AI News, How do I learn machine learning?

How do I learn machine learning?

Machine Learning in a process is Don’t be surprised if you come across an advertisement exactly similar to your interests which you wanted to buy the last time you were shopping online.

This mainly relies on the science of data modeling, the process of assessing the basic structure of a dataset, locating patterns and bridging the gap where there are no traces of data.

If we look closely, software is a very small component however, a game changer in a large community of products and services.

Having a strong hold on API, dynamic libraries will help in proper software designing and effective interface development.

However, choose an appropriate model to implement them effectively like decision tree, nearest neighbor, neural net, ensemble of multiple models, support vector machine etc.

You need to have knowledge about convex optimization, quadratic programming, gradient decent, partial differential equations, lagrange etc.

Moreover, it's important to have an idea about merits and demerits of different approaches like overfitting and underfitting, data leakage, bias and variance, missing data, data leakage.

With so much hype of machine learning already in 2017, I am sure machine learning will emerge more bigger in the coming years down the line.

Some quick links Chat with Academic Counsellor - You're welcome to share all your doubts, insecurities paying an ear to which we'll try our level best to guide you to your career path of success.

Machine learning

progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.[1] The name Machine learning was coined in 1959 by Arthur Samuel.[2] Evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence,[3] machine learning explores the study and construction of algorithms that can learn from and make predictions on data[4] – such algorithms overcome following strictly static program instructions by making data-driven predictions or decisions,[5]:2 through building a model from sample inputs.

Machine learning is sometimes conflated with data mining,[8] where the latter subfield focuses more on exploratory data analysis and is known as unsupervised learning.[5]:vii[9] Machine learning can also be unsupervised[10] and be used to learn and establish baseline behavioral profiles for various entities[11] and then used to find meaningful anomalies.

These analytical models allow researchers, data scientists, engineers, and analysts to 'produce reliable, repeatable decisions and results' and uncover 'hidden insights' through learning from historical relationships and trends in the data.[12] Effective machine learning is difficult because finding patterns is hard and often not enough training data are available;

Mitchell provided a widely quoted, more formal definition of the algorithms studied in the machine learning field: 'A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.'[15] This definition of the tasks in which machine learning is concerned offers a fundamentally operational definition rather than defining the field in cognitive terms.

Machine learning tasks are typically classified into two broad categories, depending on whether there is a learning 'signal' or 'feedback' available to a learning system: Another categorization of machine learning tasks arises when one considers the desired output of a machine-learned system:[5]:3 Among other categories of machine learning problems, learning to learn learns its own inductive bias based on previous experience.

Developmental learning, elaborated for robot learning, generates its own sequences (also called curriculum) of learning situations to cumulatively acquire repertoires of novel skills through autonomous self-exploration and social interaction with human teachers and using guidance mechanisms such as active learning, maturation, motor synergies, and imitation.

Probabilistic systems were plagued by theoretical and practical problems of data acquisition and representation.[19]:488 By 1980, expert systems had come to dominate AI, and statistics was out of favor.[20] Work on symbolic/knowledge-based learning did continue within AI, leading to inductive logic programming, but the more statistical line of research was now outside the field of AI proper, in pattern recognition and information retrieval.[19]:708–710;

Machine learning and data mining often employ the same methods and overlap significantly, but while machine learning focuses on prediction, based on known properties learned from the training data, data mining focuses on the discovery of (previously) unknown properties in the data (this is the analysis step of knowledge discovery in databases).

Much of the confusion between these two research communities (which do often have separate conferences and separate journals, ECML PKDD being a major exception) comes from the basic assumptions they work with: in machine learning, performance is usually evaluated with respect to the ability to reproduce known knowledge, while in knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD) the key task is the discovery of previously unknown knowledge.

Jordan, the ideas of machine learning, from methodological principles to theoretical tools, have had a long pre-history in statistics.[22] He also suggested the term data science as a placeholder to call the overall field.[22] Leo Breiman distinguished two statistical modelling paradigms: data model and algorithmic model,[23] wherein 'algorithmic model' means more or less the machine learning algorithms like Random forest.

Multilinear subspace learning algorithms aim to learn low-dimensional representations directly from tensor representations for multidimensional data, without reshaping them into (high-dimensional) vectors.[29] Deep learning algorithms discover multiple levels of representation, or a hierarchy of features, with higher-level, more abstract features defined in terms of (or generating) lower-level features.

In machine learning, genetic algorithms found some uses in the 1980s and 1990s.[33][34] Conversely, machine learning techniques have been used to improve the performance of genetic and evolutionary algorithms.[35] Rule-based machine learning is a general term for any machine learning method that identifies, learns, or evolves `rules’ to store, manipulate or apply, knowledge.

They seek to identify a set of context-dependent rules that collectively store and apply knowledge in a piecewise manner in order to make predictions.[37] Applications for machine learning include: In 2006, the online movie company Netflix held the first 'Netflix Prize' competition to find a program to better predict user preferences and improve the accuracy on its existing Cinematch movie recommendation algorithm by at least 10%.

A joint team made up of researchers from ATT Labs-Research in collaboration with the teams Big Chaos and Pragmatic Theory built an ensemble model to win the Grand Prize in 2009 for $1 million.[43] Shortly after the prize was awarded, Netflix realized that viewers' ratings were not the best indicators of their viewing patterns ('everything is a recommendation') and they changed their recommendation engine accordingly.[44] In 2010 The Wall Street Journal wrote about the firm Rebellion Research and their use of Machine Learning to predict the financial crisis.

[45] In 2012, co-founder of Sun Microsystems Vinod Khosla predicted that 80% of medical doctors jobs would be lost in the next two decades to automated machine learning medical diagnostic software.[46] In 2014, it has been reported that a machine learning algorithm has been applied in Art History to study fine art paintings, and that it may have revealed previously unrecognized influences between artists.[47] Classification machine learning models can be validated by accuracy estimation techniques like the Holdout method, which splits the data in a training and test set (conventionally 2/3 training set and 1/3 test set designation) and evaluates the performance of the training model on the test set.

Systems which are trained on datasets collected with biases may exhibit these biases upon use (algorithmic bias), thus digitizing cultural prejudices.[49] For example, using job hiring data from a firm with racist hiring policies may lead to a machine learning system duplicating the bias by scoring job applicants against similarity to previous successful applicants.[50][51] Responsible collection of data and documentation of algorithmic rules used by a system thus is a critical part of machine learning.

The 5 best programming languages for AI development

Are you an AI (artificial intelligence) aspirant who's confused on which programming language to pick for your next project?

If so, you've come to the right place, as here we are going to look at the best 4 programming languages for AI development.

Clearly, there are many programming languages that can be used, but not every programming language offers you the best value of your time and effort.

It is an object-oriented programming language that focuses on providing all the high-level features needed to work on AI projects, it's portable, and it offers in-built garbage collection.

Java is also a good choice as it offers an easy way to code algorithms, and AI is full of algorithms, be they search algorithms, natural language processing algorithms or neural networks.

Peter Norvig, the famous computer scientist who works extensively in the AI field, and also the writer of the famous AI book, “Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach,” explains why Lisp is one of the top programming languages for AI development in a Quora answer.

For example, it offers pattern matching, automatic backtracking, and tree-based data structuring mechanisms.

Its ability to talk at the hardware level enables developers to improve their program execution time.

Algorithms can also be written extensively in the C++ for speed execution, and AI in games is mostly coded in C++ for faster execution and response time.