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While AI Is All the Rage, What Is Neuroscience Up To?
In fields as diverse as speech and image recognition, factory automation, stock trading and fraud detection, AI is pushing the envelope every day.
It is being considered the backbone of the impending Fourth Industrial Revolution, which has spawned fears of large-scale disappearance of blue-collar and even white-collar jobs, coupled with predictions of global social unrest.
Henry Kissinger, Bill Gates and Elon Musk, among others, have voiced their concerns about the ethical and moral quandaries posed by AI, but a closer examination reveals that advances in neurosciences have more profound implications for humanity.
Cellular imaging illuminates the neurons that are electrically active almost instantaneously as the brain is performing various tasks, allowing us to see how information flows to and from various parts of the brain in real-time.
In the ongoing debate about Harvard University’s bias against Asian Americans in their admission policy, documents revealed that Harvard consistently rates Asian Americans lower than others on “personal traits” like courage and likability in spite of their higher-than-average scores in SATs and ACTs.
These standardized tests presumably assess attention and working memory capabilities, claiming that the scores are reliable predictors of future success.
Numerous studies have already established that areas like the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) play a critical role in tasks that demand high levels of attention and working memory.
A series of experiments on prairie voles and montane voles — both rodent species — suggests that preference for single vs.
Some of the earliest neuroscientific studies of politics showed that, once again, the structure of ACC and its electrical activity during a specific cognitive task predicted the political leanings of study subjects with reasonable accuracy.
Several experiments have strengthened the conclusions, so much so that brain responses to a single disgusting, non-political visual stimulus were sufficient to accurately predict the volunteer’s political leaning.
If casual brain scans become affordable and political consultants get access to them, legally or otherwise, we will enter a whole new era of political messaging, microtargeting and controlling masses.
In 2008, neuroscientists at Stanford University demonstrated how genetically modifying a specific part of a mouse brain to make it light-sensitive, and then shining a light on it, allows us to control when it runs with a flip of a switch.
AI Is Getting Better Than Humans at Catching Cancer
Artificial intelligence can diagnose breast cancer with greater accuracy than human radiologist, according to study published in Nature where Google Health programmers explained their findings and methods.
It’s not clear how this works in a modern healthcare climate where we understand that early breast cancers are overdiagnosed, leading to overtreatment that can cause health complications in people who would otherwise never need treatment.
Google Health compared its algorithm’s results with the first human reader’s results in order to see if they came to the same conclusion, and they say they believe a well-made algorithm could eliminate the need for a second radiologist.
Hopefully, a medical system infused with human critical thinking and AI-powered analysis can better battle one of the most deadliest forms of cancer in human history.
These 6 Incredible Discoveries From The Past Decade Have Changed Science Forever
From finding the building blocks for life on Mars to breakthroughs in gene editing and the rise of artificial intelligence, here are six major scientific discoveries that shaped the 2010s - and what leading experts say could come next We don't yet know whether there was ever life on Mars - but thanks to a small, six-wheeled robot, we do know the Red Planet was habitable.
(Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration) 'What I predict is that by the end of the next decade, we will be making high quality real-time movies of black holes that reveal not just how they look, but how they act on the cosmic stage,' Shep Doeleman, the project's director, told AFP.
The collision of two black holes 1.3 billion years earlier was so powerful it spread waves throughout the cosmos that bend space and travel at the speed of light.
wave of drugs have hit the market since the mid-2010s for more and more types of cancer including melanomas, lymphomas, leukemias and lung cancers - heralding what some oncologists hope could be a golden era.
Scientists sequenced the DNA of a female juvenile's finger bone in 2010, finding it was distinct both from genetically modern humans and Neanderthals, our most famous ancient cousins who lived alongside us until around 40,000 years ago.
We also learned that, unlike previously assumed, Homo sapiens bred extensively with Neanderthals - and our relatives were not the brutish simpletons previously assumed but were responsible for artworks, such as the handprints in a Spanish cave they were credited for crafting in 2018.
Advances in DNA testing have led to a revolution in our ability to sequence genetic material tens of thousands of years old, helping unravel ancient migrations, like that of the Bronze Age herders who left the steppes 5,000 years ago, spreading Indo-European languages to Europe and Asia.
It is the technology behind some of the most eye-catching breakthroughs of the decade: from Google's AlphaGo, which beat the world champion of the fiendishly difficult game Go in 2017, to the advent of real-time voice translations and advanced facial recognition on Facebook.
In 2016, for example, Google Translate - launched a decade earlier - transformed from a service that provided results that were stilted at best, nonsensical at worst, to one that offered translations that were far more natural and accurate.
'In applied research, I think AI has the potential to power new methods for scientific discovery,' from enhancing the strength of materials to discovering new drugs and even making breakthroughs in physics, Kautz said.
For Max Jaderberg, a research scientist at DeepMind, owned by Google's parent company Alphabet, the next big leap will come via 'algorithms that can learn to discover information, and rapidly adapt and internalize and act on this new knowledge,' as opposed to depending on humans to feed them the correct data.
- On 16. oktober 2021
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