AI News, Robotics/Types of Robots/Wheeled

Robotics/Types of Robots/Wheeled

Wheeled robots are robots that navigate around the ground using motorized wheels to propel themselves.

This design is simpler than using treads or legs and by using wheels they are easier to design, build, and program for movement in flat, not-so-rugged terrain.

The center of gravity of the robot body is kept below the axle, usually this is accomplished by mounting the batteries below the body.

A tilt sensor that is used to determine tilt angle and wheel encoders which keep track of the position of the platform of the robot.

It was unique because of its motorcycle design, unlike the other two-wheeled robots, the wheel alignment is front and back, which makes it harder to balance as it turns.

3-wheeled robots may be of two types: differentially steered (2 powered wheels with an additional free rotating wheel to keep the body in balance) or 2 wheels powered by a single source and a powered steering for the third wheel.

In the case of differentially steered wheels, the robot direction may be changed by varying the relative rate of rotation of the two separately driven wheels.

An omni wheel is like many smaller wheels making up a large one, the smaller ones have axis perpendicular to the axis of the core wheel.

Advantages of using 3 wheels and not 4 are that its cheaper, and 3 points are guaranteed to be on the same plane, so each wheel in contact with the ground, but only one wheel will be rotating in the direction of travel.

The disadvantages of using Omni wheels is that they have poor efficiency due to not all the wheels rotating in the direction of movement, which also causes loss from friction, and are more computationally complex because of the angle calculations of movement.

More stable than the three wheel version since the center of gravity has to remain inside the rectangle formed by the four wheels instead of a triangle.

Still it's advisable to keep the center of gravity to the middle of the rectangle as this is the most stable configuration, especially when taking sharp turns or moving over a non-level surface.

The previous methods would require either 2 motors or a very complicated gearbox, since they require 2 output axles with independent speed and direction of rotation.

Differences in speed between the left and right wheels in differentially steered robots cause the robot to move to the side instead of in a straight line.

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