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Global Legal Monitor

(July 31, 2019) In May 2019 a multidisciplinary group of experts, headed by the Chief Information Officer of Estonia’s government, produced a study on artificial intelligence (AI) that, if accepted by the government, may serve as the country’s first AI strategy.

Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, Estonian Artificial Intelligence: Report of the Expert Group on Deployment (May 2019), State Chancery website (in Estonian).) The report, known as the Kratt report, defines “kratt” as “a practical application that uses artificial intelligence and that fulfils a specific function,” and documents the shift in Estonia’s approach to creating a legal framework for AI.

We want to build on the EU framework, not to start creating and arguing for it ourselves.” (Ronald Liive, Estonian State IT Manager Siim Sikkut: If There Were 1% in the State Budget for Science, We Could Talk More About Kratind, DIGIGEENIUS (May 5, 2019).) Accordingly, in May 2019, the government of Estonia signed the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD’s) Principles on Artificial Intelligence, which reflected the principles of human-centric and ethical AI development embodied in the EU approach and recommended by the OECD in their Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence.

Forty-two Countries Adopt New OECD Principles on Artificial Intelligence, OECD (May 22, 2019).) Estonian AI Projects Under Development According to the authors of the Kratt report, the public sector should play a key role in pioneering innovative AI development projects aimed at adopting necessary measures to guarantee accessibility and quality data and at delivering a wide range of public services.

Competition document: intelligent ship - the next generation

This competition is seeking proposals for novel and innovative projects that enable and facilitate the wider use of intelligent systems within future warships, with the potential for wider utilisation across defence.

This aim is based on a future vision where elements of automation, autonomy, machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) are closely integrated and teamed with human decision makers.

It is expected that this will ensure timely, more informed and trusted decision making and planning, within complex, cluttered, contested and congested operating and data environments (henceforth referred to as the future operating environment).

Hence there is potential with these new technologies and approaches to envisage future fleet options made up of fundamentally different platform types, sizes and roles than of those seen in today’s Royal Navy, as well as influencing refit and continual improvement of the existing fleet.

The ever growing data and information flows, while potentially providing more knowledge about a situation, also create a problem with potential information overload, which can lead to confusion, uncertainty and less effective or delayed decision making.

Platforms also have many stove-piped data sources which mean that the command team and operators are presented with information from numerous sources which then have to be assimilated, prioritised and understood, before being communicated across different operating areas.

There is therefore a need to more effectively and more efficiently use human-based analytical and decision making skills in conjunction with greater machine intelligence and automation, to both increase military advantage while not over-stretching human commanders.

Finally this new reality must be considered against a continuing backdrop of financial and manpower constraints under which the Royal Navy must operate, hence the impact of new capabilities in this area must be considered against procurement, manpower, skills, training requirements and costs.

Proposals must demonstrate how they would improve automation, autonomous functions, AI enabled decision aides or alternative human-machine interfaces, and how they could improve speed and/or quality of decision making and mission planning in a future operating environment.

The projects should include research or critical investigation aimed at the acquisition of new knowledge and skills for developing novel concepts to address the developing information explosion and evolving threats.

Proposals are welcomed for novel and innovative technologies and approaches to revolutionise decision making, mission planning, automation or the design of military platforms in a setting of ever growing data and information flow and evolving threats in a future operating environment.

The key challenges are as follows: This challenge is to provide high level decision aides and automation to assist and work alongside the command in decision making in a complex, multi-source data rich environment.

Examples of the types of decisions that the command may have to make are: This challenge is to use/fuse the information available from all sources to provide the right information at the right time to the decision This challenge is to ensure the data and information is available when required for decision making.

Your proposal should include evidence of: These aims should be achieved while remaining aware of any emerging risks that would prevent exploitation of these new technologies and approaches due to an inability to provide adequate security, assurance and reversionary modes;

All proposals to DASA should articulate the expected development in Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the potential solution over the lifetime of the contract and how this relates to improved operational capability against the current known (or presumed) baseline.

Your deliverables should be designed to evidence these aspects with the aim of making it as easy as possible for possible collaborators to identify the innovative elements of your proposal in order to consider routes for exploitation.

You may wish to include some of the following information, where known, to help the assessors understand your exploitation plans: Proposals for funding to meet these challenges must be submitted by 23 July 2019 at midday via the DASA submission service for which you will be required to register.

You must identify any ethical / legal / regulatory factors within your proposal and how the associated risks will be managed, including break points in the project if approvals are not received.

Failure to achieve full compliance against the following will render your proposal non-compliant and will not be considered any further: Proposals will then be assessed against the standard DASA assessment criteria by subject matter experts from the MOD (including Dstl), other government departments and front-line military commands.

This project is seeking to discard pre-conceptions and old ways of operating and start with a clean sheet in order to embrace new technology and automation working alongside human operators as equal partners to deliver capability.

DASA reserves the right to disclose on a confidential basis any information it receives from bidders during the procurement process (including information identified by the bidder as Commercially Sensitive Information in accordance with the provisions of this competition) to any third party engaged by DASA for the specific purpose of evaluating or assisting DASA in the evaluation of the bidder’s proposal.

While all reasonable efforts will be made to answer queries, DASA reserves the right to impose management controls if volumes of queries restrict fair access of information to all potential suppliers.

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