AI News, Machined Learnings

Machined Learnings

Sometimes throwing away data to allow for more complicated learning methods is worth it.Specifically:a) I would say try deep learning (specifically neural networks) if you have a moderate sized data set (moderate = "fits on a single box and tolerably slow to train with multicores/gpus") and little intuition about what kinds of transformations would make your problem look more linear (aka, no intuition about a good kernel).

A Tour of Machine Learning Algorithms

In this post, we take a tour of the most popular machine learning algorithms.

There are different ways an algorithm can model a problem based on its interaction with the experience or environment or whatever we want to call the input data.

There are only a few main learning styles or learning models that an algorithm can have and we’ll go through them here with a few examples of algorithms and problem types that they suit.

This taxonomy or way of organizing machine learning algorithms is useful because it forces you to think about the roles of the input data and the model preparation process and select one that is the most appropriate for your problem in order to get the best result.

Let’s take a look at three different learning styles in machine learning algorithms: Input data is called training data and has a known label or result such as spam/not-spam or a stock price at a time.

hot topic at the moment is semi-supervised learning methods in areas such as image classification where there are large datasets with very few labeled examples.

The most popular regression algorithms are: Instance-based learning model is a decision problem with instances or examples of training data that are deemed important or required to the model.

Such methods typically build up a database of example data and compare new data to the database using a similarity measure in order to find the best match and make a prediction.

The most popular instance-based algorithms are: An extension made to another method (typically regression methods) that penalizes models based on their complexity, favoring simpler models that are also better at generalizing.

The most popular regularization algorithms are: Decision tree methods construct a model of decisions made based on actual values of attributes in the data.

All methods are concerned with using the inherent structures in the data to best organize the data into groups of maximum commonality.

The most popular clustering algorithms are: Association rule learning methods extract rules that best explain observed relationships between variables in data.

The most popular association rule learning algorithms are: Artificial Neural Networks are models that are inspired by the structure and/or function of biological neural networks.

They are a class of pattern matching that are commonly used for regression and classification problems but are really an enormous subfield comprised of hundreds of algorithms and variations for all manner of problem types.

The most popular artificial neural network algorithms are: Deep Learning methods are a modern update to Artificial Neural Networks that exploit abundant cheap computation.

They are concerned with building much larger and more complex neural networks and, as commented on above, many methods are concerned with semi-supervised learning problems where large datasets contain very little labeled data.

The most popular deep learning algorithms are: Like clustering methods, dimensionality reduction seek and exploit the inherent structure in the data, but in this case in an unsupervised manner or order to summarize or describe data using less information.

Ensemble methods are models composed of multiple weaker models that are independently trained and whose predictions are combined in some way to make the overall prediction.

Deep learning

Learning can be supervised, semi-supervised or unsupervised.[1][2][3] Deep learning models are loosely related to information processing and communication patterns in a biological nervous system, such as neural coding that attempts to define a relationship between various stimuli and associated neuronal responses in the brain.[4] Deep learning architectures such as deep neural networks, deep belief networks and recurrent neural networks have been applied to fields including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, audio recognition, social network filtering, machine translation, bioinformatics and drug design,[5] where they have produced results comparable to and in some cases superior[6] to human experts.[7] Deep learning is a class of machine learning algorithms that:[8](pp199–200) Most modern deep learning models are based on an artificial neural network, although they can also include propositional formulas[9] or latent variables organized layer-wise in deep generative models such as the nodes in Deep Belief Networks and Deep Boltzmann Machines.

Examples of deep structures that can be trained in an unsupervised manner are neural history compressors[12] and deep belief networks.[1][13] Deep neural networks are generally interpreted in terms of the universal approximation theorem[14][15][16][17][18] or probabilistic inference.[8][9][1][2][13][19][20] The universal approximation theorem concerns the capacity of feedforward neural networks with a single hidden layer of finite size to approximate continuous functions.[14][15][16][17][18] In 1989, the first proof was published by George Cybenko for sigmoid activation functions[15] and was generalised to feed-forward multi-layer architectures in 1991 by Kurt Hornik.[16] The probabilistic interpretation[19] derives from the field of machine learning.

More specifically, the probabilistic interpretation considers the activation nonlinearity as a cumulative distribution function.[19] The probabilistic interpretation led to the introduction of dropout as regularizer in neural networks.[21] The probabilistic interpretation was introduced by researchers including Hopfield, Widrow and Narendra and popularized in surveys such as the one by Bishop.[22] The term Deep Learning was introduced to the machine learning community by Rina Dechter in 1986,[23][12] and to Artificial Neural Networks by Igor Aizenberg and colleagues in 2000, in the context of Boolean threshold neurons.[24][25] The first general, working learning algorithm for supervised, deep, feedforward, multilayer perceptrons was published by Alexey Ivakhnenko and Lapa in 1965.[10] A 1971 paper described a deep network with 8 layers trained by the group method of data handling algorithm.[11] Other deep learning working architectures, specifically those built for computer vision, began with the Neocognitron introduced by Kunihiko Fukushima in 1980.[26] In 1989, Yann LeCun et al.

Each layer in the feature extraction module extracted features with growing complexity regarding the previous layer.[35] In 1995, Brendan Frey demonstrated that it was possible to train (over two days) a network containing six fully connected layers and several hundred hidden units using the wake-sleep algorithm, co-developed with Peter Dayan and Hinton.[36] Many factors contribute to the slow speed, including the vanishing gradient problem analyzed in 1991 by Sepp Hochreiter.[37][38] Simpler models that use task-specific handcrafted features such as Gabor filters and support vector machines (SVMs) were a popular choice in the 1990s and 2000s, because of ANNs' computational cost and a lack of understanding of how the brain wires its biological networks.

In 2003, LSTM started to become competitive with traditional speech recognizers on certain tasks.[48] Later it was combined with connectionist temporal classification (CTC)[49] in stacks of LSTM RNNs.[50] In 2015, Google's speech recognition reportedly experienced a dramatic performance jump of 49% through CTC-trained LSTM, which they made available through Google Voice Search.[51] In 2006, publications by Geoff Hinton, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Osindero and Teh[52] [53][54] showed how a many-layered feedforward neural network could be effectively pre-trained one layer at a time, treating each layer in turn as an unsupervised restricted Boltzmann machine, then fine-tuning it using supervised backpropagation.[55] The papers referred to learning for deep belief nets.

It was believed that pre-training DNNs using generative models of deep belief nets (DBN) would overcome the main difficulties of neural nets.[66] However, it was discovered that replacing pre-training with large amounts of training data for straightforward backpropagation when using DNNs with large, context-dependent output layers produced error rates dramatically lower than then-state-of-the-art Gaussian mixture model (GMM)/Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and also than more-advanced generative model-based systems.[56][67] The nature of the recognition errors produced by the two types of systems was characteristically different,[68][65] offering technical insights into how to integrate deep learning into the existing highly efficient, run-time speech decoding system deployed by all major speech recognition systems.[8][69][70] Analysis around 2009-2010, contrasted the GMM (and other generative speech models) vs.

While there, Ng determined that GPUs could increase the speed of deep-learning systems by about 100 times.[76] In particular, GPUs are well-suited for the matrix/vector math involved in machine learning.[77][78] GPUs speed up training algorithms by orders of magnitude, reducing running times from weeks to days.[79][80] Specialized hardware and algorithm optimizations can be used for efficient processing.[81] In 2012, a team led by Dahl won the 'Merck Molecular Activity Challenge' using multi-task deep neural networks to predict the biomolecular target of one drug.[82][83] In 2014, Hochreiter's group used deep learning to detect off-target and toxic effects of environmental chemicals in nutrients, household products and drugs and won the 'Tox21 Data Challenge' of NIH, FDA and NCATS.[84][85][86] Significant additional impacts in image or object recognition were felt from 2011 to 2012.

The error rates listed below, including these early results and measured as percent phone error rates (PER), have been summarized over the past 20 years:[clarification needed] The debut of DNNs for speaker recognition in the late 1990s and speech recognition around 2009-2011 and of LSTM around 2003-2007, accelerated progress in eight major areas:[8][71][69] All major commercial speech recognition systems (e.g., Microsoft Cortana, Xbox, Skype Translator, Amazon Alexa, Google Now, Apple Siri, Baidu and iFlyTek voice search, and a range of Nuance speech products, etc.) are based on deep learning.[8][116][117][118] A

DNNs have proven themselves capable, for example, of a) identifying the style period of a given painting, b) 'capturing' the style of a given painting and applying it in a visually pleasing manner to an arbitrary photograph, and c) generating striking imagery based on random visual input fields.[122][123] Neural networks have been used for implementing language models since the early 2000s.[97][124] LSTM helped to improve machine translation and language modeling.[98][99][100] Other key techniques in this field are negative sampling[125] and word embedding.

A compositional vector grammar can be thought of as probabilistic context free grammar (PCFG) implemented by an RNN.[126] Recursive auto-encoders built atop word embeddings can assess sentence similarity and detect paraphrasing.[126] Deep neural architectures provide the best results for constituency parsing,[127] sentiment analysis,[128] information retrieval,[129][130] spoken language understanding,[131] machine translation,[98][132] contextual entity linking,[132] writing style recognition[133] and others.[134] Google Translate (GT) uses a large end-to-end long short-term memory network.[135][136][137][138][139][140] GNMT uses an example-based machine translation method in which the system 'learns from millions of examples.'[136] It translates 'whole sentences at a time, rather than pieces.

These failures are caused by insufficient efficacy (on-target effect), undesired interactions (off-target effects), or unanticipated toxic effects.[144][145] Research has explored use of deep learning to predict biomolecular target,[82][83] off-target and toxic effects of environmental chemicals in nutrients, household products and drugs.[84][85][86] AtomNet is a deep learning system for structure-based rational drug design.[146] AtomNet was used to predict novel candidate biomolecules for disease targets such as the Ebola virus[147] and multiple sclerosis.[148][149] Deep reinforcement learning has been used to approximate the value of possible direct marketing actions, defined in terms of RFM variables.

On the one hand, several variants of the backpropagation algorithm have been proposed in order to increase its processing realism.[164][165] Other researchers have argued that unsupervised forms of deep learning, such as those based on hierarchical generative models and deep belief networks, may be closer to biological reality.[166][167] In this respect, generative neural network models have been related to neurobiological evidence about sampling-based processing in the cerebral cortex.[168] Although a systematic comparison between the human brain organization and the neuronal encoding in deep networks has not yet been established, several analogies have been reported.

systems, like Watson (...) use techniques like deep learning as just one element in a very complicated ensemble of techniques, ranging from the statistical technique of Bayesian inference to deductive reasoning.'[181] As an alternative to this emphasis on the limits of deep learning, one author speculated that it might be possible to train a machine vision stack to perform the sophisticated task of discriminating between 'old master' and amateur figure drawings, and hypothesized that such a sensitivity might represent the rudiments of a non-trivial machine empathy.[182] This same author proposed that this would be in line with anthropology, which identifies a concern with aesthetics as a key element of behavioral modernity.[183] In further reference to the idea that artistic sensitivity might inhere within relatively low levels of the cognitive hierarchy, a published series of graphic representations of the internal states of deep (20-30 layers) neural networks attempting to discern within essentially random data the images on which they were trained[184] demonstrate a visual appeal: the original research notice received well over 1,000 comments, and was the subject of what was for a time the most frequently accessed article on The Guardian's[185] web site.

Some deep learning architectures display problematic behaviors,[186] such as confidently classifying unrecognizable images as belonging to a familiar category of ordinary images[187] and misclassifying minuscule perturbations of correctly classified images.[188] Goertzel hypothesized that these behaviors are due to limitations in their internal representations and that these limitations would inhibit integration into heterogeneous multi-component AGI architectures.[186] These issues may possibly be addressed by deep learning architectures that internally form states homologous to image-grammar[189] decompositions of observed entities and events.[186] Learning a grammar (visual or linguistic) from training data would be equivalent to restricting the system to commonsense reasoning that operates on concepts in terms of grammatical production rules and is a basic goal of both human language acquisition[190] and AI.[191] As deep learning moves from the lab into the world, research and experience shows that artificial neural networks are vulnerable to hacks and deception.

Machine Learning

Supervised learning algorithms are trained using labeled examples, such as an input where the desired output is known.

The learning algorithm receives a set of inputs along with the corresponding correct outputs, and the algorithm learns by comparing its actual output with correct outputs to find errors.

Through methods like classification, regression, prediction and gradient boosting, supervised learning uses patterns to predict the values of the label on additional unlabeled data.

Popular techniques include self-organizing maps, nearest-neighbor mapping, k-means clustering and singular value decomposition.

Supervised learning

Supervised learning is the machine learning task of learning a function that maps an input to an output based on example input-output pairs.[1] It infers a function from labeled training data consisting of a set of training examples.[2] In supervised learning, each example is a pair consisting of an input object (typically a vector) and a desired output value (also called the supervisory signal).

A supervised learning algorithm analyzes the training data and produces an inferred function, which can be used for mapping new examples.

An optimal scenario will allow for the algorithm to correctly determine the class labels for unseen instances.

This requires the learning algorithm to generalize from the training data to unseen situations in a 'reasonable' way (see inductive bias).

There is no single learning algorithm that works best on all supervised learning problems (see the No free lunch theorem).

The prediction error of a learned classifier is related to the sum of the bias and the variance of the learning algorithm.[4] Generally, there is a tradeoff between bias and variance.

A key aspect of many supervised learning methods is that they are able to adjust this tradeoff between bias and variance (either automatically or by providing a bias/variance parameter that the user can adjust).

The second issue is the amount of training data available relative to the complexity of the 'true' function (classifier or regression function).

If the true function is simple, then an 'inflexible' learning algorithm with high bias and low variance will be able to learn it from a small amount of data.

But if the true function is highly complex (e.g., because it involves complex interactions among many different input features and behaves differently in different parts of the input space), then the function will only be learnable from a very large amount of training data and using a 'flexible' learning algorithm with low bias and high variance.

If the input feature vectors have very high dimension, the learning problem can be difficult even if the true function only depends on a small number of those features.

Hence, high input dimensionality typically requires tuning the classifier to have low variance and high bias.

In practice, if the engineer can manually remove irrelevant features from the input data, this is likely to improve the accuracy of the learned function.

In addition, there are many algorithms for feature selection that seek to identify the relevant features and discard the irrelevant ones.

This is an instance of the more general strategy of dimensionality reduction, which seeks to map the input data into a lower-dimensional space prior to running the supervised learning algorithm.

fourth issue is the degree of noise in the desired output values (the supervisory target variables).

If the desired output values are often incorrect (because of human error or sensor errors), then the learning algorithm should not attempt to find a function that exactly matches the training examples.

You can overfit even when there are no measurement errors (stochastic noise) if the function you are trying to learn is too complex for your learning model.

In such a situation, the part of the target function that cannot be modeled 'corrupts' your training data - this phenomenon has been called deterministic noise.

In practice, there are several approaches to alleviate noise in the output values such as early stopping to prevent overfitting as well as detecting and removing the noisy training examples prior to training the supervised learning algorithm.

There are several algorithms that identify noisy training examples and removing the suspected noisy training examples prior to training has decreased generalization error with statistical significance.[5][6] Other factors to consider when choosing and applying a learning algorithm include the following: When considering a new application, the engineer can compare multiple learning algorithms and experimentally determine which one works best on the problem at hand (see cross validation).

Given fixed resources, it is often better to spend more time collecting additional training data and more informative features than it is to spend extra time tuning the learning algorithms.

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For example, naive Bayes and linear discriminant analysis are joint probability models, whereas logistic regression is a conditional probability model.

empirical risk minimization and structural risk minimization.[7] Empirical risk minimization seeks the function that best fits the training data.

In both cases, it is assumed that the training set consists of a sample of independent and identically distributed pairs,

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This can be estimated from the training data as In empirical risk minimization, the supervised learning algorithm seeks the function

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contains many candidate functions or the training set is not sufficiently large, empirical risk minimization leads to high variance and poor generalization.

The regularization penalty can be viewed as implementing a form of Occam's razor that prefers simpler functions over more complex ones.

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The training methods described above are discriminative training methods, because they seek to find a function

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