# AI News, nikolaypavlov/MLPNeuralNet

- On Wednesday, June 6, 2018
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## nikolaypavlov/MLPNeuralNet

deploy a model for the AND function (conjunction) that works as follows: (of course, you do not need to use a neural network for this in the real world) Our model has the following weights and network configuration:

not forget to add the following line to the top of your model: ##How many weights do I need to initialise network X->Y->Z? Most

of the popular libraries (including MLPNeuralNet) implicitly add biased units for each of the layers except the last one.

Assuming these additional units, the total number of weights are (X + 1) * Y + (Y + 1) * Z.

###R nnet library: ###Python NeuroLab ###Python neon ###Python keras In this test, the neural network has grown layer by layer from a 1 ->

At each step, the output is calculated and benchmarked using random input vectorisation and weights.

- On Saturday, June 9, 2018
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## MLPNeuralNet

Fast multilayer perceptron neural network library for iOS and Mac OS X.

Let's deploy a model for the AND function (conjunction) that works as follows (of course in real world you don't have to use neural net for this :) Our model has the following weights and network configuration:

Installing it is as easy as running the following commands in the terminal: List MLPNeuralNet as a dependenciy in a text file named Podfile in your Xcode project directory: Now you can install the dependencies in your project: Make sure to always open the Xcode workspace (.xcworkspace) instead of the project file when building your project: #import 'MLPNeuralNet.h' to start working on your model.

- On Saturday, June 9, 2018
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## Multilayer perceptron

A multilayer perceptron (MLP) is a class of feedforward artificial neural network.

MLP utilizes a supervised learning technique called backpropagation for training.[1][2] Its multiple layers and non-linear activation distinguish MLP from a linear perceptron.

It can distinguish data that is not linearly separable.[3] Multilayer perceptrons are sometimes colloquially referred to as 'vanilla' neural networks, especially when they have a single hidden layer.[4]

If a multilayer perceptron has a linear activation function in all neurons, that is, a linear function that maps the weighted inputs to the output of each neuron, then linear algebra shows that any number of layers can be reduced to a two-layer input-output model.

In MLPs some neurons use a nonlinear activation function that was developed to model the frequency of action potentials, or firing, of biological neurons.

The two common activation functions are both sigmoids, and are described by The first is a hyperbolic tangent that ranges from -1 to 1, while the other is the logistic function, which is similar in shape but ranges from 0 to 1.

More specialized activation functions include radial basis functions (used in radial basis networks, another class of supervised neural network models).

The MLP consists of three or more layers (an input and an output layer with one or more hidden layers) of nonlinearly-activating nodes making it a deep neural network.

Learning occurs in the perceptron by changing connection weights after each piece of data is processed, based on the amount of error in the output compared to the expected result.

This is an example of supervised learning, and is carried out through backpropagation, a generalization of the least mean squares algorithm in the linear perceptron.

The node weights are adjusted based on corrections that minimize the error in the entire output, given by Using gradient descent, the change in each weight is where

is the learning rate, which is selected to ensure that the weights quickly converge to a response, without oscillations.

The analysis is more difficult for the change in weights to a hidden node, but it can be shown that the relevant derivative is This depends on the change in weights of the

So to change the hidden layer weights, the output layer weights change according to the derivative of the activation function, and so this algorithm represents a backpropagation of the activation function.[5]

True perceptrons are formally a special case of artificial neurons that use a threshold activation function such as the Heaviside step function.

A true perceptron performs binary classification (either this or that), an MLP neuron is free to either perform classification or regression, depending upon its activation function.

The term 'multilayer perceptron' later was applied without respect to nature of the nodes/layers, which can be composed of arbitrarily defined artificial neurons, and not perceptrons specifically.

This interpretation avoids the loosening of the definition of 'perceptron' to mean an artificial neuron in general.

MLPs are useful in research for their ability to solve problems stochastically, which often allows approximate solutions for extremely complex problems like fitness approximation.

MLPs are universal function approximators as showed by Cybenko's theorem,[3] so they can be used to create mathematical models by regression analysis.

As classification is a particular case of regression when the response variable is categorical, MLPs make good classifier algorithms.

MLPs were a popular machine learning solution in the 1980s, finding applications in diverse fields such as speech recognition, image recognition, and machine translation software,[6] but thereafter faced strong competition from much simpler (and related[7]) support vector machines.

- On Saturday, June 9, 2018
- By Read More

## Crash Course On Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks

Artificial neural networks are a fascinating area of study, although they can be intimidating when just getting started.

In this post you will get a crash course in the terminology and processes used in the field of multi-layer perceptron artificial neural networks.

The field of artificial neural networks is often just called neural networks or multi-layer perceptrons after perhaps the most useful type of neural network.

It is a field that investigates how simple models of biological brains can be used to solve difficult computational tasks like the predictive modeling tasks we see in machine learning.

The goal is not to create realistic models of the brain, but instead to develop robust algorithms and data structures that we can use to model difficult problems.

The power of neural networks come from their ability to learn the representation in your training data and how to best relate it to the output variable that you want to predict.

These are simple computational units that have weighted input signals and produce an output signal using an activation function.

Weights are often initialized to small random values, such as values in the range 0 to 0.3, although more complex initialization schemes can be used.

Historically simple step activation functions were used where if the summed input was above a threshold, for example 0.5, then the neuron would output a value of 1.0, otherwise it would output a 0.0.

This allows the network to combine the inputs in more complex ways and in turn provide a richer capability in the functions they can model.

Non-linear functions like the logistic also called the sigmoid function were used that output a value between 0 and 1 with an s-shaped distribution, and the hyperbolic tangent function also called tanh that outputs the same distribution over the range -1 to +1.

They are deep because they would have been unimaginably slow to train historically, but may take seconds or minutes to train using modern techniques and hardware.

The final hidden layer is called the output layer and it is responsible for outputting a value or vector of values that correspond to the format required for the problem.

This is where one new column is added for each class value (two columns in the case of sex of male and female) and a 0 or 1 is added for each row depending on the class value for that row.

This would create a binary vector from a single column that would be easy to directly compare to the output of the neuron in the network’s output layer, that as described above, would output one value for each class.

Typically, because datasets are so large and because of computational efficiencies, the size of the batch, the number of examples the network is shown before an update is often reduced to a small number, such as tens or hundreds of examples.

If you are new to the field I recommend the following resources as further reading: In this post you discovered artificial neural networks for machine learning.

- On Tuesday, June 18, 2019

**Unit 5 48 Perceptron**

Unit 5 48 Perceptron.