear weapon in orbit over the western United States, to create an electromagnetic pulse that wiped out all of the electronic records.

'The Blackout' destroyed most records about replicants, making it difficult for humans to track them down on Earth, but the terrorist attack led to mass purges and complete shutdown of Nexus-8 production (though many existing units were able to go into hiding in the chaos).

Wallace Corporation had solved a global food crisis with genetically modified crops, which combined with the demonstrated effectiveness of Nexus-9 programming, allowed him to successfully push for the ban on replicant production to be lifted.

By 2049, Nexus-9 replicants are extensively used across Earth and the off-world colonies, but they also necessitate special police units tasked with tracking down any that might go rogue, and any remaining Nexus-8's still in hiding (Nexus-7 was never mass-produced, and all the older models like Nexus-6 simply died of old age decades before).

Are Blade Runner’s Replicants “Human”? Descartes and Locke Have Some Thoughts

“You’re in a desert, walking along in the sand, when all of a sudden you look down and you see a tortoise …

The tortoise lays on its back, its belly baking in the hot sun, beating its legs trying to turn itself over, but it can’t.

Perhaps nothing is more emblematic of Ridley Scott’s 1982 dystopian film Blade Runner than the Voight-Kampff test administered by the movie’s titular law enforcers, including Harrison Ford as Rick Deckard.

The series of questions in the fictional test, such as the one above, are designed to separate out humans from replicants by provoking a physiological response indicating empathy.

Part of the reason for the original movie’s enduring popularity is Deckard’s personal struggle, one that plays out similarly in movies like Her and shows like “Westworld”: Who or what counts as human, especially in a world of advanced technology?

*** For the ancient Greeks, machines made by gods or exceptionally talented humans often fooled people into believing the androids were authentic, writes Adrienne Mayor in Aeon.

All this is to say that concerns over how to distinguish flesh-and-blood humans from machines that merely look human (and deciding whether those machines pose a threat to us Homo sapiens) isn’t limited to modern times.

We’ve always wondered whether all humans really are what they seem to be—which is why Enlightenment philosophers spent so much time dissecting the question of what makes a human, human.

“If there were machines bearing images of our bodies, and capable of imitating our actions as far as it is morally possible, there would still remain two most certain tests whereby to know that they were not therefore really men,”

Since we can’t read minds or see any physical evidence of them, thinkers like German philosopher Theodor Lipps have argued we can perceive that others feel and act as we do through the power of empathy.

“If we someday create robots with human-like cognitive and emotional capacities, we owe them more moral consideration than we would normally owe to otherwise similar human beings,”

But we’ve made plenty of advances in artificial intelligence, from self-driving cars learning to adapt to human error to neural networks that argue with each other to get smarter.

This year, Schneider published a paper on the test she developed with astrophysicist Edwin Turner to discover whether a mechanical being might actually be conscious.

Like the Voight-Kampff test, it is based on a series of questions, but instead of demanding the presence of empathy—feelings directed towards another—it looks at feelings about being a self.

In this earlier test, a judge would engage in a digital conversation with the participant (like what you’d experience today in chatrooms), asking questions to discern whether the respondent was human or a machine.

The Turing test is interested in assessing the verisimilitude between a machine’s response and a human’s response, not with understanding whether the machine is sentient or not.

It’s important for scientists to confer with philosophers—which many already do, Schneider says—but also for members of the public to think through the repercussions of this type of technology.

Is Deckard a Replicant? The history of Blade Runner's most enduring mystery

The scene shows Deckard and Rachael driving through a beautiful landscape – far from the film's overcrowded vision of LA – while a saxophone purrs smooth jazz on the soundtrack.

Fanchard's original script was meant to include another replicant, a maternal character called Mary, but she was written out of the movie in pre-production – and none of the editors noticed the numbers no longer added up.

Fan Feed

replicant is a fictional bioengineered or biorobotic android appearing in the 1982 film Blade Runner, in its 2017 sequel Blade Runner 2049 and in the 1997 video game based on the film.

The 'Nexus' series of replicants are virtually identical to adult humans, but have superior strength, speed, agility, resilience and intelligence to varying degrees depending on the model.

In the film, the replicants represent the role of machine, whereas Deckard, the blade runner, takes the role of the human.

The science-fiction movie fully proves that the world that we imagine as perfect has a lot negative impact to human origin.

Animal replicants (animoids) were developed first for use as pets and beasts of burden after most real animals became extinct.

Nexus-6 replicants also have a safety mechanism, namely a four-year lifespan, to prevent them from developing empathic abilities (and, therefore, immunity to the test).

Tyrell sought to change this by gifting replicant with a past through implanted memories and therefore creating an emotional cushion that would make them far more controllable.

This following essay critically explains the relationship between science fiction and the contemporary life of the viewer according to Blade Runner (Scott 1982).

A screen short from the film Blade Runner (Scott 1982) will be used as a visual example to reinforce the understanding of the terms’ utopia and dystopia with a specific reference.

It revealed most significantly she was an experimental reproductive model of replicant (who ultimately had a daughter to Deckard) with a high degree of human organs in comparison to replicant parts.

As she died during childbirth, of complications related to a caesarean section, it remains uncertain if she could have lived beyond the four years.

The image shows Deckard who plays the role of the detective hanging from a ledge, and Roy who is a replicant leaning over the ledge saving Deckard’s life by pulling him up Blade Runner (Scott:1982).

In Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, the android manufacturer, known as the Rosen Corporation, did not know how to manufacture an android capable of living beyond four years.

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