AI News, Machine learning in COMET experiment (part II)
Machine learning in COMET experiment (part II)
After ionization, electrons and ions are moving to opposite directions, so we probably can estimate the moment of ionization by drift time (which is of course much greater compared to time of particle flight in detector).
The basic algorithm that was proposed (baseline algorithm) is using the cut on energy deposition.
Nevertheless, it's not enough, since we have around 4400 wires, of which around 1000 gets activated (this number is called occupancy) within each measurement (event), while the signal track usually contains around 80 points.
So the event is represented using 4400 pairs (energy, time), of which most are zeros.
First, let's combine all the information we have about the single wire (distance from center, time and energy deposition), let's call them wire features:
After using GBDT trained onwire features and features ofits neighbours, weare getting quite clean picture with very few false positives.
Once wecomputed Hough transform, weleave only those centers, where hough transform ishigh, applying some nonlinear transformation there and applying inverse hough + some filtering.
It’s ROCAUCis 0.9993 (100 times less probability ofmisordering) When weare comparing ROC curves atthe threshold ofinterest (with very high signal sensitivity), things are bit worse, but still very impressing:
I’ve described how simple machine learning techniques coupled with well-known algorithms can produce avery good result, superior tomany complex approaches.
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.
Power is supplied to moving trains with a (nearly) continuous conductor running along the track that usually takes one of two forms: overhead line, suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings;
In comparison to the principal alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer substantially better energy efficiency, lower emissions and lower operating costs.
Some electric traction systems provide regenerative braking that turns the train's kinetic energy back into electricity and returns it to the supply system to be used by other trains or the general utility grid.
Electrification systems are classified by three main parameters: Selection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply, maintenance, and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic.
There are many other voltage systems used for railway electrification systems around the world, and the list of current systems for electric rail traction covers both standard voltage and non-standard voltage systems.
Since such conversion was not well developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century, most early electrified railways used DC and many still do, particularly rapid transit (subways) and trams.
Speed was controlled by connecting the traction motors in various series-parallel combinations, by varying the traction motors' fields, and by inserting and removing starting resistances to limit motor current.
If the DC power in the contact wire is to be supplied directly to the DC traction motors, minimizing resistive losses requires thick, short supply cables/wires and closely spaced converter stations.
At the phase break points between regions supplied from different phases, long insulated supply breaks are required to avoid them being shorted by rolling stock using more than one pantograph at a time.
The increasing availability of high-voltage semiconductors may allow the use of higher and more efficient DC voltages that heretofore have only been practical with AC. Some DC locomotives used motor-generator sets as 'stepdown transformers' to produce more convenient voltages for auxiliary loads such as lighting, fans and compressors but they are inefficient, noisy and unreliable.
State-of-the-art locomotives (diesel-electric as well as electric) have even replaced the traditional universal-type traction motor with a three-phase AC induction motor driven by a special-purpose AC inverter, a variable frequency drive.
The motor had its armature direct-connected to the streetcar's axle for the driving force. Short pioneered 'use of a conduit system of concealed feed'[which?] thereby eliminating the necessity of overhead wire, trolley poles and a trolley for street cars and railways. While at the University of Denver he conducted important experiments which established that multiple unit powered cars were a better way to operate trains and trolleys. Most electrification systems use overhead wires, but third rail is an option up to 1,500 V, as is the case with Shenzhen Metro Line 3.
The use of AC is not feasible because the dimensions of a third rail are physically very large compared with the skin depth that the alternating current penetrates to 0.3 millimetres or 0.012 inches in a steel rail.
This effect makes the resistance per unit length unacceptably high compared with the use of DC. Third rail is more compact than overhead wires and can be used in smaller-diameter tunnels, an important factor for subway systems.
The evidence of this mode of running can still be seen on the track down the slope on the northern access to the abandoned Kingsway Tramway Subway in central London, United Kingdom, where the slot between the running rails is clearly visible, and on P and Q Streets west of Wisconsin Avenue in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington DC, where the abandoned tracks have not been paved over.
cars on some lines converted to overhead wire on leaving the city center, a worker in a 'plough pit' disconnecting the plough while another raised the trolley pole (hitherto hooked down to the roof) to the overhead wire.
On the London Underground, a top-contact third rail is beside the track, energized at 7002420000000000000♠+420 V DC, and a top-contact fourth rail is located centrally between the running rails at 2997790000000000000♠−210 V DC, which combine to provide a traction voltage of 7002630000000000000♠630 V DC.
Power-only rails can be mounted on strongly insulating ceramic chairs to minimise current leak, but this is not possible for running rails which have to be seated on stronger metal chairs to carry the weight of trains.
However, elastomeric rubber pads placed between the rails and chairs can now solve part of the problem by insulating the running rails from the current return should there be a leakage through the running rails.
On tracks that London Underground share with National Rail third-rail stock (the Bakerloo and District lines both have such sections), the centre rail is connected to the running rails, allowing both types of train to operate, at a compromise voltage of 660 V.
Since the tyres do not conduct the return current, the two guide bars provided outside the running 'roll ways' become, in a sense, a third and fourth rail which each provide 750 V DC, so at least electrically it is a four-rail scheme.
This and all other rubber-tyred metros that have a 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge track between the roll ways operate in the same manner. Railways and electrical utilities use AC for the same reason: to use transformers, which require AC, to produce higher voltages.
More recently, the development of very high power semiconductors has caused the classic 'universal' AC/DC motor to be largely replaced with the three-phase induction motor fed by a variable frequency drive, a special inverter that varies both frequency and voltage to control motor speed.
However, the now-standard AC distribution frequencies of 50 and 60 Hz caused difficulties with inductive reactance and eddy current losses, so many railways chose low AC frequencies to overcome these problems.
The system provides regenerative braking with the power fed back to the system, so it is particularly suitable for mountain railways provided the supply grid or another locomotive on the line can accept the power.
later 25 kV) and former Soviet Railways countries (25 kV) did the standard-frequency single-phase alternating current system become widespread, despite the simplification of a distribution system which could use the existing power supply network.
This is achieved by Neutral Sections (also known as Phase Breaks), usually provided at feeder stations and midway between them although, typically, only half are in use at any time, the others being provided to allow a feeder station to be shut down and power provided from adjacent feeder stations.
Neutral Sections usually consist of an earthed section of wire which is separated from the live wires on either side by insulating material, typically ceramic beads, designed so that the pantograph will smoothly run from one section to the other.
The earthed section prevents an arc being drawn from one live section to the other, as the voltage difference may be higher than the normal system voltage if the live sections are on different phases and the protective circuit breakers may not be able to safely interrupt the considerable current that would flow.
A further board is then provided after the neutral section to tell drivers to re-close the circuit breaker, although drivers must not do this until the rear pantograph has passed this board.
In the UK, a system known as Automatic Power Control (APC) automatically opens and closes the circuit breaker, this being achieved by using sets of permanent magnets alongside the track communicating with a detector on the train.
The contactless technology for rail vehicles is currently being marketed by Bombardier as PRIMOVE. In 2006, 240,000 km (150,000 mi) (25% by length) of the world rail network was electrified and 50% of all rail transport was carried by electric traction.
In 2012 for electrified kilometers, China surpassed Russia making it first place in the world with over 48,000 km (30,000 mi) electrified. Trailing behind China were Russia 43,300 km (26,900 mi), India 30,012 km (18,649 mi), Germany 21,000 km (13,000 mi), Japan 17,000 km (11,000 mi), and France 15,200 km (9,400 mi).
Newly electrified lines often show a 'sparks effect', whereby electrification in passenger rail systems leads to significant jumps in patronage / revenue. The reasons may include electric trains being seen as more modern and attractive to ride, faster and smoother service, and the fact that electrification often goes hand in hand with a general infrastructure and rolling stock overhaul / replacement, which leads to better service quality (in a way that theoretically could also be achieved by doing similar upgrades yet without electrification).
While the efficiency of power plant generation and diesel locomotive generation are roughly the same in the nominal regime, diesel motors decrease in efficiency in non-nominal regimes at low power  while if an electric power plant needs to generate less power it will shut down its least efficient generators, thereby increasing efficiency.
Large fossil fuel power stations operate at high efficiency, and can be used for district heating or to produce district cooling, leading to a higher total efficiency.
Rail electrification is often considered an important route towards consumption pattern reform. However, there are no reliable, peer-reviewed studies available to assist in rational public debate on this critical issue, although there are untranslated Soviet studies from the 1980s.
Both the transmission and conversion of electric energy involve losses: ohmic losses in wires and power electronics, magnetic field losses in transformers and smoothing reactors (inductors). Power conversion for a DC system takes place mainly in a railway substation where large, heavy, and more efficient hardware can be used as compared to an AC system where conversion takes place aboard the locomotive where space is limited and losses are significantly higher. Also, the energy used to blow air to cool transformers, power electronics (including rectifiers), and other conversion hardware must be accounted for.
Maintenance costs of the lines may be increased by electrification, but many systems claim lower costs due to reduced wear-and-tear from lighter rolling stock. There are some additional maintenance costs associated with the electrical equipment around the track, such as power sub-stations and the catenary wire itself, but, if there is sufficient traffic, the reduced track and especially the lower engine maintenance and running costs exceed the costs of this maintenance significantly.
Some electrifications have subsequently been removed because of the through traffic to non-electrified lines. If through traffic is to have any benefit, time consuming engine switches must occur to make such connections or expensive dual mode engines must be used.
In theory, these trains could enjoy dramatic savings through electrification, but it can be too costly to extend electrification to isolated areas, and unless an entire network is electrified, companies often find that they need to continue use of diesel trains even if sections are electrified.
The increasing demand for container traffic which is more efficient when utilizing the double-stack car also has network effect issues with existing electrifications due to insufficient clearance of overhead electrical lines for these trains, but electrification can be built or modified to have sufficient clearance, at additional cost.
Electric vehicles, especially locomotives, lose power when traversing gaps in the supply, such as phase change gaps in overhead systems, and gaps over points in third rail systems.
Power gaps can be overcome by on-board batteries or motor-flywheel-generator systems. In 2014, progress is being made in the use of large capacitors to power electric vehicles between stations, and so avoid the need for overhead wires between those stations. A
Germany’s greenhouse gas emissions and climate targets
Germany aims to cut greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 40 percent by 2020 and up to 95 percent in 2050, compared to 1990 levels.
Germany's greenhouse gas reduction goal is more ambitious than that of the European Union, which wants to achieve a 20 percent cut by 2020 and a 40 percent cut by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.
While this puts Germany ahead of many other industrialised nations (note that the share of hydropower in the German energy mix is comparatively low, with most renewable power coming from wind, solar and biomass), Germany has been struggling to keep its greenhouse gas emissions in check.
The German government has been well aware of the “climate gap” and recent projections by the federal environment ministry indicate that only in a best-case scenario will Germany be able to reach its goal to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent by 2020.
In spring 2015, the BMWi presented a proposal for a climate levy designed to reduce emissions from the power sector by another 22 million tonnes by obligating old coal-fired power stations to pay a fee if they emit moreCO2 than permitted (See CLEW news story 'German government wants to tackle old coal...').
But after protests from workers' unions and the large utilities, the government instead decided on a capacity reserve for 2.7 gigawatt of brown coal plants which is designed to reduce CO2 emissions by 11 million tonnes to 12.5 million tonnes in 2020.
The expert opinion accompanying the latest Energiewende Monitoring Report by the federal economy ministry in December 2016 also warned that the country would probably miss its 2020 emission targets and other crucial Energiewende goals, threatening the entire project’s credibility.
In September 2017, think tank Agora Energiewende* published a study saying Germany is likely to miss its 2020 emissions reduction target by nearly 120 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent - a far greater margin than previously thought.
Even bigger reductions were achieved by households (35 percent) and industry (36 percent), while emissions from agriculture fell by only 16 percent, and the transport sector only reduced its emissions by 2 percent.
What You Should (and Shouldn’t) Do to Extend Your Phone’s Battery Life
We partnered with The New York Times to find the answer by testing, on both Android and iPhone smartphones, a slew of procedures that people, publications, and—in some cases—smartphone manufacturers suggest for getting more use time out of your phone.1 The article on the NYT website includes a summary of our findings, but if you want to know more, read on for our extended recommendations.
Watching a movie on, say, Netflix requires your phone’s screen to be on continuously (the biggest battery drain), your phone to maintain an active Internet connection (another notable drain), and the phone’s processor and graphics processor to decode the video and audio.
For example, if you unlock your phone 25 times per day, and your screen-lock delay is three minutes, changing the screen-lock setting to one minute can cut the time your screen is on by up to 50 minutes.
When you are actively using the phone, you can extend the battery life by reducing screen brightness: In Wirecutter testing using the Geekbench utility’s battery-intensive routines for an hour, an iPhone 6s used 54 percent less battery—12 percent of a full charge versus 26 percent—with the screen brightness at minimum compared with maximum brightness.
Using a dim screen in bright environments is tough, however, so most phones offer an auto-brightness mode that automatically adjusts the screen’s brightness based on ambient light: In bright environments, the screen gets brighter, in dim environments, it gets dimmer.
In a moderately well-lit office, our iPhone 6s test phone used only 16 percent of a full battery over an hour of the Geekbench stress test with auto-brightness on (with initial brightness set at 50 percent).
Much of the debate around using this kind of software, which is designed mainly to prevent certain kinds of ads from loading while you’re browsing websites, focuses on revenue (for publishers) and annoyance (for readers).
Without the ad blocker, the test used 18 percent of the phone’s battery, but with the ad blocker, it used only 9 percent—so viewing ads doubled the impact of Web browsing on the phone’s battery!
We ran a similar test on a 2015 Moto X Pure using the Ghostery Privacy Browser and got results that were even more dramatic: With no ad blocker, a two-hour browsing session in Chrome used 22 percent of the phone’s battery, whereas the Ghostery ad-blocking browser (which uses the same browser engine as Chrome) consumed only 8 percent.
feature called push automatically delivers new email, new or revised calendar events, and updates to your contacts list (such as from a Gmail or iCloud account) to your smartphone whenever such changes occur on a central server.
For example, to compare the effect of push versus fetch on the same email load, we tested an iPhone 6s Plus configured with three email accounts, receiving a total of 20 to 30 messages per hour.
It’s difficult to determine conclusively how much of Mail’s energy use is specifically attributable to communication with mail servers, but in these tests, having push active over the course of a day with this particular email load2 caused Mail to account for 5 to 10 percent more of the phone’s total battery use.
Excessive heat, on the other hand, can permanently shorten your phone’s use time—you shouldn’t use or store your phone in extremely hot environments (this includes leaving your phone in the car on sweltering summer days).
(On some models of phones or older operating system versions, it also disables GPS.) Though the mode was originally designed to prevent phones from (theoretically) interfering with airline communications, it also reduces battery usage—all that wireless circuitry requires power.
Indeed, in our testing on Android and iPhone smartphones, enabling airplane mode resulted in the battery level dropping by just a few percent over four hours during normal use (or as normal as use can be when the device is in airplane mode, as we note below).
Similarly, both iPhones running iOS 9 and later and Android phones running Android 6.0 Marshmallow include a low-power mode (sometimes called battery-saver mode) that significantly reduces the phone’s power usage by disabling power-hogging features.
For example, on an iPhone, enabling low-power mode disables email fetch, the Hey Siri feature, background application usage, automatic downloads of app updates and other data, Wi-Fi scanning, and some visual effects.
Both platforms can automatically switch to low-power mode when the battery level dips below a certain threshold (to squeeze an extra hour or so out of your phone when its battery gets low), or you can make the switch manually at any time.
Low-power mode is a better alternative when your phone’s battery is on its last legs and you just need to make it to the next charge, or when you know you’ll be away from power for a prolonged period and you want to stretch the phone’s full charge as long as possible.
But if you use your phone a lot over the course of the day, if you frequently use location-related apps and services, or if you regularly find yourself in areas with bad cellular or Wi-Fi coverage, you can expend a bit more effort to improve battery life.
Modern smartphones are designed to use the minimum amount of power to get the best connection, so when you’re in a spot with good coverage, such as in an urban area, power usage is much lower—sometimes by factors of ten—than when you’re in a rural area with poor coverage, or where you have no signal and the phone is constantly searching for one.
conversely, if your phone struggles to stay connected to your home Wi-Fi network when you’re in the backyard, you should disable Wi-Fi and use cellular data instead.3 If you’re in a location with solid Wi-Fi but poor cellular coverage, note that some smartphones on some carrier networks can use Wi-Fi calling, which routes calls over a Wi-Fi network.
be sure to tap the little clock button to reveal information about how much of your battery life each app is consuming when you’re actively using the app (“screen”) versus when you’re not (“backg…” or “background”).
Other apps, however, consume a seemingly disproportionate amount of power when you’re not actively using them, and the information on background time is especially useful here: Be on the lookout for apps that are active for extended periods in the background and are using a lot of battery power, because these apps are sucking battery juice even when you aren’t actively using them.
Examples might include an email app that spends lots of time checking for new messages even when your phone is asleep, an RSS reader that updates articles in the background, or a fitness app that constantly monitors your location.
For example, on one of our test iPhones, the Moment app, which tracks location and activity throughout the day, used power in the background for nearly 94 hours over 7 days, claiming about 5 percent of overall battery use during that period.
(This is, in part, why long navigation sessions use so much of your battery—you likely keep the screen on for the duration, and the screen draws a lot of power.) Similarly, step counters and activity-tracking apps that aren’t constantly monitoring your location don’t require much power while tracking in the background.
You can take advantage of the previous tip (going through the battery-usage screen) to find big offenders: If a location-based app is using a lot of battery power, especially in the background, chances are good that the app is using GPS, Wi-Fi, and the phone’s sensors frequently.
You can, however, set a systemwide location limit: Go to “Settings” then “Location,” and choose between “High accuracy” mode, which uses GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular networks to determine your location, or “Battery saving” mode, which disables GPS to save energy at the cost of accuracy.
In addition to push email, which automatically notifies you of new email messages as they arrive, smartphones support push notifications, which allow apps to provide new information, sound alarms, display reminders, and more, instantly.
Push notifications can be very convenient—they’re part of what makes a smartphone great—but every notification uses a bit of energy, as it requires your phone to wake up for a few seconds, including turning on the screen, to show you a message and give you a chance to act on it.
If you get a lot of notifications, that energy use can add up.4 Determining exactly how much energy notifications use is difficult—in Wirecutter testing, receiving a few dozen notifications over the course of an hour didn’t noticeably affect battery usage—but both Apple and Google recommend disabling notifications as a way to conserve battery power.
Notification” then “Other Sounds” and disabling “Vibrate on touch.” On most recent Android phones, you can temporarily turn off vibrations (and sounds) by enabling “Priority only” or “Do not disturb” mode, either from your Quick Launch settings (pulling down from the top-right side of the screen) or by clicking the volume rocker all the way down and then clicking down one more time.
In addition, if you regularly use apps that rely on your location, having Wi-Fi enabled helps your phone determine its location without relying solely on power-hungry GPS features, so it actually helps your phone’s battery last longer.
Unless you’re at the edges of a Wi-Fi network, where your phone is struggling to get a solid connection (see Disable cellular or Wi-Fi when the signal is bad, above), and you have a good cellular-data connection—in other words, your phone is keeping both Wi-Fi and cellular active, and switching between the two—you’re usually better off keeping Wi-Fi enabled.
If an app is listed there as consuming a huge amount of battery power, and it isn’t an app you’ve been actively using or one that you’ve given permission to do a lot of things in the background, the app might have a bug that’s causing it to suck up battery power.
(You can then wait for an update to the app that, with any luck, fixes the bug.) If, as is more likely, an app is using a lot of energy because of allowed background or location activity, you’ll need to decide whether you want to disable background refresh or location services, respectively, for that app.
Along the lines of the previous myth, many apps in Google’s Play Store for Android claim to improve your phone’s performance by serving as an always-running “memory manager” or “task killer.” As noted above, manually closing applications is a bad idea—Android can properly keep apps and processes suspended, using little to no resources, just fine on its own.
Even using the Maps app for short navigation sessions doesn’t consume more than a few percents’ worth of your battery’s capacity—and as we noted, having the phone’s screen continually on is a big part of why navigation draws a lot of juice.
(The difference will vary by phone, carrier, and locations, of course.) That said, in situations where you’re roaming on cellular data, you likely won’t have the option to use Wi-Fi (unless, for example, you’re on a train that offers Wi-Fi), so your only real option there is not to use cellular data at all—which might be inconvenient but will conserve a lot of battery power.5
There’s a good reason for this: On the iPhone side, only the iPhone 6s and 6s Plus allow you to enable always-on Hey Siri while the device is on battery power, because these models use newer components (specifically, Apple’s M9 motion coprocessor) that allow Hey Siri to function on minimal power;
For many years, devices that used rechargeable batteries required “conditioning” or “calibrating,” a procedure that prevented the battery from forgetting how much capacity it actually had if you didn’t fully drain the battery between charges (a phenomenon called the memory effect).
However, current smartphones are designed to work with a wide range of charging currents—Apple specifically lists all iPhones as being compatible with the company’s iPad chargers—and the phones themselves limit the maximum current used to charge the battery.
And even if using a higher-current charger on a daily basis does affect the battery’s life cycle, you likely won’t see a difference unless you keep the phone for longer than a couple of years—at which point you’ll be seeing shorter battery life anyway (just possibly not as short) due to age of the battery.
(Some extended warranties for smartphones, including AppleCare+, cover replacing a battery that has declined below a certain amount within the warranty period.) If the battery is fine, and the phone is less than two or three years old—so you don’t plan on buying a new one with better battery life soon—you might consider purchasing an external battery.
These accessories, which can take the form of a bulky case with a built-in battery, or a separate battery that connects to your phone with a cable, provide the power you need to last an additional few hours at the end of the day, or even to fully charge your phone’s battery.
Finally, note that when we mention tests on specific Android and iPhone devices, or even different models on the same platform, those results aren’t directly comparable, because different phones have different battery capacities, different software, and different hardware.
Weak or nonexistent Wi-Fi signals make your phone consume more power than a strong Wi-Fi connection, but with the modern Wi-Fi chips present in smartphones, it’s a very small difference compared with the energy your phone will burn with a weak cellular connection.
- On 11. april 2021
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