# AI News, Role of Bias in Neural Networks

- On Sunday, September 30, 2018
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## Role of Bias in Neural Networks

in the activation functions.1 The reason it's impractical is because you're simultaneously adjusting the weight and the value, so any change to the weight can neutralize the change to the value that was useful for a previous data instance...

adding a bias neuron without a changing value allows you to control the behavior of the layer.

Furthermore the bias allows you to use a single neural net to represent similar cases.

Consider the AND boolean function represented by the following neural network: ANN http://www.aihorizon.com/images/essays/perceptron.gif A

the weights w0 = -3, and w1 = w2 = .5.

m = 1 and the AND function to m = n.

Machine Learning- Tom Mitchell) The threshold is the bias and w0 is the weight associated with the bias/threshold neuron.

- On Sunday, September 30, 2018
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## Perceptron

In machine learning, the perceptron is an algorithm for supervised learning of binary classifiers (functions that can decide whether an input, represented by a vector of numbers, belongs to some specific class or not).[1]

a classification algorithm that makes its predictions based on a linear predictor function combining a set of weights with the feature vector.

perceptron was intended to be a machine, rather than a program, and while its first implementation was in software for the IBM 704, it was subsequently implemented in custom-built hardware as the 'Mark 1 perceptron'.

This machine was designed for image recognition: it had an array of 400 photocells, randomly connected to the 'neurons'.

In a 1958 press conference organized by the US Navy, Rosenblatt made statements about the perceptron that caused a heated controversy among the fledgling AI community;

based on Rosenblatt's statements, The New York Times reported the perceptron to be 'the embryo of an electronic computer that [the Navy] expects will be able to walk, talk, see, write, reproduce itself and be conscious of its existence.'[4]

Although the perceptron initially seemed promising, it was quickly proved that perceptrons could not be trained to recognise many classes of patterns.

This caused the field of neural network research to stagnate for many years, before it was recognised that a feedforward neural network with two or more layers (also called a multilayer perceptron) had far greater processing power than perceptrons with one layer (also called a single layer perceptron).[dubious 

(See the page on Perceptrons (book) for more information.) Three years later Stephen Grossberg published a series of papers introducing networks capable of modelling differential, contrast-enhancing and XOR functions.

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While the complexity of biological neuron models is often required to fully understand neural behavior, research suggests a perceptron-like linear model can produce some behavior seen in real neurons [7][8].

In the modern sense, the perceptron is an algorithm for learning a binary classifier: a function that maps its input x (a real-valued vector) to an output value

i

=

1

m

i

i

(0 or 1) is used to classify x as either a positive or a negative instance, in the case of a binary classification problem.

The most famous example of the perceptron's inability to solve problems with linearly nonseparable vectors is the Boolean exclusive-or problem.

In the context of neural networks, a perceptron is an artificial neuron using the Heaviside step function as the activation function.

The perceptron algorithm is also termed the single-layer perceptron, to distinguish it from a multilayer perceptron, which is a misnomer for a more complicated neural network.

Alternatively, methods such as the delta rule can be used if the function is non-linear and differentiable, although the one below will work as well.

When multiple perceptrons are combined in an artificial neural network, each output neuron operates independently of all the others;

These weights are immediately applied to a pair in the training set, and subsequently updated, rather than waiting until all pairs in the training set have undergone these steps.

The perceptron is a linear classifier, therefore it will never get to the state with all the input vectors classified correctly if the training set D is not linearly separable, i.e.

In this case, no 'approximate' solution will be gradually approached under the standard learning algorithm, but instead learning will fail completely.

x

j

{\displaystyle \mathbf {w} \cdot \mathbf {x} _{j}>\gamma }

j

x

j

{\displaystyle \mathbf {w} \cdot \mathbf {x} _{j}<-\gamma }

j

2

2

The idea of the proof is that the weight vector is always adjusted by a bounded amount in a direction with which it has a negative dot product, and thus can be bounded above by O(√t), where t is the number of changes to the weight vector.

However, it can also be bounded below by O(t) because if there exists an (unknown) satisfactory weight vector, then every change makes progress in this (unknown) direction by a positive amount that depends only on the input vector.

While the perceptron algorithm is guaranteed to converge on some solution in the case of a linearly separable training set, it may still pick any solution and problems may admit many solutions of varying quality.[11]

The perceptron of optimal stability, nowadays better known as the linear support vector machine, was designed to solve this problem (Krauth and Mezard, 1987)[12].

The pocket algorithm with ratchet (Gallant, 1990) solves the stability problem of perceptron learning by keeping the best solution seen so far 'in its pocket'.

However, these solutions appear purely stochastically and hence the pocket algorithm neither approaches them gradually in the course of learning, nor are they guaranteed to show up within a given number of learning steps.

In the linearly separable case, it will solve the training problem – if desired, even with optimal stability (maximum margin between the classes).

In all cases, the algorithm gradually approaches the solution in the course of learning, without memorizing previous states and without stochastic jumps.

The algorithm starts a new perceptron every time an example is wrongly classified, initializing the weights vector with the final weights of the last perceptron.

Each perceptron will also be given another weight corresponding to how many examples do they correctly classify before wrongly classifying one, and at the end the output will be a weighted vote on all perceptron.

The so-called perceptron of optimal stability can be determined by means of iterative training and optimization schemes, such as the Min-Over algorithm (Krauth and Mezard, 1987)[12]

The perceptron of optimal stability, together with the kernel trick, are the conceptual foundations of the support vector machine.

-perceptron further used a pre-processing layer of fixed random weights, with thresholded output units.

Another way to solve nonlinear problems without using multiple layers is to use higher order networks (sigma-pi unit).

In this type of network, each element in the input vector is extended with each pairwise combination of multiplied inputs (second order).

Indeed, if we had the prior constraint that the data come from equi-variant Gaussian distributions, the linear separation in the input space is optimal, and the nonlinear solution is overfitted.

≈Learning again iterates over the examples, predicting an output for each, leaving the weights unchanged when the predicted output matches the target, and changing them when it does not.

a

r

g

m

a

x

y

In recent years, perceptron training has become popular in the field of natural language processing for such tasks as part-of-speech tagging and syntactic parsing (Collins, 2002).

- On Sunday, September 30, 2018
- By Read More

## Role of Bias in Neural Networks

in the activation functions.1 The reason it's impractical is because you're simultaneously adjusting the weight and the value, so any change to the weight can neutralize the change to the value that was useful for a previous data instance...

adding a bias neuron without a changing value allows you to control the behavior of the layer.

Furthermore the bias allows you to use a single neural net to represent similar cases.

Consider the AND boolean function represented by the following neural network: ANN http://www.aihorizon.com/images/essays/perceptron.gif A

the weights w0 = -3, and w1 = w2 = .5.

m = 1 and the AND function to m = n.

Machine Learning- Tom Mitchell) The threshold is the bias and w0 is the weight associated with the bias/threshold neuron.

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