# AI News, More from r/MachineLearning ## More from r/MachineLearning

So for example, it may have 25 inputs which are gray-levels of a 5x5 image and a single output that should, for example, tell whether a cat is in the image or not.

If you are familiar with linear algebra you will notice that this can be done with the dot product of the normal vector with the data point.

This operation is exactly the same as weighting the inputs, summing them and determine if the sum is positive or negative.

If a data set with labels is available, a learning rule can be applied to find the correct line.

If you want to understand SVMs make sure to understand Perceptrons correctly, what a dot product is, how the figure with the artificial neuron corresponds to the figure with the 2-dimensional input space and why the learning rule actually works.

In this form the weight vector is expressed as a sum over dot products between all data points and the input vector.

The crucial point here is that that a dot-product of the input data is used to define the weight vector.

Different kernels have different feature spaces and so choosing a kernel function means choosing a feature space.

A mathematical framework called statistical learning theory was developed in order to give a precise definition what &quot;best&quot;

A 2-input hard limit neuron is trained to classify 5 input vectors into two categories.

Each of the five column vectors in X defines a 2-element input vectors and a row vector T defines the vector's target categories.

Here the input and target data are converted to sequential data (cell array where each column indicates a timestep) and copied three times to form the series XX and TT.

ADAPT updates the network for each timestep in the series and returns a new network object that performs as a better classifier.

The perceptron correctly classified our new point (in red) as category 'zero' (represented by a circle) and not a 'one' (represented by a plus).

## Perceptron

In machine learning, the perceptron is an algorithm for supervised learning of binary classifiers (functions that can decide whether an input, represented by a vector of numbers, belongs to some specific class or not). It is a type of linear classifier, i.e.

a classification algorithm that makes its predictions based on a linear predictor function combining a set of weights with the feature vector.

The perceptron algorithm was invented in 1957 at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory by Frank Rosenblatt, funded by the United States Office of Naval Research. The perceptron was intended to be a machine, rather than a program, and while its first implementation was in software for the IBM 704, it was subsequently implemented in custom-built hardware as the 'Mark 1 perceptron'.

Weights were encoded in potentiometers, and weight updates during learning were performed by electric motors.:193 In a 1958 press conference organized by the US Navy, Rosenblatt made statements about the perceptron that caused a heated controversy among the fledgling AI community;

based on Rosenblatt's statements, The New York Times reported the perceptron to be 'the embryo of an electronic computer that [the Navy] expects will be able to walk, talk, see, write, reproduce itself and be conscious of its existence.' Although the perceptron initially seemed promising, it was quickly proved that perceptrons could not be trained to recognise many classes of patterns.

This caused the field of neural network research to stagnate for many years, before it was recognised that a feedforward neural network with two or more layers (also called a multilayer perceptron) had far greater processing power than perceptrons with one layer (also called a single layer perceptron).[dubious – discuss] Single layer perceptrons are only capable of learning linearly separable patterns;

(See the page on Perceptrons (book) for more information.) Three years later Stephen Grossberg published a series of papers introducing networks capable of modelling differential, contrast-enhancing and XOR functions.

The kernel perceptron algorithm was already introduced in 1964 by Aizerman et al. Margin bounds guarantees were given for the Perceptron algorithm in the general non-separable case first by Freund and Schapire (1998), and more recently by Mohri and Rostamizadeh (2013) who extend previous results and give new L1 bounds. The perceptron is a simplified model of a biological neuron.

While the complexity of biological neuron models is often required to fully understand neural behavior, research suggests a perceptron-like linear model can produce some behavior seen in real neurons .

In the modern sense, the perceptron is an algorithm for learning a binary classifier: a function that maps its input x (a real-valued vector) to an output value

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The solution spaces of decision boundaries for all binary functions and learning behaviors are studied in the reference. In the context of neural networks, a perceptron is an artificial neuron using the Heaviside step function as the activation function.

The perceptron algorithm is also termed the single-layer perceptron, to distinguish it from a multilayer perceptron, which is a misnomer for a more complicated neural network.

This is because multiplying the update by any constant simply rescales the weights but never changes the sign of the prediction. The algorithm updates the weights after steps 2a and 2b.

These weights are immediately applied to a pair in the training set, and subsequently updated, rather than waiting until all pairs in the training set have undergone these steps.

The perceptron is a linear classifier, therefore it will never get to the state with all the input vectors classified correctly if the training set D is not linearly separable, i.e.

In this case, no 'approximate' solution will be gradually approached under the standard learning algorithm, but instead learning will fail completely.

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The idea of the proof is that the weight vector is always adjusted by a bounded amount in a direction with which it has a negative dot product, and thus can be bounded above by O(√t), where t is the number of changes to the weight vector.

However, it can also be bounded below by O(t) because if there exists an (unknown) satisfactory weight vector, then every change makes progress in this (unknown) direction by a positive amount that depends only on the input vector.

While the perceptron algorithm is guaranteed to converge on some solution in the case of a linearly separable training set, it may still pick any solution and problems may admit many solutions of varying quality. The perceptron of optimal stability, nowadays better known as the linear support vector machine, was designed to solve this problem (Krauth and Mezard, 1987).

The pocket algorithm with ratchet (Gallant, 1990) solves the stability problem of perceptron learning by keeping the best solution seen so far 'in its pocket'.

However, these solutions appear purely stochastically and hence the pocket algorithm neither approaches them gradually in the course of learning, nor are they guaranteed to show up within a given number of learning steps.

The Maxover algorithm (Wendemuth, 1995) is 'robust' in the sense that it will converge regardless of (prior) knowledge of linear separability of the data set.

In the linearly separable case, it will solve the training problem – if desired, even with optimal stability (maximum margin between the classes).

The algorithm starts a new perceptron every time an example is wrongly classified, initializing the weights vector with the final weights of the last perceptron.

Each perceptron will also be given another weight corresponding to how many examples do they correctly classify before wrongly classifying one, and at the end the output will be a weighted vote on all perceptron.

The so-called perceptron of optimal stability can be determined by means of iterative training and optimization schemes, such as the Min-Over algorithm (Krauth and Mezard, 1987) or the AdaTron (Anlauf and Biehl, 1989)) . AdaTron uses the fact that the corresponding quadratic optimization problem is convex.

-perceptron further used a pre-processing layer of fixed random weights, with thresholded output units.

Another way to solve nonlinear problems without using multiple layers is to use higher order networks (sigma-pi unit).

In this type of network, each element in the input vector is extended with each pairwise combination of multiplied inputs (second order).

Indeed, if we had the prior constraint that the data come from equi-variant Gaussian distributions, the linear separation in the input space is optimal, and the nonlinear solution is overfitted.

Learning again iterates over the examples, predicting an output for each, leaving the weights unchanged when the predicted output matches the target, and changing them when it does not.

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In recent years, perceptron training has become popular in the field of natural language processing for such tasks as part-of-speech tagging and syntactic parsing (Collins, 2002).

This means that the network consists of n input neurons, each being an input for all m output neurons as it is depicted in Figure 8.1.

Furthermore, wij represents a real synaptic weight associated with the connection leading from the ith input neuron (i=1,.., n) to the jth output neuron (j=1, ...

, m), and wj0=-hj is a bias (a threshold hj with the opposite sign) of the jth output neuron corresponding to a formal unit input x0=1.

In this case, the real states of neurons in the input layer are assigned to the network input and the output neurons compute their binary states determining the network output in the same way as the formal neuron does (see eq.7.3)).

A linear combination of weights for which the augmented activation potential (excitation level with bias included) is zero, describes a decision surface which partitions the input space into two regions.

(8.5) The weighted sum (including bias term) of a hidden unit clearly defines an n-1 dimensional hyperplane in n-dimensional space.

These hyperplanes are seen as decision boundaries, many of which to&shy;gether can carve out complex regions necessary for classification of complex data.

Clearly, such a neuron classifies the points in the input space (the coordinates of these points represent the neuron inputs) to which from two halfspaces determined by the hyperplane they belong, the neuron realizes the dichotomy of input space.

In order to generalise to higher dimensions, and to relate vectors to the ideas of pattern space, it is convenient to describe vectors with respect to a cartesian coordinate system.

By learning procedure: the weight vector is determined from a given (training) set of input-output vectors (exemplars) in such a way to achieve the best classification of the training vectors.

For a single perceptron, the objective of the learning procedure is to find a decision plane, which separates two classes of given input-output training vectors.

(8.21) where xk is a real input of the kth training pattern, and dk is the corresponding desired binary output (given by a teacher).

The aim of adaptation is to find a configuration w such that for every input xk (k=1,...,p) from training set T, the network responds with the desired output dk in computational mode, it holds:

At the beginning of adaptation, at time 0, the weights of configuration w(0) are initialized randomly close to zero, ,

Since we do not want to make too drastic a change as this might upset previous learning, we add a fraction to weight vector to produce a new weight vector.

(8.28) The expression in eq.8.28 is the discrepancy between the actual jth network output for the kth pattern input and the corresponding desired output of this pattern.

The inventor of the perceptron, Rosenblatt showed that the adaptive dynamics eq.8.28 guarantees that the network finds its configuration (providing that it exists) in the adaptive mode after a finite number of steps, for which it classifies all training patterns correctly (the network error with respect to the training set is zero), and thus the condition eq.8.22 is met.

The order of patterns during the learning process is prescribed by the so-called training strattegy and it can be, for example, arranged on the analogy of human learning.

One student reads through a textbook several times to prepare for an examination, another one learns everything properly during the first reading, and as the case may be, at the end both revise the parts which are not correctly answered by them.

Usually, the adaptation of the network of perceptrons is performed in the so-called training epoch in which all patterns from the training set are systematically presented (some of them even several times over).

In addition, the above-outlined convergence theorem for the adaptive mode does not guarantee the learning efficiency, which has been confirmed by time-consuming experiments.

The generalization capability of this model is also not revolutionary because the network of perceptrons can only be used in cases when the classified objects are separable by hyperplanes in the input space (special tasks in pattern recognition, etc.).

In a modified version of the perceptron learning rule, in addition to misclassification, the input vector x must be located far enough from the decision surface, or, alternatively, the net activation potential (augmented) must exceed a preset margin, .

The reason for adding such a condition is to avoid an erroneous classification decision in a situation when is very small, and due to presence of noise, the sign of cannot be reliably established.

If the total input is positive, the pattern will be assigned to class +1, if the total input is negative, the sample will be assigned to class &#8211;1.

For instance, consider only two binary inputs (whose values are taken from the set {0, 1}) and one binary output whose value is 1 if and only if the value of exactly one input is 1 (i.e.

It follows from Figure 8.17 where all possible inputs are depicted in the input space and labeled with the corresponding outputs that there is no straight line to separate the points corresponding to output value 1 from the points associated with output value 0.

The above-mentioned principles will be illustrated through an example of a neural network whose computational dynamics will be described in more detail and also its geometrical interpretation will be outlined.

At the beginning, the states of input layer neurons are assigned to a generally real network input and the remaining (hidden and output) neurons are passive.

This means that a neuron from this layer collects its inputs from the input neurons, computes its excitation level as a weighted sum of these inputs and its state (output) determines from the sign of this sum by applying the transfer function (hard limiter).

Thus, the computation proceeds in the direction from the input layer to the output one so that at each time step all neurons from the respective layer are updated in parallel based on inputs collected from the preceding layer.

Finally, the states of neurons in the output layer are determined which form the network output, and the computation of multilayered neural network terminates.

This means that a neuron from the second layer is active if and only if the network input corresponds to a point in the input space that is located simultaneously in all halfspaces, which are classified by selected neurons from the first layer.

Although the remaining neurons from the first layer are formally connected to this neuron in the topology of multilayered network, however, the corresponding weights are zero and hence, they do not influence the underlying neuron.

In Figure 8.18, the partition of input space into four halfspaces P1, P2, P3, P4 by four neurons from the first layer is depicted (compare with the example of multilayered architecture 3-4-3-2 in Figure 7.9.

The partition of the input space into convex regions can be exploited for the pattern recognition of more characters where each character is associated with one convex region.

This means that the output neuron is active if and only if the network input represents a point in the input space that is located in at least one of the selected convex regions, which are classified by neurons from the second layer.

The unit weights (excluding bias) ensure the weighted sum of actual binary inputs (taken from the set {0,1}) to equal the number of 1&#8217;s in the input.

The threshold (the bias with the opposite sign) n for AND and 1 for OR function causes the neuron to be active if and only if this number is at least n or 1, respectively.

In addition, the geometrical interpretation of the multilayered neural network will be illustrated by the above-mentioned important example of logical function, the exclusive disjunction (XOR).

As it can be seen in Figure 8.20, the (two-dimensional) network inputs for which the output value of XOR function is 1, can be closed by the intersection of two halfspaces (half-planes) P1, P2 bounded by hyperplanes (straight lines), into a convex region.

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