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Qualcomm

The second funding round was done to raise money for the mass manufacturing of CDMA-based phones, base-stations, and equipment, after most US-based cellular networks announced they would adopt the CDMA standard.[7]

Its cell-phone manufacturing business was also spun-off in order to focus on its higher-margin patents business.[5][7]:310-311 The following year, Qualcomm was the fastest growing stock on the market with a 2,621 percent growth over one year.[15][16][17]

'After several meet-and-confers and exchanges of written correspondence, on May 18, Intel appeared willing to cooperate, offering a 'limited supplemental production of technical materials relating to relevant components designed for 2018 iPhone models' in exchange for Qualcomm's agreement that the limited production would satisfy certain requests in the document subpoena,' the US federal court filing states.[26]

The system is used for voice telephony via hand-held satellite phones, asset tracking and data transfer using mobile satellite modems.

The system was designed as a normal IS-95 system, and used the satellite as a 'bent pipe' or 'repeater' to transfer cellular signals from the handset to the terrestrial base station.

Unlike the Iridium system, which routes phone calls between satellites, the Globalstar satellite must always be able to see both the handset and the base station to establish a connection, therefore, there is no coverage over the Earth's poles where there are no satellite orbits.

On January 24, 2018, the European Commission announced a €997 million fine ($1.2 billion, 4.9% of 2017 turnover) against Qualcomm for violating antitrust laws, by means of its deals with Apple.[84][85]

On January 14, 2019, Apple's COO Jeff Williams said that Apple wanted to use Qualcomm modems in the iPhone XS and XR but Qualcomm refused to sell them after Apple sued over its licensing practices, leading to Apple using Intel's modems instead.[86]

Internal documents disclosed during the opening arguments of this trial indicated that Apple considered Qualcomm's engineering the best and their cellular patent portfolio to be the strongest, further acknowledging that its collecting of patent licensing was 'established and relatively transparent.'

However, Apple engaged in multiple avenues of attack to undermine the value of this portfolio such as attempting to reframe the value of Qualcomm's IP by anchoring its value against deals it secured for less valuable IP from other patent portfolios.[87]

Apple will pay an unspecified amount and enter into a six-year patent licensing agreement, and a multi-year agreement for Qualcomm to provide hardware to the company.

August 2007, Judge Rudi Brewster held that Qualcomm had engaged in litigation misconduct by withholding relevant documents during the lawsuit it brought against Broadcom and that Qualcomm employees had lied about their involvement.[8][94]

In July 2009, South Korea's antitrust watchdog fined Qualcomm a record Won260bn ($207m) for 'unfair' business practices related to its chipset sales, sparking strong protests from the company.

The Fair Trade Commission accused Qualcomm of abusing its dominant position in the Korean market for CDMA mobile phone chips by charging higher royalties on handset makers that bought modem chips from its competitors, while offering rebates to customers who bought products mainly from the US group, the regulator said in a statement.[95]

In a rare full reversal by the commission, following 37 hearings across 9 years, the order was withdrawn in 2019 after finding that Qualcomm's practices did not violate anti-trust law.[97][98]

In 2012, a federal probe was launched into the company's compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which bars companies as well as individuals from bribing foreign officials to gain business.[100]

In July 2016 a group of women filed a class-action gender discrimination lawsuit against Qualcomm, alleging that the firm discriminated against women in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics areas - a class of 3,400 employees.

The plaintiff's law firm said the company will also 'institute significant changes in its policies and practices to help eliminate gender disparities and foster equal employment opportunity going forward.'[105]

On January 4, 2019, the US FTC trial against Qualcomm brought under Section 5 of the FTC act for anti-competitive behavior in the premium standalone modem market began before Judge Lucy Koh in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California.

The judge ruled against Qualcomm on May 22, 2019 in a sweeping decision which went beyond both the market and claims brought by the FTC including a renegotiation of all existing Qualcomm contracts.[107]

Following amicus briefs in support of Qualcomm from the US Department of Justice, the Pentagon, and the US Department of Energy, the ninth circuit appeals court granted a stay on the lower court's decision on August 22, 2019.[108]

The appeals court raised multiple questions regarding the appropriateness of the lower court's interpretation of the law and characterized the decision as at best 'a trailblazing application of antitrust laws' and at worst an 'improper excursion beyond the outer limits of the Sherman Act.'[109]

Qualcomm developed QChat to provide a reliable method of instant connection and two-way communication between users in different locations, but operating within the same type of network architecture.

Prior to the existence of cellular and personal communications services networks, this type of communication was limited to private Land Mobile Radio System (LMR) technology used by public safety and utility service agencies.[citation needed]

Voice information is sent in digital form over IP-based data networks (including CDMA) in discrete packets rather than traditional circuit-switched protocols such those used in the public switched telephone network (PSTN).