AI News, Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis

MS can cause a variety of symptoms, including changes in sensation, visual problems, muscle weakness, depression, difficulties with coordination and speech, severe fatigue, and pain.

Multiple sclerosis affects neurons, the cells of the brain and spinal cord that carry information, create thought and perception, and allow the brain to control the body.

Multiple sclerosis: What you need to know

It is two to three times more common in women than in men, and diagnosis usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 50 years.

There are four types of MS: Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS): This is a single, first episode, with symptoms lasting at least 24 hours.

Relapse-remitting MS (RRMS): This is the most common form, affecting around 85 percent of people with MS and involving attacks of new or increasing symptoms.

When nerve fibers that carry messages to and from the brain are damaged, symptoms may occur in any part of the body.

The overall symptoms of MS are: These can lead to: Bladder problems: There may be difficulty emptying the bladder completely, frequent urination, and urge incontinence.

Spasticity and muscle spasms: Damaged nerve fibers in the spinal cord and brain can cause painful muscle spasms.

Vision problems: There may be double vision or blurring vision, a partial or total loss of vision, or red-green color distortion.

Gait and mobility changes: MS can change the way people walk, because of muscle weakness and problems with balance, dizziness, and fatigue.

Emotional changes and depression: Demyelination and nerve-fiber damage in the brain can trigger emotional changes, apart from the challenges of adjusting to the diagnosis of MS, an unpredictable, disabling disorder.

Less common symptoms include: In the later stages, there may also be changes in perception and thinking and heat sensitivity.

This means that the immune system attacks the myelin as if it were an undesirable foreign body, just as it might attack a virus or bacteria.

Risk factors include: Rates of MS are higher in people who live further away from the equator, suggesting that exposure to sunlight may impact MS risk.

Other possible factors that have been linked to MS, but are not confirmed by research, include: Previous theories have included exposure to canine distemper, physical trauma, or aspartame, an artificial sweetener, but there is no evidence to support these.

No single test can confirm a diagnosis, so several strategies are needed when deciding whether a patient meets the criteria for a diagnosis.

There will be a neurologic exam, imaging scans, a test to measure the electrical activity of the brain, a spinal fluid analysis, and possibly other tests.

Programs generally include: Physical therapy: This aims to provide people with the skills to maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability.

Vocational rehabilitation: This helps people with disabilities make career plans, learn job skills, get and keep a job.

This process removes the antibodies in the blood that are attacking parts of the patient's body, but whether it can help patients with MS is unclear.

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Neuron

A neuron (/ˈnjʊərɒn/ NYEWR-on or /ˈnʊərɒn/ NEWR-on; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits ...

Neuron

A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur ...

MTC NUR 102 Unit 11 Lecture narrated

MTC NUR 102 Unit 11 Lecture narrated by Midlands Technical College is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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