# AI News, Machine Learning

- On Wednesday, July 11, 2018
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## Machine Learning

Supervised Learning is an important component of all kinds of technologies, from stopping credit card fraud, to finding faces in camera images, to recognizing spoken language.

Our goal is to give you the skills that you need to understand these technologies and interpret their output, which is important for solving a range of data science problems.

This section focuses on how you can use Unsupervised Learning approaches -- including randomized optimization, clustering, and feature selection and transformation -- to find structure in unlabeled data.

- On Wednesday, July 11, 2018
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## Unsupervised learning

Unsupervised machine learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function that describes the structure of 'unlabeled' data (i.e.

central application of unsupervised learning is in the field of density estimation in statistics,[1] though unsupervised learning encompasses many other problems (and solutions) involving summarizing and explaining various key features of data.

In particular, the method of moments is shown to be effective in learning the parameters of latent variable models.[5] Latent variable models are statistical models where in addition to the observed variables, a set of latent variables also exists which is not observed.

A highly practical example of latent variable models in machine learning is the topic modeling which is a statistical model for generating the words (observed variables) in the document based on the topic (latent variable) of the document.

It is shown that method of moments (tensor decomposition techniques) consistently recover the parameters of a large class of latent variable models under some assumptions.[5] The Expectation–maximization algorithm (EM) is also one of the most practical methods for learning latent variable models.

According to Giora Engel, co-founder of LightCyber, in a Dark Reading article, 'The great promise machine learning holds for the security industry is its ability to detect advanced and unknown attacks—particularly those leading to data breaches.'[6] The basic premise is that a motivated attacker will find their way into a network (generally by compromising a user's computer or network account through phishing, social engineering or malware).

- On Wednesday, July 11, 2018
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## Machine Learning 101 | Supervised, Unsupervised, Reinforcement Beyond

In my last post on Machine Learning, I went over a very broad and conceptual definition of Machine Learning, and showed in sort of a vague sense how many common business problems are well suited to Machine Learning solutions.

But to understand modern Machine Learning, one needs more than an abstract definition: Machine Learning today encompasses a vast set of ideas, tools and techniques with which Data Scientists and other Machine Learning experts are expected to be familiar.

We show the computer a number of images of handwritten digits along with the correct labels for those digits, and the computer learns the patterns that relate images to their labels.

Learning how to perform tasks in this way, by explicit example, is relatively easy to understand and straightforward to implement, but there is a crucial task: we can only do it if we have access to a dataset of correct input-output pairs.

Algorithms for performing binary classification are particularly important because many of the algorithms for performing the more general kind of classification where there are arbitrary labels are simply a bunch of binary classifiers working together.

For instance, a simple solution to the handwriting recognition problem is to simply train a bunch of binary classifiers: a 0-detector, a 1-detector, a 2-detector, and so on, which output their certainty that the image is of their respective digit.

The image here is created by training a kind of unsupervised learning model called a Deep Convolutional Generalized Adversarial Network model to generate images of faces and asking it for images of a smiling man.

In reinforcement learning, we do not provide the machine with examples of correct input-output pairs, but we do provide a method for the machine to quantify its performance in the form of a reward signal.

One of the first big success stories for this type of model was by a small team that trained a reinforcement learning model to play Atari video games using only the pixel output from the game as input.

In order to implement a supervised learning to the problem of playing Atari video games, we would require a dataset containing millions or billions of example games played by real humans for the machine to learn from.

For a beginner wanting to get started, it might seem overwhelming, especially if you want to work with some of the exciting new kinds of models that hallucinate creepy images of smiling men or drive self-driving cars.

A wide variety of supervised and unsupervised learning models are implemented in R and Python, which are freely available and straightforward to get setup on your own computer, and even the simplest models like linear or logistic regression can be used to perform interesting and important Machine Learning tasks.

- On Wednesday, July 11, 2018
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## Unsupervised Learning and Data Clustering

A task involving machine learning may not be linear, but it has a number of well known steps: One good way to come to terms with a new problem is to work through identifying and defining the problem in the best possible way and learn a model that captures meaningful information from the data.

While problems in Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning can be of various types, they can be broadly classified into three categories: Between supervised and unsupervised learning is semi-supervised learning, where the teacher gives an incomplete training signal: a training set with some (often many) of the target outputs missing.

The goal in such unsupervised learning problems may be to discover groups of similar examples within the data, where it is called clustering, or to determine how the data is distributed in the space, known as density estimation.

Given a set of points, with a notion of distance between points, grouping the points into some number of clusters, such that The Goals of Clustering The goal of clustering is to determine the internal grouping in a set of unlabeled data.

Clustering Algorithms Clustering algorithms may be classified as listed below: In the first case data are grouped in an exclusive way, so that if a certain data point belongs to a definite cluster then it could not be included in another cluster.

The procedure follows a simple and easy way to classify a given data set through a certain number of clusters (assume k clusters) fixed a priori.

The objective function where is a chosen distance measure between a data point xi and the cluster centre cj, is an indicator of the distance of the n data points from their respective cluster centres.

A simple approach is to compare the results of multiple runs with different k classes and choose the best one according to a given criterion, but we need to be careful because increasing k results in smaller error function values by definition, but also increases the risk of overfitting.

Fuzzy k-means specifically tries to deal with the problem where points are somewhat in between centers or otherwise ambiguous by replacing distance with probability, which of course could be some function of distance, such as having probability relative to the inverse of the distance.

One should realize that k-means is a special case of fuzzy k-means when the probability function used is simply 1 if the data point is closest to a centroid and 0 otherwise.

therefore, this membership function looked like this: In the Fuzzy k-means approach, instead, the same given data point does not belong exclusively to a well defined cluster, but it can be placed in a middle way.

Hierarchical Clustering Algorithms Given a set of N items to be clustered, and an N*N distance (or similarity) matrix, the basic process of hierarchical clustering is this: Clustering as a Mixture of Gaussians There’s another way to deal with clustering problems: a model-based approach, which consists in using certain models for clusters and attempting to optimize the fit between the data and the model.

The entire data set is therefore modelled by a mixture of these distributions. A mixture model with high likelihood tends to have the following traits: Main advantages of model-based clustering: Mixture of GaussiansThe most widely used clustering method of this kind is based on learning a mixture of Gaussians: A

Expectation-Maximization tries to get around this by iteratively guessing a distribution for the unobserved data, then estimating the model parameters by maximizing something that is a lower bound on the actual likelihood function, and repeating until convergence: The Expectation-Maximization algorithm Problems associated with clustering There are a number of problems with clustering.

- On Wednesday, July 11, 2018
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## Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithms

What is supervised machine learning and how does it relate to unsupervised machine learning?

= f(X) The goal is to approximate the mapping function so well that when you have new input data (x) that you can predict the output variables (Y) for that data.

It is called supervised learning because the process of an algorithm learning from the training dataset can be thought of as a teacher supervising the learning process.

Some common types of problems built on top of classification and regression include recommendation and time series prediction respectively.

Some popular examples of unsupervised learning algorithms are: Problems where you have a large amount of input data (X) and only some of the data is labeled (Y) are called semi-supervised learning problems.

You can also use supervised learning techniques to make best guess predictions for the unlabeled data, feed that data back into the supervised learning algorithm as training data and use the model to make predictions on new unseen data.

- On Thursday, September 19, 2019

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