AI News, Sandia Preparatory School artificial intelligence

Although some early efforts have been undertaken in this direction, most notably, in attempting to prohibit the deployment of fully autonomous weapons systems, far more work is needed to gauge the impacts of these technologies and to forge new or revised control mechanisms as deemed appropriate.

“We are in the midst of an ever accelerating and expanding global revolution in [AI] and machine learning, with enormous implications for future economic and military competitiveness,” declared former U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Robert Work, a prominent advocate for Pentagon utilization of the new technologies.1 The Department of Defense is spending billions of dollars on AI, robotics, and other cutting-edge technologies, contending that the United States must maintain leadership in the development and utilization of those technologies lest its rivals use them to secure a future military advantage.

These include, for example, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned surface and subsurface naval vessels capable of being assembled in swarms, or “wolfpacks,” to locate enemy assets such as tanks, missile launchers, submarines and, if communications are lost with their human operators, decide to strike them on their own.

Even more worrisome, some of the weapons now in development, such as unmanned anti-submarine wolfpacks and the TBG system, could theoretically endanger the current equilibrium in nuclear relations among the major powers, which rests on the threat of assured retaliation by invulnerable second-strike forces, by opening or seeming to open various first-strike options.

In the future, AI-invested machines may be empowered to determine if a nuclear attack is underway and, if so, initiate a retaliatory strike.4 In this sense, AI is an “omni-use” technology, with multiple implications for war-fighting and arms control.5 Many analysts believe that AI will revolutionize warfare by allowing military commanders to bolster or, in some cases, replace their personnel with a wide variety of “smart” machines.

This could provide an advantage on the battlefield, where rapid and informed action could prove the key to success, but also raises numerous concerns, especially regarding nuclear “crisis stability.” Analysts worry that machines will accelerate the pace of fighting beyond human comprehension and possibly take actions that result in the unintended escalation of hostilities, even leading to use of nuclear weapons.

“Even if everything functioned properly, policymakers could nevertheless effectively lose the ability to control escalation as the speed of action on the battlefield begins to eclipse their speed of decision-making,” writes Paul Scharre, who is director of the technology and national security program at the Center for a New American Security.6 As AI-equipped machines assume an ever-growing number and range of military functions, policymakers will have to determine what safeguards are needed to prevent unintended, possibly catastrophic consequences of the sort suggested by Scharre and many others.

Many other such munitions are now in development, including undersea drones intended for anti-submarine warfare and entire fleets of UAVs designed for use in “swarms,” or flocks of armed drones that twist and turn above the battlefield in coordinated maneuvers that are difficult to follow.8 The deployment of fully autonomous weapons systems poses numerous challenges to international security and arms control, beginning with a potentially insuperable threat to the laws of war and international humanitarian law.

Opponents of lethal autonomous weapons systems argue that only humans possess the necessary judgment to make such fine distinctions in the heat of battle and that machines will never be made intelligent enough to do so and thus should be banned from deployment.9 At this point, some 25 countries have endorsed steps to enact such a ban in the form of a protocol to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW).

Several other nations, including the United States and Russia, oppose a ban on lethal autonomous weapons systems, saying they can be made compliant with international humanitarian law.10 Looking further into the future, autonomous weapons systems could pose a potential threat to nuclear stability by investing their owners with a capacity to detect, track, and destroy enemy submarines and mobile missile launchers.

Today’s stability, which can be seen as an uneasy nuclear balance of terror, rests on the belief that each major power possesses at least some devastating second-strike, or retaliatory, capability, whether mobile launchers for intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), or both, that are immune to real-time detection and safe from a first strike.

Such an environment would erode the underlying logic of today’s strategic nuclear arms control measures, that is, the preservation of deterrence and stability with ever-diminishing numbers of warheads and launchers, and would require new or revised approaches to war prevention and disarmament.11 Hypersonic Weapons Proposed hypersonic weapons, which can travel at a speed of more than five time the speed of sound, or more than 5,000 kilometers per hour, generally fall into two categories: hypersonic glide vehicles and hypersonic cruise missiles, either of which could be armed with nuclear or conventional warheads.

for the full-scale development of a hypersonic air-launched cruise missile, tentatively called the Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon.12 Russia, for its part, is developing a hypersonic glide vehicle it calls the Avangard, which it claims will be ready for deployment by the end of 2019, and China in August announced a successful test of the Starry Sky-2 hypersonic glide vehicle described as capable of carrying a nuclear weapon.13 Whether armed with conventional or nuclear warheads, hypersonic weapons pose a variety of challenges to international stability and arms control.

Anti-missile systems that may work against existing threats might not be able to track and engage hypersonic vehicles, potentially allowing an aggressor to contemplate first-strike disarming attacks on nuclear or conventional forces while impelling vulnerable defenders to adopt a launch-on-warning policy.14 Some analysts warn that the mere acquisition of such weapons could “increase the expectation of a disarming attack.” Such expectations “encourage the threatened nations to take such actions as devolution of command-and-control of strategic forces, wider dispersion of such forces, a launch-on-warning posture, or a policy of preemption during a crisis.” In short, “hypersonic threats encourage hair-trigger tactics that would increase crisis instability.”15 The development of hypersonic weaponry poses a significant threat to the core principle of assured retaliation, on which today’s nuclear strategies and arms control measures largely rest.

Moreover, in the event of a crisis or approaching hostilities, cyberattacks could be launched on an adversary’s early-warning, communications, and command and control systems, significantly impairing its response capabilities.17 For all these reasons, cybersecurity, or the protection of cyberspace from malicious attack, has become a major national security priority.18 Cybersecurity, as perceived by U.S. leaders, can take two forms: defensive action aimed at protecting one’s own information infrastructure against attack;

Although battles in this domain are said to fall below the threshold of armed combat (so long, of course, as no one is killed as a result), it is not difficult to conceive of skirmishes in cyberspace that erupt into violent conflict, for example if cyberattacks result in the collapse of critical infrastructure, such as the electric grid or the banking system.

A group of governmental experts was convened by the UN General Assembly to investigate the adoption of norms and rules for international behavior in cyberspace, but failed to reach agreement on measures that would satisfy all major powers.20 More importantly, it is essential to consider how combat in cyberspace might spill over into the physical world, triggering armed combat and possibly hastening the pace of escalation.

The United States, it affirmed, would only consider using nuclear weapons in “extreme circumstances,” which could include attacks “on U.S. or allied nuclear forces, their command and control, or warning and attack assessment capabilities.”21 The policy of other states in this regard is not so clearly stated, but similar protocols undoubtedly exist.

Some analysts have suggested that the Missile Technology Control Regime could be used as a model for a mechanism intended to prevent the proliferation of hypersonic weapons technology.23 Finally, as the above discussion suggests, it will be necessary to devise entirely new approaches to arms control that are designed to overcome dangers of an unprecedented sort.

Department of Psychology

 Designing neural networks using genetic algorithms.

 Exploring adaptive agency I: Theory and methods for simulating the evolution of learning.

 Exploring adaptive agency II: Simulating the evolution of associative learning.

Exploring adaptive agency III: Simulating the evolution of habituation and sensitization.

Let evolution take care of its own (Commentary on Clark, ‘Modeling behavioral adaptations.).

Two dynamic criteria  for validating claims of optimality (Commentary on Schoemaker, ‘The quest for optimality.) Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14(2): 228-229. 

An objective criterion for apparent motion based on phase discrimination.

Parental guidance suggested: How parental imprinting evolves through sexual selection as an adaptive learning mechanism.

Evolution of the human brain through runaway sexual selection: The mind as a protean courtship device.

Dynamic mental representations of animate motion: The interplay among evolutionary, cognitive, and behavioural dynamics.

Evolutionary wanderlust: Sexual selection with directional mate preferences.

Protean behavior in dynamic games: Arguments for the co-evolution of pursuit-evasion tactics in simulated robots.

Exploiting mate choice in evolutionary computation: Sexual selection as a process of search, optimization, and diversification.

The use of genetic algorithms for the development of sensorimotor control systems.

Beyond shared fate: Group-selected mechanisms for cooperation and competition in fuzzy, fluid vehicles (Commentary on Wilson &

Review of The adapted mind edited by Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby,  Adaptive Behavior, 3(1), 83-95. 

Artificial life as theoretical biology: How to do real science with computer simulation.

Tracking the Red Queen: Methods for measuring co-evolutionary progress in open-ended simulations.

The role of mate choice in biocomputation: Sexual selection as a process of search, optimization, and diversification.

 Human simulation of adaptive behavior: Interactive studies of pursuit, evasion, courtship, fighting, and play.

 Artificial evolution: A new path for artificial intelligence?

Protean primates:  The evolution of adaptive unpredictability in competition and courtship.

 Mate choice: From sexual cues to cognitive adaptations.

Cardew (Ed.), Characterizing human psychological adaptations (Ciba Foundation Symposium 208) (pp.

 How mate choice shaped human nature: A review of sexual selection and human evolution.

Krebs (Eds.), Handbook of evolutionary psychology: Ideas, issues, and applications (pp.

How motion reveals intention: Categorizing social interactions.

Brockman (Ed.), The greatest inventions of the last 2,000 years (pp.

 Mental traits as fitness indicators: Expanding evolutionary psychology’s adaptationism.

Moller (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on human reproductive behavior (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 907) (pp.

 Alas, poor scholarship (Review of Alas, poor Darwin: Arguments against evolutionary psychology edited by Hilary Rose &

 Aesthetic fitness: How sexual selection shaped artistic virtuosity as a fitness indicator and aesthetic preferences as mate choice criteria.

Fear of fitness indicators: How to deal with our ideological anxieties about the role of sexual selection in the origins of human culture.

 In Being human: Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Royal Society of New Zealand (Miscellaneous series 63) (pp.

 Schizophrenia as one extreme of a sexually selected fitness indicator.

 Intelligence tests with higher g-loadings show higher correlations with body symmetry: Evidence for a general fitness factor mediated by developmental stability.

 Accurate judgments of intention from motion cues alone: A cross-cultural study.

 Women’s fertility across the cycle increases the short-term attractiveness of creative intelligence.

 Which evolutionary genetic models best explain the persistence of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders? 

The evolutionary psychology of human mate choice: How ecology, genes, fertility, and fashion influence our mating behavior.

 Debating sexual selection and mating strategies (Commentary on Roughgarden, Oishi, &

Akcay, Reproductive social behaviour: Cooperative games to replace sexual selection.)  Science, 312(5774), 693. 

The evolution of human intelligence and the coefficient of additive genetic variance in human brain size.

 Reconciling evolutionary psychology and ecological psychology: How to perceive fitness affordances.

 Schizotypy versus intelligence and openness as predictors of creativity.

 Evidence of a latitudinal gradient in the age of onset of schizophrenia.

 Blatant benevolence and conspicuous consumption: When romantic motives elicit costly displays.

 The functional design of depression’s influence on attention: A preliminary test of alternative control-process mechanisms.

Ovulatory cycle effects on tip earnings by lap-dancers: Economic evidence for human estrus?

Simpson (Eds.), The evolution of human mind: Fundamental questions and controversies (pp.

Miller (Eds.), Mating intelligence: Sex, relationships, and the mind’s reproductive system, pp.

Miller (Eds.), Mating intelligence: Sex, relationships, and the mind’s reproductive system (pp.

(Eds.), Mating intelligence: Sex, relationships, and the mind’s reproductive system (pp.

Miller (Eds.), Mating intelligence: Sex, relationships, and the mind’s reproductive system (Chapter 1, pp.

The evolutionary psychology of human mate choice: How ecology, genes, fertility, and fashion influence our mating behavior.

 Mutual mate choice can drive ornament evolution even under perfect monogamy.

Dissing oneself versus dissing rivals: Effects of status, personality, and sex on the short-term and long-term attractiveness of self-deprecating and other-deprecating humor.

 Autism as the low-fitness extreme of a parentally selected fitness indicator.

Sex differences in detecting sexual infidelity: Results of a maximum likelihood method for analyzing the sensitivity of sex differences to underreporting.

 Genetic admixture, self-reported ethnicity, self-estimated admixture, and skin pigmentation among Hispanics and Native Americans.

 The Big Five personality traits of professional comedians compared to amateur comedians, comedy writers, and college students.

 Biochemical pathways common to sperm and neuron function, and their vulnerability to pleiotropic mutations.

 Does a fitness factor contribute to the association between intelligence and health outcomes?

 Are polygenic mutations and Holocene selective sweeps the only evolutionary-genetic processes left for explaining heritable variation in human psychological traits?

 Humor ability reveals intelligence, predicts mating success, and is higher in males.

Female orgasm rates are largely independent of other traits: Implications for “female orgasmic disorder”

 Personality traits, intelligence, humor styles, and humor production ability of professional stand-up comedians compared to college students.

Brockman (Ed.), This will make you smarter: New scientific concepts to improve your thinking, pp.

 Perception of facial attractiveness requires some attentional capacity:  Implications for the “automaticity”

 The heritability and genetic correlates of mobile phone use: A twin study of consumer behaviour.

Childhood experiences of professional comedians: Peer and parent relationships and humor use.

Trauma and sex surveys meet minimal risk standards: Implications for Institutional Review Boards.

Women who prefer longer penises are more likely to have vaginal orgasms (but not clitoral orgasms): Implications for an evolutionary theory of vaginal orgasm.

Mutual mate choice models as the Red Pill in evolutionary psychology: Long delayed, much needed, ideologically challenging, and hard to swallow.

Twenty-seven thoughts about multiple selves, sustainable consumption, and human evolution (pp.

Women’s preferences for penis size: A new method using selection among 3D-printed models.

Do some students need special protection from research on sex and trauma?

New evidence for young adult resilience in “sensitive topics”

Clitorally stimulated orgasms are associated with better control of sexual desire, and not associated with depression or anxiety, compared with vaginally stimulated orgasms.

Pojo-SFIS at Espanola valley scrimmage

Pojoaque and Santa Fe Indian School face off in pool play of the Española Valley scrimmage on Saturday.

A. Richard Newton Distinguished Innovator Lecture Series - Amy Herr

Dr. Amy E. Herr, Distinguished Professor of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley and recently recognized with the 2016 Mid-Career Achievement ...