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Fake news

Fake news or junk news or pseudo-news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media.[1][2]

Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,[4][5][6]

An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.[11]

During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump popularized the term 'fake news' in this sense when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.[15][16]

In part as a result of Trump's use of the term, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is 'a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes.'[17]

Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be 'stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people.'

In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive.

In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.[26][27][28]

In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase 'fake news' and 'censors it in conversation', finding it 'woefully inadequate' to describe the issues.

One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves 'extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight'.[36]

The fictionalized articles successfully attracted new subscribers, and the penny paper suffered very little backlash after it admitted the next month that the series had been a hoax.[46][53]

During the First World War, an example of anti-German atrocity propaganda was that of an alleged 'German Corpse Factory' in which the German battlefield dead were rendered down for fats used to make nitroglycerine, candles, lubricants, human soap, and boot dubbing.

Unfounded rumors regarding such a factory circulated in the Allied press starting in 1915, and by 1917 the English-language publication North China Daily News presented these allegations as true at a time when Britain was trying to convince China to join the Allied war effort;

Although preceded by a clear introduction that the show was a drama, it became famous for allegedly causing mass panic, although the reality of the panic is disputed as the program had relatively few listeners.

Over time, the Internet has grown to unimaginable heights with tons of information coming in all the time which allows the Internet to be a host for plenty of unwanted, untruthful and misleading information that can be made by anyone.

Besides referring to made-up stories designed to deceive readers into clicking on links, maximizing traffic and profit, the term has also referred to satirical news, whose purpose is not to mislead but rather to inform viewers and share humorous commentary about real news and the mainstream media.[65][66]

In an interview with NPR, Jestin Coler, former CEO of the fake media conglomerate Disinfomedia, said who writes fake news articles, who funds these articles, and why fake news creators create and distribute false information.

Coler, who has since left his role as a fake news creator, said that his company employed 20 to 25 writers at a time and made $10,000 to $30,000 monthly from advertisements.

Facebook users play a major role in feeding into fake news stories by making sensationalized stories 'trend', according to BuzzFeed media editor Craig Silverman, and the individuals behind Google AdSense basically fund fake news websites and their content.[71]

Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, said, 'I think the idea that fake news on Facebook influenced the election in any way, I think is a pretty crazy idea', and then a few days later he blogged that Facebook was looking for ways to flag fake news stories.[72]

Many online pro-Trump fake news stories are being sourced out of a city of Veles in Macedonia, where approximately seven different fake news organizations are employing hundreds of teenagers to rapidly produce and plagiarize sensationalist stories for different U.S. based companies and parties.[73]

These stories consistently appeared in Google's top news search results, were shared widely on Facebook, were taken seriously, and shared by third parties such as Trump presidential campaign manager Corey Lewandowski, Eric Trump, ABC News, and the Fox News Channel.[79][80][81]

In a November 2016 interview with The Washington Post, Horner expressed regret for the role his fake news stories played in the election and surprise at how gullible people were in treating his stories as news.[76][83][84][85]

Kim LaCapria of the fact checking website Snopes.com has stated that, in America, fake news is a bipartisan phenomenon, saying that '[t]here has always been a sincerely held yet erroneous belief misinformation is more red than blue in America, and that has never been true.'[95]

There was a very large difference (800%) in the consumption of fake news stories as related to total news consumption between Trump supporters (6.2%) and Clinton supporters (0.8%).[102][103]

The study also showed that fake pro-Trump and fake pro-Clinton news stories were read by their supporters, but with a significant difference: Trump supporters consumed far more (40%) than Clinton supporters (15%).

Another issue in mainstream media is the usage of the filter bubble, a 'bubble' that has been created that gives the viewer, on social media platforms, a specific piece of the information knowing they will like it.

This becomes a problem in today's society because people are seeing only bits and pieces and not the whole issues making it much harder to solve the issues or talk about it worldwide.

According to Bounegru, Gray, Venturini and Mauri, fake news is when a deliberate lie 'is picked up by dozens of other blogs, retransmitted by hundreds of websites, cross-posted over thousands of social media accounts and read by hundreds of thousands' that it then effectively becomes 'fake news'.[107]

The nature of trust depends on the assumptions that non-institutional forms of communication are freer from power and more able to report information that mainstream media are perceived as unable or unwilling to reveal.

Fake news is often spread through the use of fake news websites, which, in order to gain credibility, specialize in creating attention-grabbing news, which often impersonate well-known news sources.[116][117][118]

In 2017, the inventor of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee claimed that fake news was one of the three most significant new disturbing Internet trends that must first be resolved, if the Internet is to be capable of truly 'serving humanity.'

After a survey was conducted, it was found that 58% of people had less trust in social media news stories as opposed to 24% of people in mainstream media after learning about fake news.[120]

In his 1996 book Being Digital he predicted a digital life where news consumption becomes an extremely personalized experience and newspapers adapted content to reader preferences.

Bots have the potential to increase the spread of fake news, as they use algorithms to decide what articles and information specific users like, without taking into account the authenticity of an article.

Bots mass-produce and spread articles, regardless of the credibility of the sources, allowing them to play an essential role in the mass spread of fake news, as bots are capable of creating fake accounts and personalities on the web that are then gaining followers, recognition, and authority.

A Pew Research poll conducted in December 2016 found that 64% of U.S. adults believed completely made-up news had caused 'a great deal of confusion' about the basic facts of current events, while 24% claimed it had caused 'some confusion' and 11% said it had caused 'not much or no confusion'.[137]

Researchers from Stanford assessed that only 8% of readers of fake news recalled and believed in the content they were reading, though the same share of readers also recalled and believed in 'placebos' – stories they did not actually read, but that were produced by the authors of the study.

Will Oremus of Slate wrote that because supporters of U.S. President Donald Trump had redefined the word 'fake news' to refer to mainstream media opposed to them, 'it makes sense for Facebook—and others—to cede the term to the right-wing trolls who have claimed it as their own.'[138]

The fake news audience is only 10 percent of the real news audience, and most fake news consumers spent a relatively similar amount of time on fake news compared with real news consumers—with the exception of Drudge Report readers, who spent more than 11 times longer reading the website than other users.[139]

In Internet slang, a troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or off-topic discussion, often for the troll's amusement.

Trolling comes in various forms, and can be dissected into abuse trolling, entertainment trolling, classical trolling, flame trolling, anonymous trolling, and kudos trolling.

It is closely linked to fake news, as internet trolls are now largely interpreted as perpetrators of false information, information that can often be passed along unwittingly by reporters and the public alike.[142][143]

The volume and reluctance of fake news websites to respond to fact-checking organizations has posed a problem to inhibiting the spread of fake news through fact checking alone.[151]

In an effort to reduce the effects of fake news, fact-checking websites, including Snopes.com and FactCheck.org, have posted guides to spotting and avoiding fake news websites.[148][152]

GNI has three goals: “to elevate and strengthen quality journalism, evolve business models to drive sustainable growth and empower news organizations through technological innovation.”[158]

His claims have given credibility to the stories in the Russian media that label American news, especially news about atrocities committed by the Syrian regime against its own people, where it was quoted that 'munitions at the air base had as much to do with chemical weapons as the test tube in the hands of Colin Powell had to do with weapons of mass destruction in Iraq', as just more fake American news.[161]

Jonathan Chait wrote in New York magazine: 'Trump admits he calls all negative news 'fake'.': 'In a tweet this morning, Trump casually opened a window into the source code for his method of identifying liberal media bias.

Last month he tweeted about 'fake books,' 'the fake dossier,' 'fake CNN,' and he added a new claim – that Google search results are 'RIGGED' to mostly show only negative stories about him.'

By late 2018, the term 'fake news' had become verboten and U.S. journalists, including the Poynter Institute were asking for apologies and for product retirements from companies using the term.[175][176][177]

In October 2018, the British government decided that the term 'fake news' will no longer be used in official documents because it is 'a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes.'

well-known case of fabricated news in Australia happened in 2009 when a report Deception Detection Across Australian Populations of a 'Levitt Institute' was widely cited on the news websites all over the country, claiming that Sydney was the most naive city, despite the fact that the report itself contained a clue: amidst the mathematical gibberish, there was a statement: 'These results were completely made up to be fictitious material through a process of modified truth and credibility nodes.'[178] The

The inquiry looks at a few major areas in Australia to find audiences most vulnerable to fake news, by considering the impact on traditional journalism, and by evaluating the liability of online advertisers and by regulating the spreading the hoaxes.

This act of parliament is meant to combat the threat of social media power on spreading fakes news as concluded negative results to the public.[179]

Nalon told The Guardian there was a great deal of fake news, and hesitated to compare the problem to that experienced in the U.S.[181] In fact, Brazil also have problems with fake news and according to a survey have a greater number of people that believe fake news influenced the outcome of their elections (69%) than the United States (47%).[120]

Kam Chow Wong, a former Hong Kong law enforcement official and criminal justice professor at Xavier University, praised attempts in the U.S. to patrol social media.[186]The Wall Street Journal noted China's themes of Internet censorship became more relevant at the World Internet Conference due to the outgrowth of fake news.[187]

In March 2017, the People's Daily, a newspaper run by the ruling Communist Party of China, denounced news coverage of the torture of Chinese lawyer and human rights advocate Xie Yang, claiming it to be fake news.[188]

The Chinese government also claimed that there are people who pose as journalists that spread negative information on social media in order to extort payment from their victims to stop doing so.

Taiwan's leaders, including President Tsai Ing-wen and Premier William Lai, have accused China's troll army of spreading 'fake news' via social media to support candidates more sympathetic to Beijing ahead of the 2018 Taiwanese local elections.[191][192][193]

Officials from 11 countries met in Helsinki in November 2016 and planned the formation of a center to combat disinformation cyber-warfare, which includes the spread of fake news on social media.

During the 10-year period preceding 2016, France was witness to an increase in popularity of far-right alternative news sources called the fachosphere ('facho' referring to fascist);

Laurence Rossignol, women's minister for France, informed parliament though the fake sites look neutral, in actuality their intentions were specifically targeted to give women fake information.

A study looking at the diffusion of political news during the 2017 presidential election cycle suggests that one in four links shared in social media comes from sources that actively contest traditional media narratives.[200]

German Chancellor Angela Merkel lamented the problem of fraudulent news reports in a November 2016 speech, days after announcing her campaign for a fourth term as leader of her country.

The German term Lügenpresse, or lying press, has been used since the 19th century and specifically during World War One as a strategy to attack news spread by political opponents from the 19th and 20th century.[209]

In April 2018, the Information and Broadcasting Ministry said the government would cancel the accreditation of journalists found to be sharing fake news, but this was quickly retracted after criticism that this was an attack on freedom of the press.[214]

The problem first arose during their 2014 presidential election, where candidate Jokowi became a target of a smear campaign which falsely claimed he was the child of Indonesian Communist Party members, of Chinese descent, and a Christian.[217]

Unlike the 2016 U.S. presidential election, where the sharing of fake news resulted in increased social-media engagement than real news, inflaming ethnic and political tensions could be potentially deadly in Indonesia, with its recent incidences of domestic terrorism, and its long and bloody history of anticommunist, anti-Christian and anti-Chinese pogroms.[217]

The government, watchdog groups, and even religious organizations have taken steps to prevent its spreading, such as blocking certain websites and creating fact-check apps.

While the government currently views criminal punishment as its last resort, officials are working hard to guarantee law enforcement will respect the freedom of expression.

In a social media post, Netanyahu blasted various Israeli news critical of him, as fake news including Channel 2, Channel 10, Haaretz and Ynet the same day US President Trump decried 'fake news'.

He specifically disagreed with the notion that Hamas had accepted the state of Israel within their new charter, and called this 'a complete distortion of the truth.” Instead he said, “The new Hamas document says Israel has no right to exist.” In a later speech, addressed to his supporters, Netanyahu responded to allegations against him: “The fake news industry is at its peak...

The same demonstrations whose goal is to apply improper pressure on law enforcement authorities so they will file an indictment at any price.” Observers likened his blanketed use of the term, ‘fake news’, for describing left-wing media to Donald Trump, and his similar statements during the 2016 election cycle.[223]

In April 2018, Malaysia implemented the Anti-Fake News Bill 2018, a controversial law that deemed publishing and circulating misleading information as a crime punishable by up to six years in prison and/or fines of up to 500,000 ringit.[225]

The convergence between the fake news law and Razak's connection to scandal was made clear by the Malaysian minister of communications and multimedia, Salleh Said Keruak, who said that tying Razak to a specific dollar amount could be a prosecutable offense.[227]

In the 2018 Malaysian general election, Najib Razak lost his seat as prime minister to Mahatir Mohammad, who vowed to abolish the fake news law in his campaign, as the law was used to target him.[228][229]

This incident has contributed to the growing issue of what defines news as fake, and how freedoms of press and speech can be protected during attempts to curb to spread of false news.

According to media analysts, developing countries such as the Philippines, with the generally new access to social media and democracy, feel the problem of fake news to a larger extent.[238]

Rappler, a social news network in the Philippines, investigated online networks of Rodrigo Duterte supporters and discovered that they include fake news, fake accounts, bots and trolls, which Rappler thinks are being used to silence dissent.

They also create a very real chilling effect against normal people, against journalists (who) are the first targets, and they attack in very personal ways with death threats and rape threats.'

An incident was the accusation made by Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre II regarding 2017 Marawi Crisis in which he tagged various opposition senators and other people as masterminds of the attack based on a photo shared through social media and other blog sites which produces fake news.[243]

According to the Global News, state-owned television Al Arabiya, 'has suggested that Canada is the worst country in the world for women, that it has the highest suicide rate and that it treats its Indigenous people the way Myanmar treats the Rohingya – a Muslim minority massacred and driven out of Myanmar en masse last year.'[253]

Saudi Arabia's Office of Public Prosecution tweeted that 'producing rumors or fake news [that Saudi Arabia's government was involved in the disappearance of Khashoggi] that would affect the public order or public security or sending or resending it via social media or any technical means' is punishable 'by five years and a fine of 3 million riyals'.[256][257]

On 18 March 2015, a doctored screenshot of Prime Minister's Office website claiming the demise of the Lee Kuan Yew went viral, and several international news agencies such as CNN and China Central Television initially reported it as news, until corrected by the Prime Minister's Office.

Activist platform The Online Citizen regarded legislation against fake news as an attempt by the government to curb the free flow of information so that only information approved by the government is disseminated to the public.[267]

In an online essay, activist and historian Thum Ping Tjin denied that fake news was a problem in Singapore, and accused the People's Action Party government as the only major source of fake news, claiming that detentions made without trial during Operation Coldstore and Operation Spectrum were based on fake news for party political gain.[268]

Facebook and Google have opposed the introduction of new laws to combat fake news, claiming that existing legislation is adequate to address the problem and that an effective way of combating misinformation is through educating citizens on how to distinguish reliable from unreliable information.[269]

wide range of South African media sources have reported fake news as a growing problem and tool to both increase distrust in the media, discredit political opponents, and divert attention from corruption.[270]

Individuals targeted include Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan who was seen as blocking Gupta attempts at state capture with accusations levelled against Gordhan of promoting state capture for 'white monopoly capital'.[272][273]

In court papers Bolani stated that the ANC used her to launch and run a covert R50 million fake news and disinformation campaign during the 2016 municipal elections with the intention of discrediting opposition parties.[274][275][276]

On November 27, 2018, prosecutors raided the house of Gyeonggi Province governor Lee Jae-myung amid suspicions that his wife used a pseudonymous Twitter handle to spread fake news about President Moon Jae-in and other political rivals of her husband.[279][280]

According to the Oxford Internet Institute, eight of the top 10 “junk news” sources during the 2018 Swedish general election campaign were Swedish, and “Russian sources comprised less than 1% of the total number of URLs shared in the data sample.”[285]

According to the news updated paper from the Time World in regards the global threat to free speech, the Taiwanese government has reformed its policy on education and it will include 'media literacy' as one part of school curriculum for the students.

Since the Euromaidan and the beginning of the Ukrainian crisis in 2014, the Ukrainian media circulated several fake news stories and misleading images, including a dead rebel photograph with a Photoshop-painted tattoo which allegedly indicated that he belonged to Russian Special Forces,[295]

Younger said the mission of MI6 was to combat propaganda and fake news in order to deliver to his government a strategic advantage in the information warfare arena, and assist other nations including Europe.

Governmental bodies in the U.S. and Europe started looking at contingencies and regulations to combat fake news specially when as part of a coordinated intelligence campaign by hostile foreign governments.[313][314]

They assessed that 8% of readers of fake news recalled and believed in the content they were reading, though the same share of readers also recalled and believed in 'placebos' — stories they did not actually read, but that were produced by the authors of the study.

In December 2016, an armed North Carolina man, Edgar Maddison Welch, traveled to Washington, D.C., and opened fire at the Comet Ping Pong pizzeria, driven by a fake online news story known as the Pizzagate conspiracy theory, which accused the pizzeria of hosting a pedophile ring run by Democratic Party leaders.[325]

Lara Trump introduced one video by saying 'If you are tired of all the fake news out there...we are going to bring you nothing but the facts' and 'I bet you haven't heard about all the accomplishments the president had this week, because there's so much fake news out there'.[336]

In January 2018, it was reported that a Gallup-Knight Foundation survey found that 17% of Democrats and 42% of Republicans 'consider accurate news stories that cast a politician or political group in a negative light to always be 'fake news.''[338]

A June 2018 poll by Axios and Survey Monkey found that 72% of Americans believe 'traditional news outlets knowingly report false or misleading stories at least sometimes,' with 92% of Republican and Republican-leaning independents and 53% of Democrats believing this.[339]

Venezuela's journalist union SNTP stated that the state-run National Commission of Telecommunications (CONATEL) was responsible for the incident, with CONATEL denying the reports of censorship, stating 'Media of the right circulate fake news to destabilize the peace of the country'.[343]

Later on 3 September 2018, Vice President of Venezuela Delcy Rodríguez stated that the Venezuelan refugee crisis was 'fake news' and that reports surrounding large scale migration were acts of propaganda designed to promote foreign intervention in Venezuela.[344]

25 papers accepted at ICA

We hypothesized virality metrics will (1) increase people’s perceived effectiveness and credibility of a message and (2) increase perceived risk, injunctive norm, and descriptive norm toward a promoted health behavior compared to the absence of metrics, and larger metrics will lead to greater effects than smaller metrics.

We examined how a TTP, 13 Reasons Why, relates to social perceptions about mental illness among a sample of adolescent and young adult viewers and non-viewers across four global regions (N = 3520).

Further, we assessed the influence of viewer (n = 1624) characteristics (e.g., age, culture) on the association between perceptions of mental illness norms and the uptake of prosocial mental health-related behaviors (e.g., expressing thoughts about suicide) among viewers.

Results suggest a gender by condition interaction for both indicators of prosociality: prosocial and defending behaviors were significantly higher for male participants in the violent superhero content condition compared to males in the control and non-violent conditions.

Previous work found that special inserts, designed to help children understand an inclusion message, were somewhat effective in promoting children’s comprehension of the moral lesson.

To test which design principle will drive news selection and memory, participants (N = 381) navigated a news website containing eight news stories positioned across four screen quadrants (top-left, top-right, bottom-left, and bottom-right).

This study aimed to examine how vaccine misinformation impacted vaccine attitude through cognitive and affective routes, and more importantly how two-sided refutational messages could revert the negative impact.

We conducted an online experiment with five message conditions (N = 609), featuring the MMR vaccine: two misinformation messages, two two-sided refutational messages, and a control group.

These findings suggest that misinformation impact on attitude may be largely driven by people’s anger response, and two-sided refutational messages can be a promising strategy to negate misinformation.

ABSTRACT: In our increasingly connected world, it is not surprising that topics such as protests, elections, opinion polarization, or responses to natural disasters have been analyzed within social media environments.

Addressing the problem of social capital divide where users with lower reciprocity benefit less from using social media than others, this project aimed to understand the factors affecting individuals’ reciprocity in social media by proposing the model of online reciprocity.

Therefore, this project aimed to examine the patterns and effects of engaging in different Facebook activities on older users over 55 as compared to younger adults between 18 and 24, using Facebook activity data in conjunction with survey data.

Socioemotional Selectivity Theory was used to explain different goals and values older adults have than younger adults as well as different effects of SNS activities on psychological well-being of older adults compared to younger adults.

We found that older adults prioritize the values relevant to limited future time perspective more, engage in Facebook activities targeting large and unspecified audience less, and benefit from large network size less and from uploading photos more compared to younger adults.

ABSTRACT: This paper uses two studies (total N = 492) to examine the relationship between social media use and indicators of well-being in a sample of adolescents and emerging adults (ages 14-27).

With an increase in tough topic streaming media, it is important to examine how parasocial relationships with media characters impact adolescents’ and young adults’ behavior change following exposure.

 Using data from adolescents and young adults living in four regions around the world (N = 1624), this study assesses the relationship between viewers’ parasocial relationships with their self-selected favorite media characters, story comprehension, health information seeking, and empathic behavior after viewing the first season of Netflix’s 13 Reasons Why.

The results of this study indicate that parasocial relationships play an important role in the comprehension of tough topic entertainment content and influence both information seeking and empathic behavior post-viewing.

Relying on web browsing history records and survey responses from 688 social media users (N= 21,824,150 visits to websites), we examine the correspondence between self-reported news use and behavioral trace data on respondents’ actual online activities as determined by their willingly shared browsing history, and also test which news use indicator correlates more strongly with self-reported measures on following politics.

Furthermore, we test whether the correspondence between self-reports and trace data depends on three individual-level factors (age, education and partisanship) and a host of “context-of-use” factors (e.g., the use of other media and devices, other browsers, etc.).

Theoretically, we extend the investigation on how to best gauge people’s news exposure in the current environment and show that although both data sources are imperfect, they together offer insight into overall news consumption ecology, especially when the “context-of-use” factors are taken into account.

Specifically, we hypothesized and generally confirmed that increases in targets’ inferences of personal-attack goals predicted increases in targets’ use of uncertainty reduction strategies (URS) to gain information about a bully’s identity and motives in both public and private bullying contexts.

When targets infer personal attack goals, they also tend to experience increased levels of hurt, perceived severity, and negative emotional reaction regardless of publicness.

This project bridges the work on affective polarization with the socio-psychological theorizing on intergroup contact to test whether nine distinct intergroup contact strategies can attenuate affective polarization.

Relying on data from three original experiments on national samples collected by Survey Sampling International and on a secondary dataset from Pew Research Center, we examine whether (1) cooperative interparty interactions exert stronger effects than simple positive contact, (2) perceived interconnectedness between the self and the outgroup mediates contact effects, (3) polarization has broader implications for the political system (i.e., support for interparty compromise and attribution of malevolence to the outparty), and (4) interparty contact enhances support for interparty compromise and decreases attribution of malevolence indirectly through reducing polarization.

We examine (1) the patterns of affective polarization (2) the associations between affective polarization and use of offline media, online websites and blogs, and also social networks and hybrid networks, as well as (3) the relationship between affective polarization and ideological news browsing.

Drawing upon expectation states (ES) theory, an experiment (N = 185) examined how status characteristics (i.e., game partners’ biological sex) and behavioral exchanges (i.e., displaying game competency) influenced video game sexism toward women and intentions toward future subgrouping.

Male-incompetent partner dyads exhibited no sexism differences relative to male-competent dyads, whereas female-competent dyads showed lower sexism than female-incompetent, male-competent, and male-incompetent dyads.

ABSTRACT: This study proposes and tests the idea that the motivational activation decay from preceding emotional content could modulate the product attitude and purchase intention towards the subsequent advertisement.

On top of that, this study predicts that appetitive activation level during ad processing is higher when preceding content is positive rather than negative, resulting in better product recognition, favorable product attitude and higher purchase intention.

In addition, this study predicts that the appetitive activation level during ad is higher when the preceding content is positive arousing rather than positive calm, resulting in better product recognition, favorable product attitude and higher purchase intention.

Lastly, this study predicts that the aversive activation level during ad processing is lower when the preceding content is negative calm rather than negative arousing, resulting in better product recognition, favorable product attitude and higher purchase intention.

ABSTRACT: To identify the effects of sender type (i.e., individuals or organizations) and content type (i.e., personal narratives or factual information) on promoting the spread of cervical cancer prevention messages over social media.

Then we constructed 900 experimental tweet messages according to a 2 (sender type) by 2 (content type) factorial design and tested their probabilities of being shared in an online social media platform in 2017.

A total of 782 female participants were randomly assigned to 87 independent 9-person online groups and each received a unique message feed of 100 tweets drawn from the 4 experimental cells over 5 days.

In contrast, in the online experiment, factual informational tweets led to 19% (95% CI, 11 to 27) more shares than personal experience tweets and organizational senders led to 10% (95% CI, 3 to 18) more shares than individual senders.

While persuasive technologies for behavior change have successfully leveraged other system features, the development of artificial persuasive agents remains lagged due to a lack of synergy between social scientific research on persuasion and the computational development of conversational systems.

Guided by humor research and social identity theory, the current study provides empirical and behavioral evidence of the potential influence of public forum posts with meme humor and social identity cues on viewers’ high-sugar food taking behavior.

out-group) factorial experiment with 239 participants showed that meme presence instead of absence increased perceived funniness of the forum post, which then reduced high-sugar food taking when the message was from an in-group member, but increased high-sugar food taking when it was from an out-group member.

ABSTRACT: We examined the effectiveness of two messages in reducing stigma toward schizophrenia: a public blame article that attributes stigma to public ignorance, and a media blame article that attributes ignorance to bias in media representations.

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