AI News, Stanford scientists combine satellite data, machine learning to map poverty
- On Tuesday, June 5, 2018
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Stanford scientists combine satellite data, machine learning to map poverty
“We have a limited number of surveys conducted in scattered villages across the African continent, but otherwise we have very little local-level information on poverty,” said study co-author Marshall Burke, an assistant professor of Earth system science at Stanford and a fellow at the Center on Food Security and the Environment.
“At the same time, we collect all sorts of other data in these areas – like satellite imagery – constantly.” The researchers sought to understand whether high-resolution satellite imagery – an unconventional but readily available data source – could inform estimates of where impoverished people live.
“This makes it hard to extract useful information from the huge amount of daytime satellite imagery that’s available.” Because areas that are brighter at night are usually more developed, the solution involved combining high-resolution daytime imagery with images of Earth at night.
“And since it’s cheap and scalable – requiring only satellite images – it could be used to map poverty around the world in a very low-cost way.” Co-authors of the study, titled “Combining satellite imagery and machine learning to predict poverty”, include Michael Xie from Stanford’s Department of Computer Science and David Lobell and W.
Satellite images of Earth help us predict poverty better than ever
The newest way to accurately predict poverty comes from satellite images and machine learning.
Scientists at Stanford University fed a computer three data sources — night light images, daytime images, and actual survey data — to build an algorithm that predicts how rich or poor any given area is.
“The idea is that if we train our models right, they help us predict poverty in areas where we don’t have the surveys,” he says, “which will help out aid orgs that are working on this issue.” Using night lights to predict poverty provides important information about the economic growth of different countries, says Simon Franklin, an economics researcher at the London School of Economics who was not involved with the study.
“So if you use nighttime lights only to try to find these people, since there’s no variation in nighttime lights you can’t predict any variation in poverty.” Daytime imagery creates a fuller picture.
Building the algorithm took a two-step process called “transfer learning.” First, researchers showed a neural network daytime and nighttime images of five African countries: Uganda, Tanzania, Nigeria, Malawi, and Rwanda.
But there isn’t much survey data, so using deep learning to connect daytime images and poverty information wouldn’t create a very accurate algorithm.
If you show it two pictures of cats and one picture of a bird, it might later identify a dog as a cat because they’re about the same size and both furry with four legs.
“Dirt isn’t the same, but they learn transferable skills that they can apply to the actual task, which is competing on ice in a real bobsled.” Transfer learning is the most accurate way of predicting average household consumption and wealth of villages.
There are very rich areas and very poor areas within any given city, but it’s harder to tell the difference in urban areas by using daytime imagery alone.
But this method is cheap and easy to scale, since all the images were from the public domain, so the next step is training it to work on other countries and better map poverty across the world.
Using Machine Learning to Map Poverty from Satellite Imagery
From water levels to population density, suburban sprawl to the species of trees growing in individual forests around the world, satellite imagery can map a nearly unlimited amount of data.
By using satellite imagery the amount of work on the ground is reduced, which also reduces costs and risk factors associated with working in poverty-stricken parts of the world.
The same picture can be used for a nearly unlimited number of purposes by any organization with access to the satellite images and the ability to analyze the data contained within.
these indicators include access to water, location in comparison to an urban center and food sources, and if agriculture is viable part of the economy nearby.
People looking at thousands of images would take a long time, and people may miss some of the important big picture data when they were looking at such small images.
- On Friday, February 28, 2020
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