AI News, International HPC Summer School 2016

International HPC Summer School 2016

Call for applications (outdated): Graduate students and postdoctoral scholars from institutions in Europe, Canada, Japan and the United States are invited to apply for the seventh International Summer School on HPC Challenges in Computational Sciences, to be held June 26 –

Leading European, Canadian, Japanese and American computational scientists and HPC technologists will offer instruction on a variety of topics, including: The expense-paid program will benefit advanced scholars from European, Canadian, Japanese and U.S. institutions who use HPC to conduct research.

Preference will be given to applicants with parallel programming experience, and a research plan that will benefit from the utilization of high performance computing systems.


The term CDATA, meaning character data, is used for distinct, but related, purposes in the markup languages SGML and XML.

The term indicates that a certain portion of the document is general character data, rather than non-character data or character data with a more specific, limited structure.

there is no semantic difference between character data that manifests as a CDATA section and character data that manifests as in the usual syntax in which, for example, '<' and '' would be represented by 'lt;' and 'amp;', respectively.

Some APIs for working with XML documents do offer options for independent access to CDATA sections, but such options exist above and beyond the normal requirements of XML processing systems, and still do not change the implicit meaning of the data.

For example, to encode ']]>' one would write: This means that to encode ']]>' in the middle of a CDATA section, replace all occurrences of ']]>' with the following: This effectively stops and restarts the CDATA section.

Because of this, using a CDATA section programmatically to quote data that could potentially contain '' or '<' characters can cause problems when the data happens to contain characters that cannot be represented in the encoding.

CDATA sections in XHTML documents are liable to be parsed differently by web browsers if they render the document as HTML, since HTML parsers do not recognise the CDATA start and end markers, nor do they recognise HTML entity references such as lt;

This can cause rendering problems in web browsers and can lead to cross-site scripting vulnerabilities if used to display data from untrusted sources, since the two kinds of parser will disagree on where the CDATA section ends.

Since it is useful to be able to use less-than signs (<) and ampersands () in web page scripts, and to a lesser extent styles, without having to remember to escape them, it is common to use CDATA markers around the text of inline <script>

But so that the document can also be parsed by HTML parsers, which do not recognise the CDATA markers, the CDATA markers are usually commented-out, as in this JavaScript example: or this CSS example: This technique is only necessary when using inline scripts and stylesheets, and is language-specific.


CDATA (Character data) viene usato in vari ambiti nei linguaggi di markup come SGML o XML.

Per esempio, se qualcuno scrive uno libro in XML (formattandolo con XSL) per parlare di XML stesso, per fornire degli esempi di codice, deve racchiuderli necessariamente dentro delle sezioni CDATA.

Tuttavia, una sezione CDATA non può contenere la stringa ']]>' - questo problema può essere tuttavia aggirato spezzando le parentesi dal simbolo maggiore, come in questo esempio:

Nei file Document Type Definition (DTD), ad un attributo può essere assegnato il tipo CDATA: il valore assegnato sarà trattato come testo e sarà quindi possibile inserire, senza errori di parsing, caratteri ed entity. Per

Working with CDATA

Let's dig into the processing and validation of CDATA sections in your XML documents that are often used to embed blocks of XML data as strings inside an existing XML structure.

Specifically, we are going to look at: In the end, you are going to learn how the SoapUI Pro event handler can help you do all this with ease.

CDATA sections are used in XML documents to avoid longer blocks of text that could otherwise be interpreted as markup, for example: In this example, the text <data>some embedded xml</data>

If an embedded XML document contains a CDATA section, the embedded closing tag (]]>) terminates the outer CDATA section.

Suppose, you have the following string: To add it to an XML document, you can use standard XML entities: or split it into three strings: Either of these methods allows you to get the original string with any XML processor.

It is (unfortunately) quite common that SOAP messages contain some part of the payload in a request or response as a string, not as XML data, which has both advantages and disadvantages.

They are not easily asserted with XPath, and using them as targets/sources for property transfers is difficult, since they are strings, not XML data.

A common scenario is transferring a value from a response message to the following request (for example a session ID).

value from the sample message above to the following search query, which also contains embedded XML data: To transfer the value from the CDATA section of the response message to the CDATA section of the request: Running these three transfers extracts the desired value from the embedded XML data in the response and writes it to the embedded XML data in the request.

You can create a script that loads an XSD schema from the file system and validates the XML data in the description: Use the following XSD file for this example: This can come in handy if you want to validate REST/HTTP requests that do not have a formalized schema, and since Groovy can validate by using DTD and RelaxNG as well, this can be performed equally.

strings from the response XML, which enables SoapUI to process the entire content as XML data, allowing you to view/handle responses as standard XML data.

Of course, this approach has some severe limitations: it depends on the response formatting, and Schema Compliance assertions will probably fail, but it might be what you need to get the job done.