# AI News, Modern Machine Learning Algorithms: Strengths and Weaknesses

- On Tuesday, August 14, 2018
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## Modern Machine Learning Algorithms: Strengths and Weaknesses

In this guide, we’ll take a practical, concise tour through modern machine learning algorithms.

For example, Scikit-Learn’s documentation page groups algorithms by their learning mechanism. This produces categories such as: However, from our experience, this isn’t always the most practical way to group algorithms.

That’s because for applied machine learning, you’re usually not thinking, “boy do I want to train a support vector machine today!”

Of course, the algorithms you try must be appropriate for your problem, which is where picking the right machine learning task comes in.

As an analogy, if you need to clean your house, you might use a vacuum, a broom, or a mop, but you wouldn't bust out a shovel and start digging.

They are: In Part 2, we will cover dimensionality reduction, including: Two notes before continuing: Regression is the supervised learning task for modeling and predicting continuous, numeric variables. Examples include predicting real-estate prices, stock price movements, or student test scores.

decision trees) learn in a hierarchical fashion by repeatedly splitting your dataset into separate branches that maximize the information gain of each split.

We won't go into their underlying mechanics here, but in practice, RF's often perform very well out-of-the-box while GBM's are harder to tune but tend to have higher performance ceilings.

They use 'hidden layers' between inputs and outputs in order to model intermediary representations of the data that other algorithms cannot easily learn.

However, deep learning still requires much more data to train compared to other algorithms because the models have orders of magnitudes more parameters to estimate.

These algorithms are memory-intensive, perform poorly for high-dimensional data, and require a meaningful distance function to calculate similarity.

Examples include predicting employee churn, email spam, financial fraud, or student letter grades.

Predictions are mapped to be between 0 and 1 through the logistic function, which means that predictions can be interpreted as class probabilities.

The models themselves are still 'linear,' so they work well when your classes are linearly separable (i.e. they can be separated by a single decision surface).

To predict a new observation, you'd simply 'look up' the class probabilities in your 'probability table' based on its feature values.

However, we want to leave you with a few words of advice based on our experience: If you'd like to learn more about the applied machine learning workflow and how to efficiently train professional-grade models, we invite you to check out our Data Science Primer.

For more over-the-shoulder guidance, we also offer a comprehensive masterclass that further explains the intuition behind many of these algorithms and teaches you how to apply them to real-world problems.

- On Tuesday, August 14, 2018
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## Regression vs. Classification Algorithms

We’ve done this before through the lens of whether the data used to train the algorithm should be labeled or not (see our posts onsupervised, unsupervised, or semi-supervised machine learning),but there are also inherent differences in these algorithms based on the format of their outputs.

If these are the questions you’re hoping to answer with machine learning in your business, consider algorithms like naive Bayes, decision trees, logistic regression, kernel approximation, and K-nearest neighbors.

Regression problems with time-ordered inputs are called time-series forecasting problems, like ARIMA forecasting, which allows data scientists to explain seasonal patterns in sales, evaluate the impact of new marketing campaigns, and more.

Though it’s often underrated because of its relative simplicity, it’s a versatile method that can be used to predict housing prices, likelihood of customers to churn, or the revenue a customer will generate.

- On Tuesday, August 14, 2018
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## How to choose algorithms for Microsoft Azure Machine Learning

The answer to the question "What machine learning algorithm should I use?"

It depends on how the math of the algorithm was translated into instructions for the computer you are using.

Even the most experienced data scientists can't tell which algorithm will perform best before trying them.

The Microsoft Azure Machine Learning Algorithm Cheat Sheet helps you choose the right machine learning algorithm for your predictive analytics solutions from the Microsoft Azure Machine Learning library of algorithms. This

This cheat sheet has a very specific audience in mind: a beginning data scientist with undergraduate-level machine learning, trying to choose an algorithm to start with in Azure Machine Learning Studio.

That means that it makes some generalizations and oversimplifications, but it points you in a safe direction.

As Azure Machine Learning grows to encompass a more complete set of available methods, we'll add them.

These recommendations are compiled feedback and tips from many data scientists and machine learning experts.

We didn't agree on everything, but I've tried to harmonize our opinions into a rough consensus.

data scientists I talked with said that the only sure way to find

Supervised learning algorithms make predictions based on a set of examples.

For instance, historical stock prices can be used to hazard guesses

company's financial data, the type of industry, the presence of disruptive

it uses that pattern to make predictions for unlabeled testing data—tomorrow's

Supervised learning is a popular and useful type of machine learning.

In unsupervised learning, data points have no labels associated with them.

grouping it into clusters or finding different ways of looking at complex

In reinforcement learning, the algorithm gets to choose an action in response

signal a short time later, indicating how good the decision was. Based

where the set of sensor readings at one point in time is a data

The number of minutes or hours necessary to train a model varies a great deal

time is limited it can drive the choice of algorithm, especially when

regression algorithms assume that data trends follow a straight line.

These assumptions aren't bad for some problems, but on others they bring

Non-linear class boundary - relying on a linear classification algorithm

Data with a nonlinear trend - using a linear regression method would generate

much larger errors than necessary Despite their dangers, linear algorithms are very popular as a first line

Parameters are the knobs a data scientist gets to turn when setting up an

as error tolerance or number of iterations, or options between variants

to make sure you've spanned the parameter space, the time required to

train a model increases exponentially with the number of parameters.

For certain types of data, the number of features can be very large compared

algorithms, making training time unfeasibly long.

Some learning algorithms make particular assumptions about the structure of

- shows excellent accuracy, fast training times, and the use of linearity ○

- shows good accuracy and moderate training times As mentioned previously, linear regression fits

curve instead of a straight line makes it a natural fit for dividing

logistic regression to two-class data with just one feature - the class

boundary is the point at which the logistic curve is just as close to both classes Decision forests (regression, two-class, and multiclass), decision

all based on decision trees, a foundational machine learning concept.

decision tree subdivides a feature space into regions of roughly uniform

values Because a feature space can be subdivided into arbitrarily small regions,

it's easy to imagine dividing it finely enough to have one data point

a large set of trees are constructed with special mathematical care

memory at the expense of a slightly longer training time.

Boosted decision trees avoid overfitting by limiting how many times they can

a variation of decision trees for the special case where you want to know

that input features are passed forward (never backward) through a sequence

a long time to train, particularly for large data sets with lots of features.

typical support vector machine class boundary maximizes the margin separating

Any new data points that fall far outside that boundary

PCA-based anomaly detection - the vast majority of the data falls into

data set is grouped into five clusters using K-means There is also an ensemble one-v-all multiclass classifier, which

- On Tuesday, August 14, 2018
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## A Tour of Machine Learning Algorithms

In this post, we take a tour of the most popular machine learning algorithms.

There are different ways an algorithm can model a problem based on its interaction with the experience or environment or whatever we want to call the input data.

There are only a few main learning styles or learning models that an algorithm can have and we’ll go through them here with a few examples of algorithms and problem types that they suit.

This taxonomy or way of organizing machine learning algorithms is useful because it forces you to think about the roles of the input data and the model preparation process and select one that is the most appropriate for your problem in order to get the best result.

Let’s take a look at three different learning styles in machine learning algorithms: Input data is called training data and has a known label or result such as spam/not-spam or a stock price at a time.

hot topic at the moment is semi-supervised learning methods in areas such as image classification where there are large datasets with very few labeled examples.

The most popular regression algorithms are: Instance-based learning model is a decision problem with instances or examples of training data that are deemed important or required to the model.

Such methods typically build up a database of example data and compare new data to the database using a similarity measure in order to find the best match and make a prediction.

The most popular instance-based algorithms are: An extension made to another method (typically regression methods) that penalizes models based on their complexity, favoring simpler models that are also better at generalizing.

The most popular regularization algorithms are: Decision tree methods construct a model of decisions made based on actual values of attributes in the data.

All methods are concerned with using the inherent structures in the data to best organize the data into groups of maximum commonality.

The most popular clustering algorithms are: Association rule learning methods extract rules that best explain observed relationships between variables in data.

The most popular association rule learning algorithms are: Artificial Neural Networks are models that are inspired by the structure and/or function of biological neural networks.

They are a class of pattern matching that are commonly used for regression and classification problems but are really an enormous subfield comprised of hundreds of algorithms and variations for all manner of problem types.

The most popular artificial neural network algorithms are: Deep Learning methods are a modern update to Artificial Neural Networks that exploit abundant cheap computation.

They are concerned with building much larger and more complex neural networks and, as commented on above, many methods are concerned with semi-supervised learning problems where large datasets contain very little labeled data.

The most popular deep learning algorithms are: Like clustering methods, dimensionality reduction seek and exploit the inherent structure in the data, but in this case in an unsupervised manner or order to summarize or describe data using less information.

Ensemble methods are models composed of multiple weaker models that are independently trained and whose predictions are combined in some way to make the overall prediction.

- On Tuesday, August 14, 2018
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## Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to 'learn' (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.[1]

These analytical models allow researchers, data scientists, engineers, and analysts to 'produce reliable, repeatable decisions and results' and uncover 'hidden insights' through learning from historical relationships and trends in the data.[12]

Mitchell provided a widely quoted, more formal definition of the algorithms studied in the machine learning field: 'A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.'[13]

Developmental learning, elaborated for robot learning, generates its own sequences (also called curriculum) of learning situations to cumulatively acquire repertoires of novel skills through autonomous self-exploration and social interaction with human teachers and using guidance mechanisms such as active learning, maturation, motor synergies, and imitation.

Work on symbolic/knowledge-based learning did continue within AI, leading to inductive logic programming, but the more statistical line of research was now outside the field of AI proper, in pattern recognition and information retrieval.[17]:708–710;

Machine learning and data mining often employ the same methods and overlap significantly, but while machine learning focuses on prediction, based on known properties learned from the training data, data mining focuses on the discovery of (previously) unknown properties in the data (this is the analysis step of knowledge discovery in databases).

Much of the confusion between these two research communities (which do often have separate conferences and separate journals, ECML PKDD being a major exception) comes from the basic assumptions they work with: in machine learning, performance is usually evaluated with respect to the ability to reproduce known knowledge, while in knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD) the key task is the discovery of previously unknown knowledge.

Evaluated with respect to known knowledge, an uninformed (unsupervised) method will easily be outperformed by other supervised methods, while in a typical KDD task, supervised methods cannot be used due to the unavailability of training data.

Loss functions express the discrepancy between the predictions of the model being trained and the actual problem instances (for example, in classification, one wants to assign a label to instances, and models are trained to correctly predict the pre-assigned labels of a set of examples).

The difference between the two fields arises from the goal of generalization: while optimization algorithms can minimize the loss on a training set, machine learning is concerned with minimizing the loss on unseen samples.[19]

The training examples come from some generally unknown probability distribution (considered representative of the space of occurrences) and the learner has to build a general model about this space that enables it to produce sufficiently accurate predictions in new cases.

An artificial neural network (ANN) learning algorithm, usually called 'neural network' (NN), is a learning algorithm that is vaguely inspired by biological neural networks.

They are usually used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs, to find patterns in data, or to capture the statistical structure in an unknown joint probability distribution between observed variables.

Falling hardware prices and the development of GPUs for personal use in the last few years have contributed to the development of the concept of deep learning which consists of multiple hidden layers in an artificial neural network.

Given an encoding of the known background knowledge and a set of examples represented as a logical database of facts, an ILP system will derive a hypothesized logic program that entails all positive and no negative examples.

Given a set of training examples, each marked as belonging to one of two categories, an SVM training algorithm builds a model that predicts whether a new example falls into one category or the other.

Cluster analysis is the assignment of a set of observations into subsets (called clusters) so that observations within the same cluster are similar according to some predesignated criterion or criteria, while observations drawn from different clusters are dissimilar.

Different clustering techniques make different assumptions on the structure of the data, often defined by some similarity metric and evaluated for example by internal compactness (similarity between members of the same cluster) and separation between different clusters.

Bayesian network, belief network or directed acyclic graphical model is a probabilistic graphical model that represents a set of random variables and their conditional independencies via a directed acyclic graph (DAG).

Representation learning algorithms often attempt to preserve the information in their input but transform it in a way that makes it useful, often as a pre-processing step before performing classification or predictions, allowing reconstruction of the inputs coming from the unknown data generating distribution, while not being necessarily faithful for configurations that are implausible under that distribution.

Deep learning algorithms discover multiple levels of representation, or a hierarchy of features, with higher-level, more abstract features defined in terms of (or generating) lower-level features.

genetic algorithm (GA) is a search heuristic that mimics the process of natural selection, and uses methods such as mutation and crossover to generate new genotype in the hope of finding good solutions to a given problem.

In 2006, the online movie company Netflix held the first 'Netflix Prize' competition to find a program to better predict user preferences and improve the accuracy on its existing Cinematch movie recommendation algorithm by at least 10%.

Classification machine learning models can be validated by accuracy estimation techniques like the Holdout method, which splits the data into a training and test sets (conventionally 2/3 training set and 1/3 test set designation) and evaluates the performance of the training model on the test set.

In comparison, the k-fold-cross-validation method randomly splits the data into k subsets where the k - 1 instances of the data subsets are used to train the model while the kth subset instance is used to test the predictive ability of the training model.

For example, using job hiring data from a firm with racist hiring policies may lead to a machine learning system duplicating the bias by scoring job applicants against similarity to previous successful applicants.[50][51]

There is huge potential for machine learning in health care to provide professionals a great tool to diagnose, medicate, and even plan recovery paths for patients, but this will not happen until the personal biases mentioned previously, and these 'greed' biases are addressed.[53]

- On Monday, March 25, 2019

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