AI News, Robotics/Components/Power Sources
- On Thursday, October 4, 2018
- By Read More
Though perhaps other power sources can be used, the main sources of electrical power for robots are batteries and photovoltaic cells.
Alkaline batteries are much cheaper and sufficient for most uses, but lithium batteries offer better performance and a longer shelf life.
Ni-MH batteries come in common sizes such as AA, but deliver a smaller voltage than alkaline batteries (1.2V instead of 1.5V).
Lead acid batteries are relatively cheap and carry quite a lot of power, although they are quite heavy and can be damaged when they are discharged below a certain voltage.
simplest solution    is to run the microcontroller on a separate set of batteries.
The voltaic pile was constructed from discs of zinc and copper with pieces of cardboard soaked in saltwater between the metal discs.
Most batteries have two terminals on the exterior, one end is a positive end marked “+” and the other end is the negative marked “-”.
Once a load, any electronic device, a flashlight, a clock, etc., is connected to the battery the circuit being completed, electrons begin flowing from the negative to positive end, producing a current.
the battery there is a chemical reaction going on producing the electrons to flow, the speed of production depends on the battery’s internal resistance.
Electrons travel from the negative to positive end fueling the chemical reaction, if the battery isn’t connected then there is no chemical reaction taking place.
Once the battery is connected from positive to negative pole, the reaction starts, that explains the reason why people have gotten a burn when a 9-volt battery in their pocket touches a coin or something else metallic to connect the two ends, shorting the battery making electrons flow without any resistance, making it very, very hot.
A typical lithium-ion battery can store 150 watt-hours of electricity in 1 kilogram of battery.
A NiMH (nickel-metal hydride) battery pack can store perhaps 100 watt-hours per kilogram, although 60 to 70 watt-hours might be more typical.
Using lead-acid technology, it takes 6 kilograms to store the same amount of energy that a 1 kilogram lithium-ion battery can handle.
And a SMALL chance they could burst into flames (internal short, separator sheet inside battery keeping the positive and negative ends apart gets punctured).
The anode, the positive end, is made of zinc powder because the granules have a high surface area, increasing the rate of reaction and higher electron flows.
Canisters on their own pose additional risks: Air escaping from a pressurized canister can freeze whatever happens to be in its way.
- On Tuesday, March 19, 2019
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