# AI News, Neural networks everywhere

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## Neural networks everywhere

But neural nets are large, and their computations are energy intensive, so they're not very practical for handheld devices.

Most smartphone apps that rely on neural nets simply upload data to internet servers, which process it and send the results back to the phone.

Now, MIT researchers have developed a special-purpose chip that increases the speed of neural-network computations by three to seven times over its predecessors, while reducing power consumption 94 to 95 percent.

'The general processor model is that there is a memory in some part of the chip, and there is a processor in another part of the chip, and you move the data back and forth between them when you do these computations,' says Avishek Biswas, an MIT graduate student in electrical engineering and computer science, who led the new chip's development.

A single processing node in one layer of the network will generally receive data from several nodes in the layer below and pass data to several nodes in the layer above.

Calculating a dot product usually involves fetching a weight from memory, fetching the associated data item, multiplying the two, storing the result somewhere, and then repeating the operation for every input to a node.

The chip can thus calculate dot products for multiple nodes -- 16 at a time, in the prototype -- in a single step, instead of shuttling between a processor and memory for every computation.

- On Monday, June 25, 2018
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## Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.[1] Such systems 'learn' to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being programmed with any task-specific rules.

For example, in image recognition, they might learn to identify images that contain cats by analyzing example images that have been manually labeled as 'cat' or 'no cat' and using the results to identify cats in other images.

An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons which loosely model the neurons in a biological brain.

In common ANN implementations, the signal at a connection between artificial neurons is a real number, and the output of each artificial neuron is computed by some non-linear function of the sum of its inputs.

Signals travel from the first layer (the input layer), to the last layer (the output layer), possibly after traversing the layers multiple times.

ANNs have been used on a variety of tasks, including computer vision, speech recognition, machine translation, social network filtering, playing board and video games and medical diagnosis.

With mathematical notation, Rosenblatt described circuitry not in the basic perceptron, such as the exclusive-or circuit that could not be processed by neural networks at the time.[8] In 1959, a biological model proposed by Nobel laureates Hubel and Wiesel was based on their discovery of two types of cells in the primary visual cortex: simple cells and complex cells.[9] The first functional networks with many layers were published by Ivakhnenko and Lapa in 1965, becoming the Group Method of Data Handling.[10][11][12] Neural network research stagnated after machine learning research by Minsky and Papert (1969),[13] who discovered two key issues with the computational machines that processed neural networks.

Much of artificial intelligence had focused on high-level (symbolic) models that are processed by using algorithms, characterized for example by expert systems with knowledge embodied in if-then rules, until in the late 1980s research expanded to low-level (sub-symbolic) machine learning, characterized by knowledge embodied in the parameters of a cognitive model.[citation needed] A

key trigger for renewed interest in neural networks and learning was Werbos's (1975) backpropagation algorithm that effectively solved the exclusive-or problem and more generally accelerated the training of multi-layer networks.

Backpropagation distributed the error term back up through the layers, by modifying the weights at each node.[8] In the mid-1980s, parallel distributed processing became popular under the name connectionism.

Rumelhart and McClelland (1986) described the use of connectionism to simulate neural processes.[14] Support vector machines and other, much simpler methods such as linear classifiers gradually overtook neural networks in machine learning popularity.

However, using neural networks transformed some domains, such as the prediction of protein structures.[15][16] In 1992, max-pooling was introduced to help with least shift invariance and tolerance to deformation to aid in 3D object recognition.[17][18][19] In 2010, Backpropagation training through max-pooling was accelerated by GPUs and shown to perform better than other pooling variants.[20] The vanishing gradient problem affects many-layered feedforward networks that used backpropagation and also recurrent neural networks (RNNs).[21][22] As errors propagate from layer to layer, they shrink exponentially with the number of layers, impeding the tuning of neuron weights that is based on those errors, particularly affecting deep networks.

To overcome this problem, Schmidhuber adopted a multi-level hierarchy of networks (1992) pre-trained one level at a time by unsupervised learning and fine-tuned by backpropagation.[23] Behnke (2003) relied only on the sign of the gradient (Rprop)[24] on problems such as image reconstruction and face localization.

(2006) proposed learning a high-level representation using successive layers of binary or real-valued latent variables with a restricted Boltzmann machine[25] to model each layer.

Once sufficiently many layers have been learned, the deep architecture may be used as a generative model by reproducing the data when sampling down the model (an 'ancestral pass') from the top level feature activations.[26][27] In 2012, Ng and Dean created a network that learned to recognize higher-level concepts, such as cats, only from watching unlabeled images taken from YouTube videos.[28] Earlier challenges in training deep neural networks were successfully addressed with methods such as unsupervised pre-training, while available computing power increased through the use of GPUs and distributed computing.

Nanodevices[29] for very large scale principal components analyses and convolution may create a new class of neural computing because they are fundamentally analog rather than digital (even though the first implementations may use digital devices).[30] Ciresan and colleagues (2010)[31] in Schmidhuber's group showed that despite the vanishing gradient problem, GPUs makes back-propagation feasible for many-layered feedforward neural networks.

Between 2009 and 2012, recurrent neural networks and deep feedforward neural networks developed in Schmidhuber's research group won eight international competitions in pattern recognition and machine learning.[32][33] For example, the bi-directional and multi-dimensional long short-term memory (LSTM)[34][35][36][37] of Graves et al.

won three competitions in connected handwriting recognition at the 2009 International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR), without any prior knowledge about the three languages to be learned.[36][35] Ciresan and colleagues won pattern recognition contests, including the IJCNN 2011 Traffic Sign Recognition Competition,[38] the ISBI 2012 Segmentation of Neuronal Structures in Electron Microscopy Stacks challenge[39] and others.

Their neural networks were the first pattern recognizers to achieve human-competitive or even superhuman performance[40] on benchmarks such as traffic sign recognition (IJCNN 2012), or the MNIST handwritten digits problem.

Researchers demonstrated (2010) that deep neural networks interfaced to a hidden Markov model with context-dependent states that define the neural network output layer can drastically reduce errors in large-vocabulary speech recognition tasks such as voice search.

GPU-based implementations[41] of this approach won many pattern recognition contests, including the IJCNN 2011 Traffic Sign Recognition Competition,[38] the ISBI 2012 Segmentation of neuronal structures in EM stacks challenge,[39] the ImageNet Competition[42] and others.

Deep, highly nonlinear neural architectures similar to the neocognitron[43] and the 'standard architecture of vision',[44] inspired by simple and complex cells, were pre-trained by unsupervised methods by Hinton.[45][26] A team from his lab won a 2012 contest sponsored by Merck to design software to help find molecules that might identify new drugs.[46] As of 2011, the state of the art in deep learning feedforward networks alternated convolutional layers and max-pooling layers,[41][47] topped by several fully or sparsely connected layers followed by a final classification layer.

Such supervised deep learning methods were the first to achieve human-competitive performance on certain tasks.[40] ANNs were able to guarantee shift invariance to deal with small and large natural objects in large cluttered scenes, only when invariance extended beyond shift, to all ANN-learned concepts, such as location, type (object class label), scale, lighting and others.

This was realized in Developmental Networks (DNs)[48] whose embodiments are Where-What Networks, WWN-1 (2008)[49] through WWN-7 (2013).[50] An artificial neural network is a network of simple elements called artificial neurons, which receive input, change their internal state (activation) according to that input, and produce output depending on the input and activation.

of predecessor neurons and typically has the form[51] The learning rule is a rule or an algorithm which modifies the parameters of the neural network, in order for a given input to the network to produce a favored output.

This learning process typically amounts to modifying the weights and thresholds of the variables within the network.[51] Neural network models can be viewed as simple mathematical models defining a function

A common use of the phrase 'ANN model' is really the definition of a class of such functions (where members of the class are obtained by varying parameters, connection weights, or specifics of the architecture such as the number of neurons or their connectivity).

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(commonly referred to as the activation function[52]) is some predefined function, such as the hyperbolic tangent or sigmoid function or softmax function or rectifier function.

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For applications where the solution is data dependent, the cost must necessarily be a function of the observations, otherwise the model would not relate to the data.

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While it is possible to define an ad hoc cost function, frequently a particular cost (function) is used, either because it has desirable properties (such as convexity) or because it arises naturally from a particular formulation of the problem (e.g., in a probabilistic formulation the posterior probability of the model can be used as an inverse cost).

The basics of continuous backpropagation[10][53][54][55] were derived in the context of control theory by Kelley[56] in 1960 and by Bryson in 1961,[57] using principles of dynamic programming.

In 1962, Dreyfus published a simpler derivation based only on the chain rule.[58] Bryson and Ho described it as a multi-stage dynamic system optimization method in 1969.[59][60] In 1970, Linnainmaa finally published the general method for automatic differentiation (AD) of discrete connected networks of nested differentiable functions.[61][62] This corresponds to the modern version of backpropagation which is efficient even when the networks are sparse.[10][53][63][64] In 1973, Dreyfus used backpropagation to adapt parameters of controllers in proportion to error gradients.[65] In 1974, Werbos mentioned the possibility of applying this principle to ANNs,[66] and in 1982, he applied Linnainmaa's AD method to neural networks in the way that is widely used today.[53][67] In 1986, Rumelhart, Hinton and Williams noted that this method can generate useful internal representations of incoming data in hidden layers of neural networks.[68] In 1993, Wan was the first[10] to win an international pattern recognition contest through backpropagation.[69] The weight updates of backpropagation can be done via stochastic gradient descent using the following equation: where,

The choice of the cost function depends on factors such as the learning type (supervised, unsupervised, reinforcement, etc.) and the activation function.

For example, when performing supervised learning on a multiclass classification problem, common choices for the activation function and cost function are the softmax function and cross entropy function, respectively.

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The network is trained to minimize L2 error for predicting the mask ranging over the entire training set containing bounding boxes represented as masks.

commonly used cost is the mean-squared error, which tries to minimize the average squared error between the network's output,

Minimizing this cost using gradient descent for the class of neural networks called multilayer perceptrons (MLP), produces the backpropagation algorithm for training neural networks.

Tasks that fall within the paradigm of supervised learning are pattern recognition (also known as classification) and regression (also known as function approximation).

The cost function is dependent on the task (the model domain) and any a priori assumptions (the implicit properties of the model, its parameters and the observed variables).

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whereas in statistical modeling, it could be related to the posterior probability of the model given the data (note that in both of those examples those quantities would be maximized rather than minimized).

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The aim is to discover a policy for selecting actions that minimizes some measure of a long-term cost, e.g., the expected cumulative cost.

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ANNs are frequently used in reinforcement learning as part of the overall algorithm.[77][78] Dynamic programming was coupled with ANNs (giving neurodynamic programming) by Bertsekas and Tsitsiklis[79] and applied to multi-dimensional nonlinear problems such as those involved in vehicle routing,[80] natural resources management[81][82] or medicine[83] because of the ability of ANNs to mitigate losses of accuracy even when reducing the discretization grid density for numerically approximating the solution of the original control problems.

In 2004 a recursive least squares algorithm was introduced to train CMAC neural network online.[84] This algorithm can converge in one step and update all weights in one step with any new input data.

Based on QR decomposition, this recursive learning algorithm was simplified to be O(N).[85] Training a neural network model essentially means selecting one model from the set of allowed models (or, in a Bayesian framework, determining a distribution over the set of allowed models) that minimizes the cost.

Backpropagation training algorithms fall into three categories: Evolutionary methods,[87] gene expression programming,[88] simulated annealing,[89] expectation-maximization, non-parametric methods and particle swarm optimization[90] are other methods for training neural networks.

It used a deep feedforward multilayer perceptron with eight layers.[92] It is a supervised learning network that grows layer by layer, where each layer is trained by regression analysis.

convolutional neural network (CNN) is a class of deep, feed-forward networks, composed of one or more convolutional layers with fully connected layers (matching those in typical ANNs) on top.

In particular, max-pooling[18] is often structured via Fukushima's convolutional architecture.[94] This architecture allows CNNs to take advantage of the 2D structure of input data.

CNNs are easier to train than other regular, deep, feed-forward neural networks and have many fewer parameters to estimate.[97] Examples of applications in computer vision include DeepDream[98] and robot navigation.[99] Long short-term memory (LSTM) networks are RNNs that avoid the vanishing gradient problem.[100] LSTM is normally augmented by recurrent gates called forget gates.[101] LSTM networks prevent backpropagated errors from vanishing or exploding.[21] Instead errors can flow backwards through unlimited numbers of virtual layers in space-unfolded LSTM.

That is, LSTM can learn 'very deep learning' tasks[10] that require memories of events that happened thousands or even millions of discrete time steps ago.

Stacks of LSTM RNNs[103] trained by Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC)[104] can find an RNN weight matrix that maximizes the probability of the label sequences in a training set, given the corresponding input sequences.

In 2003, LSTM started to become competitive with traditional speech recognizers.[105] In 2007, the combination with CTC achieved first good results on speech data.[106] In 2009, a CTC-trained LSTM was the first RNN to win pattern recognition contests, when it won several competitions in connected handwriting recognition.[10][36] In 2014, Baidu used CTC-trained RNNs to break the Switchboard Hub5'00 speech recognition benchmark, without traditional speech processing methods.[107] LSTM also improved large-vocabulary speech recognition,[108][109] text-to-speech synthesis,[110] for Google Android,[53][111] and photo-real talking heads.[112] In 2015, Google's speech recognition experienced a 49% improvement through CTC-trained LSTM.[113] LSTM became popular in Natural Language Processing.

Unlike previous models based on HMMs and similar concepts, LSTM can learn to recognise context-sensitive languages.[114] LSTM improved machine translation,[115][116] language modeling[117] and multilingual language processing.[118] LSTM combined with CNNs improved automatic image captioning.[119] Deep Reservoir Computing and Deep Echo State Networks (deepESNs)[120][121] provide a framework for efficiently trained models for hierarchical processing of temporal data, while enabling the investigation of the inherent role of RNN layered composition.[clarification needed] A

This allows for both improved modeling and faster convergence of the fine-tuning phase.[123] Large memory storage and retrieval neural networks (LAMSTAR)[124][125] are fast deep learning neural networks of many layers that can use many filters simultaneously.

Its speed is provided by Hebbian link-weights[126] that integrate the various and usually different filters (preprocessing functions) into its many layers and to dynamically rank the significance of the various layers and functions relative to a given learning task.

This grossly imitates biological learning which integrates various preprocessors (cochlea, retina, etc.) and cortexes (auditory, visual, etc.) and their various regions.

Its deep learning capability is further enhanced by using inhibition, correlation and its ability to cope with incomplete data, or 'lost' neurons or layers even amidst a task.

The link-weights allow dynamic determination of innovation and redundancy, and facilitate the ranking of layers, of filters or of individual neurons relative to a task.

LAMSTAR has been applied to many domains, including medical[127][128][129] and financial predictions,[130] adaptive filtering of noisy speech in unknown noise,[131] still-image recognition,[132] video image recognition,[133] software security[134] and adaptive control of non-linear systems.[135] LAMSTAR had a much faster learning speed and somewhat lower error rate than a CNN based on ReLU-function filters and max pooling, in 20 comparative studies.[136] These applications demonstrate delving into aspects of the data that are hidden from shallow learning networks and the human senses, such as in the cases of predicting onset of sleep apnea events,[128] of an electrocardiogram of a fetus as recorded from skin-surface electrodes placed on the mother's abdomen early in pregnancy,[129] of financial prediction[124] or in blind filtering of noisy speech.[131] LAMSTAR was proposed in 1996 (A U.S. Patent 5,920,852 A) and was further developed Graupe and Kordylewski from 1997–2002.[137][138][139] A modified version, known as LAMSTAR 2, was developed by Schneider and Graupe in 2008.[140][141] The auto encoder idea is motivated by the concept of a good representation.

The whole process of auto encoding is to compare this reconstructed input to the original and try to minimize the error to make the reconstructed value as close as possible to the original.

This idea was introduced in 2010 by Vincent et al.[142] with a specific approach to good representation, a good representation is one that can be obtained robustly from a corrupted input and that will be useful for recovering the corresponding clean input.

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might be either the cross-entropy loss with an affine-sigmoid decoder, or the squared error loss with an affine decoder.[142] In order to make a deep architecture, auto encoders stack.[143] Once the encoding function

of the first denoising auto encoder is learned and used to uncorrupt the input (corrupted input), the second level can be trained.[142] Once the stacked auto encoder is trained, its output can be used as the input to a supervised learning algorithm such as support vector machine classifier or a multi-class logistic regression.[142] A

deep stacking network (DSN)[144] (deep convex network) is based on a hierarchy of blocks of simplified neural network modules.

It was introduced in 2011 by Deng and Dong.[145] It formulates the learning as a convex optimization problem with a closed-form solution, emphasizing the mechanism's similarity to stacked generalization.[146] Each DSN block is a simple module that is easy to train by itself in a supervised fashion without backpropagation for the entire blocks.[147] Each block consists of a simplified multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with a single hidden layer.

Each block estimates the same final label class y, and its estimate is concatenated with original input X to form the expanded input for the next block.

It offers two important improvements: it uses higher-order information from covariance statistics, and it transforms the non-convex problem of a lower-layer to a convex sub-problem of an upper-layer.[148] TDSNs use covariance statistics in a bilinear mapping from each of two distinct sets of hidden units in the same layer to predictions, via a third-order tensor.

While parallelization and scalability are not considered seriously in conventional DNNs,[149][150][151] all learning for DSNs and TDSNs is done in batch mode, to allow parallelization.[145][144] Parallelization allows scaling the design to larger (deeper) architectures and data sets.

The need for deep learning with real-valued inputs, as in Gaussian restricted Boltzmann machines, led to the spike-and-slab RBM (ssRBM), which models continuous-valued inputs with strictly binary latent variables.[152] Similar to basic RBMs and its variants, a spike-and-slab RBM is a bipartite graph, while like GRBMs, the visible units (input) are real-valued.

A spike is a discrete probability mass at zero, while a slab is a density over continuous domain;[153] their mixture forms a prior.[154] An extension of ssRBM called µ-ssRBM provides extra modeling capacity using additional terms in the energy function.

Features can be learned using deep architectures such as DBNs,[26] DBMs,[155] deep auto encoders,[156] convolutional variants,[157][158] ssRBMs,[153] deep coding networks,[159] DBNs with sparse feature learning,[160] RNNs,[161] conditional DBNs,[162] de-noising auto encoders.[163] This provides a better representation, allowing faster learning and more accurate classification with high-dimensional data.

However, these architectures are poor at learning novel classes with few examples, because all network units are involved in representing the input (a distributed representation) and must be adjusted together (high degree of freedom).

It is a full generative model, generalized from abstract concepts flowing through the layers of the model, which is able to synthesize new examples in novel classes that look 'reasonably' natural.

All the levels are learned jointly by maximizing a joint log-probability score.[169] In a DBM with three hidden layers, the probability of a visible input ν is: where

deep predictive coding network (DPCN) is a predictive coding scheme that uses top-down information to empirically adjust the priors needed for a bottom-up inference procedure by means of a deep, locally connected, generative model.

DPCNs predict the representation of the layer, by using a top-down approach using the information in upper layer and temporal dependencies from previous states.[170] DPCNs can be extended to form a convolutional network.[170] Integrating external memory with ANNs dates to early research in distributed representations[171] and Kohonen's self-organizing maps.

For example, in sparse distributed memory or hierarchical temporal memory, the patterns encoded by neural networks are used as addresses for content-addressable memory, with 'neurons' essentially serving as address encoders and decoders.

Preliminary results demonstrate that neural Turing machines can infer simple algorithms such as copying, sorting and associative recall from input and output examples.

They out-performed Neural turing machines, long short-term memory systems and memory networks on sequence-processing tasks.[180][181][182][183][184] Approaches that represent previous experiences directly and use a similar experience to form a local model are often called nearest neighbour or k-nearest neighbors methods.[185] Deep learning is useful in semantic hashing[186] where a deep graphical model the word-count vectors[187] obtained from a large set of documents.[clarification needed] Documents are mapped to memory addresses in such a way that semantically similar documents are located at nearby addresses.

Unlike sparse distributed memory that operates on 1000-bit addresses, semantic hashing works on 32 or 64-bit addresses found in a conventional computer architecture.

These models have been applied in the context of question answering (QA) where the long-term memory effectively acts as a (dynamic) knowledge base and the output is a textual response.[190] Deep neural networks can be potentially improved by deepening and parameter reduction, while maintaining trainability.

While training extremely deep (e.g., 1 million layers) neural networks might not be practical, CPU-like architectures such as pointer networks[191] and neural random-access machines[192] overcome this limitation by using external random-access memory and other components that typically belong to a computer architecture such as registers, ALU and pointers.

The key characteristic of these models is that their depth, the size of their short-term memory, and the number of parameters can be altered independently – unlike models like LSTM, whose number of parameters grows quadratically with memory size.

In that work, an LSTM RNN or CNN was used as an encoder to summarize a source sentence, and the summary was decoded using a conditional RNN language model to produce the translation.[196] These systems share building blocks: gated RNNs and CNNs and trained attention mechanisms.

For the sake of dimensionality reduction of the updated representation in each layer, a supervised strategy selects the best informative features among features extracted by KPCA.

more straightforward way to use kernel machines for deep learning was developed for spoken language understanding.[199] The main idea is to use a kernel machine to approximate a shallow neural net with an infinite number of hidden units, then use stacking to splice the output of the kernel machine and the raw input in building the next, higher level of the kernel machine.

The basic search algorithm is to propose a candidate model, evaluate it against a dataset and use the results as feedback to teach the NAS network.[200] Using ANNs requires an understanding of their characteristics.

ANN capabilities fall within the following broad categories:[citation needed] Because of their ability to reproduce and model nonlinear processes, ANNs have found many applications in a wide range of disciplines.

Application areas include system identification and control (vehicle control, trajectory prediction,[201] process control, natural resource management), quantum chemistry,[202] game-playing and decision making (backgammon, chess, poker), pattern recognition (radar systems, face identification, signal classification,[203] object recognition and more), sequence recognition (gesture, speech, handwritten and printed text recognition), medical diagnosis, finance[204] (e.g.

automated trading systems), data mining, visualization, machine translation, social network filtering[205] and e-mail spam filtering.

ANNs have been used to diagnose cancers, including lung cancer,[206] prostate cancer, colorectal cancer[207] and to distinguish highly invasive cancer cell lines from less invasive lines using only cell shape information.[208][209] ANNs have been used to accelerate reliability analysis of infrastructures subject to natural disasters.[210][211] ANNs have also been used for building black-box models in geoscience: hydrology,[212][213] ocean modelling and coastal engineering,[214][215] and geomorphology,[216] are just few examples of this kind.

They range from models of the short-term behavior of individual neurons,[217] models of how the dynamics of neural circuitry arise from interactions between individual neurons and finally to models of how behavior can arise from abstract neural modules that represent complete subsystems.

These include models of the long-term, and short-term plasticity, of neural systems and their relations to learning and memory from the individual neuron to the system level.

specific recurrent architecture with rational valued weights (as opposed to full precision real number-valued weights) has the full power of a universal Turing machine,[218] using a finite number of neurons and standard linear connections.

Further, the use of irrational values for weights results in a machine with super-Turing power.[219] Models' 'capacity' property roughly corresponds to their ability to model any given function.

It is related to the amount of information that can be stored in the network and to the notion of complexity.[citation needed] Models may not consistently converge on a single solution, firstly because many local minima may exist, depending on the cost function and the model.

However, for CMAC neural network, a recursive least squares algorithm was introduced to train it, and this algorithm can be guaranteed to converge in one step.[84] Applications whose goal is to create a system that generalizes well to unseen examples, face the possibility of over-training.

but also in statistical learning theory, where the goal is to minimize over two quantities: the 'empirical risk' and the 'structural risk', which roughly corresponds to the error over the training set and the predicted error in unseen data due to overfitting.

Supervised neural networks that use a mean squared error (MSE) cost function can use formal statistical methods to determine the confidence of the trained model.

A confidence analysis made this way is statistically valid as long as the output probability distribution stays the same and the network is not modified.

By assigning a softmax activation function, a generalization of the logistic function, on the output layer of the neural network (or a softmax component in a component-based neural network) for categorical target variables, the outputs can be interpreted as posterior probabilities.

common criticism of neural networks, particularly in robotics, is that they require too much training for real-world operation.[citation needed] Potential solutions include randomly shuffling training examples, by using a numerical optimization algorithm that does not take too large steps when changing the network connections following an example and by grouping examples in so-called mini-batches.

For example, by introducing a recursive least squares algorithm for CMAC neural network, the training process only takes one step to converge.[84] No neural network has solved computationally difficult problems such as the n-Queens problem, the travelling salesman problem, or the problem of factoring large integers.

Back propagation is a critical part of most artificial neural networks, although no such mechanism exists in biological neural networks.[220] How information is coded by real neurons is not known.

Sensor neurons fire action potentials more frequently with sensor activation and muscle cells pull more strongly when their associated motor neurons receive action potentials more frequently.[221] Other than the case of relaying information from a sensor neuron to a motor neuron, almost nothing of the principles of how information is handled by biological neural networks is known.

Alexander Dewdney commented that, as a result, artificial neural networks have a 'something-for-nothing quality, one that imparts a peculiar aura of laziness and a distinct lack of curiosity about just how good these computing systems are.

Weng[224] argued that the brain self-wires largely according to signal statistics and therefore, a serial cascade cannot catch all major statistical dependencies.

Large and effective neural networks require considerable computing resources.[225] While the brain has hardware tailored to the task of processing signals through a graph of neurons, simulating even a simplified neuron on von Neumann architecture may compel a neural network designer to fill many millions of database rows for its connections – which can consume vast amounts of memory and storage.

Schmidhuber notes that the resurgence of neural networks in the twenty-first century is largely attributable to advances in hardware: from 1991 to 2015, computing power, especially as delivered by GPGPUs (on GPUs), has increased around a million-fold, making the standard backpropagation algorithm feasible for training networks that are several layers deeper than before.[226] The use of parallel GPUs can reduce training times from months to days.[225] Neuromorphic engineering addresses the hardware difficulty directly, by constructing non-von-Neumann chips to directly implement neural networks in circuitry.

Another chip optimized for neural network processing is called a Tensor Processing Unit, or TPU.[227] Arguments against Dewdney's position are that neural networks have been successfully used to solve many complex and diverse tasks, ranging from autonomously flying aircraft[228] to detecting credit card fraud to mastering the game of Go.

Technology writer Roger Bridgman commented: Neural networks, for instance, are in the dock not only because they have been hyped to high heaven, (what hasn't?) but also because you could create a successful net without understanding how it worked: the bunch of numbers that captures its behaviour would in all probability be 'an opaque, unreadable table...valueless as a scientific resource'.

In spite of his emphatic declaration that science is not technology, Dewdney seems here to pillory neural nets as bad science when most of those devising them are just trying to be good engineers.

An unreadable table that a useful machine could read would still be well worth having.[229] Although it is true that analyzing what has been learned by an artificial neural network is difficult, it is much easier to do so than to analyze what has been learned by a biological neural network.

Furthermore, researchers involved in exploring learning algorithms for neural networks are gradually uncovering general principles that allow a learning machine to be successful.

For example, local vs non-local learning and shallow vs deep architecture.[230] Advocates of hybrid models (combining neural networks and symbolic approaches), claim that such a mixture can better capture the mechanisms of the human mind.[231][232] Artificial neural networks have many variations.

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## MIT Neural Network Processor Cuts Power Consumption by 95 Percent

Neural network processing and AI workloads are both hot topics these days, driving multiple companies to announce their own custom silicon designs or to plug their own hardware as a top-end solution for these workloads.

Instead of being forced to rely on cloud connectivity to drive AI (and using power to keep the modem active), SoCs could incorporate these processors and perform local calculations.

“The general processor model is that there is a memory in some part of the chip, and there is a processor in another part of the chip, and you move the data back and forth between them when you do these computations,” said Avishek Biswas, an MIT graduate student in electrical engineering and computer science, who led the new chip’s development: Since these machine-learning algorithms need so many computations, this transferring back and forth of data is the dominant portion of the energy consumption.

By storing all of its weights as either 1 or -1, the system can be implemented as a simple set of switches, while only losing 2-3 percent of accuracy compared with the vastly more expensive neural nets.

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## Types of artificial neural networks

Particularly, they are inspired by the behaviour of neurons and the electrical signals they convey between input (such as from the eyes or nerve endings in the hand), processing, and output from the brain (such as reacting to light, touch, or heat).

The way neurons semantically communicate is an area of ongoing research.[1][2][3][4] Most artificial neural networks bear only some resemblance to their more complex biological counterparts, but are very effective at their intended tasks (e.g.

Then, using PDF of each class, the class probability of a new input is estimated and Bayes’ rule is employed to allocate it to the class with the highest posterior probability.[10] It was derived from the Bayesian network[11] and a statistical algorithm called Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis.[12] It is used for classification and pattern recognition.

It has been implemented using a perceptron network whose connection weights were trained with back propagation (supervised learning).[13] In a convolutional neural network (CNN, or ConvNet or shift invariant or space invariant.[14][15]) the unit connectivity pattern is inspired by the organization of the visual cortex.

Unit response can be approximated mathematically by a convolution operation.[16] They are variations of multilayer perceptrons that use minimal preprocessing.[17] They have wide applications in image and video recognition, recommender systems[18] and natural language processing.[19] Regulatory feedback networks started as a model to explain brain phenomena found during recognition including network-wide bursting and difficulty with similarity found universally in sensory recognition.[20] This approach can also perform mathematically equivalent classification as feedforward methods and is used as a tool to create and modify networks.[21][22] Radial basis functions are functions that have a distance criterion with respect to a center.

In classification problems the output layer is typically a sigmoid function of a linear combination of hidden layer values, representing a posterior probability.

A common solution is to associate each data point with its own centre, although this can expand the linear system to be solved in the final layer and requires shrinkage techniques to avoid overfitting.

All three approaches use a non-linear kernel function to project the input data into a space where the learning problem can be solved using a linear model.

Alternatively, if 9-NN classification is used and the closest 9 points are considered, then the effect of the surrounding 8 positive points may outweigh the closest 9 (negative) point.

The Euclidean distance is computed from the new point to the center of each neuron, and a radial basis function (RBF) (also called a kernel function) is applied to the distance to compute the weight (influence) for each neuron.

For supervised learning in discrete time settings, training sequences of real-valued input vectors become sequences of activations of the input nodes, one input vector at a time.

At each time step, each non-input unit computes its current activation as a nonlinear function of the weighted sum of the activations of all units from which it receives connections.

To minimize total error, gradient descent can be used to change each weight in proportion to its derivative with respect to the error, provided the non-linear activation functions are differentiable.

The standard method is called 'backpropagation through time' or BPTT, a generalization of back-propagation for feedforward networks.[23][24] A more computationally expensive online variant is called 'Real-Time Recurrent Learning' or RTRL.[25][26] Unlike BPTT this algorithm is local in time but not local in space.[27][28] An online hybrid between BPTT and RTRL with intermediate complexity exists,[29][30] with variants for continuous time.[31] A major problem with gradient descent for standard RNN architectures is that error gradients vanish exponentially quickly with the size of the time lag between important events.[32][33] The Long short-term memory architecture overcomes these problems.[34] In reinforcement learning settings, no teacher provides target signals.

Instead a fitness function or reward function or utility function is occasionally used to evaluate performance, which influences its input stream through output units connected to actuators that affect the environment.

These units connect from the hidden layer or the output layer with a fixed weight of one.[35] At each time step, the input is propagated in a standard feedforward fashion, and then a backpropagation-like learning rule is applied (not performing gradient descent).

ESN are good at reproducing certain time series.[36] A variant for spiking neurons is known as liquid state machines.[37] The long short-term memory (LSTM)[34] has no vanishing gradient problem.

LSTM RNN outperformed other RNN and other sequence learning methods such as HMM in applications such as language learning[38] and connected handwriting recognition.[39] Bi-directional RNNs, or BRNNs, use a finite sequence to predict or label each element of the sequence based on both the past and the future context of the element.[40] This is done by adding the outputs of two RNNs: one processing the sequence from left to right, the other one from right to left.

Because neural networks suffer from local minima, starting with the same architecture and training but using randomly different initial weights often gives vastly different results.[citation needed] A CoM tends to stabilize the result.

The CoM is similar to the general machine learning bagging method, except that the necessary variety of machines in the committee is obtained by training from different starting weights rather than training on different randomly selected subsets of the training data.

SNNs are also a form of pulse computer.[46] Spiking neural networks with axonal conduction delays exhibit polychronization, and hence could have a very large memory capacity.[47] SNNs and the temporal correlations of neural assemblies in such networks—have been used to model figure/ground separation and region linking in the visual system.

It uses multiple types of units, (originally two, called simple and complex cells), as a cascading model for use in pattern recognition tasks.[49][50][51] Local features are extracted by S-cells whose deformation is tolerated by C-cells.

Local features in the input are integrated gradually and classified at higher layers.[52] Among the various kinds of neocognitron[53] are systems that can detect multiple patterns in the same input by using back propagation to achieve selective attention.[54] It has been used for pattern recognition tasks and inspired convolutional neural networks.[55] Dynamic neural networks address nonlinear multivariate behaviour and include (learning of) time-dependent behaviour, such as transient phenomena and delay effects.

Instead of just adjusting the weights in a network of fixed topology,[56] Cascade-Correlation begins with a minimal network, then automatically trains and adds new hidden units one by one, creating a multi-layer structure.

It is done by creating a specific memory structure, which assigns each new pattern to an orthogonal plane using adjacently connected hierarchical arrays.[57] The network offers real-time pattern recognition and high scalability;

HTM combines and extends approaches used in Bayesian networks, spatial and temporal clustering algorithms, while using a tree-shaped hierarchy of nodes that is common in neural networks.

- On Monday, June 25, 2018
- By Read More

## Why you could soon have a neural network on your smartphone

Researchers at MIT have paved the way to low-power neural networks that can run on devices such as smartphones and household appliances.

As a result, constantly transmitting a signal and passing data across this huge network of nodes requires large amounts of energy, making neural nets unsuited to battery-powered devices, such as smartphones.

As a result, neural network applications such as speech- and face-recognition programs have long relied on external servers to process the data that has been relayed to them, which is itself an energy-intensive process.

Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITT) have developed a chip that increases the speed of neural network computations by three to seven times, while cutting power consumption by up to 95 percent.

“The general processor model is that there is a memory in some part of the chip, and there is a processor in another part of the chip, and you move the data back and forth between them when you do these computations,” MIT News reports, in an interview with Avishek Biswas, MIT graduate student in electrical engineering and computer science, who led the chip’s development.

Our approach was, can we implement this dot-product functionality inside the memory, so that you don’t need to transfer this data back and forth?” This process will sometimes occur across millions of nodes.

By allowing this kind of work to take place on mobile devices and wearables – as well as other tasks, such as image classification and language processing – there is huge scope to reduce energy usage.

Their methods may be opaque – so called black box solutions – and we expose ourselves to both the prejudices and the restrictions that may come with limited machine learning models.

- On Sunday, March 24, 2019

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