AI News, How Artificial Intelligence is Outpacing Humans- Part II

How Artificial Intelligence is Outpacing Humans- Part II

“By far the greatest danger of Artificial Intelligence is that people conclude too early that they understand it.” ―

DeepStack, an algorithm for imperfect information settings combines recursive reasoning to handle information asymmetry, decomposition to focus computation on the relevant decision, and a form of intuition that is automatically learned from self-play using deep learning.

specific type of neural network optimized for image classification called a deep convolutional neural network was trained to create an algorithm for automated detection of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in retinal fundus photographs.

The algorithm produces files 2.5 times smaller than JPEG and JPEG 2000, 2 times smaller than WebP, and 1.7 times smaller than BPG on datasets of generic images across all quality levels.

Researchers around the world have spent years to find something reliable to predict earthquake including foreshocks, electromagnetic disturbances, changes in groundwater chemistry.

In addition to lab simulations, the team has also begun doing the same type of machine-learning analysis using raw seismic data from real temblors.

Bristol-based startup, Graphcore has created a series of ‘AI brain scans’, using its development chip and software, to produce Petri dish-style images that reveal what happens as the machine learning processes run.

For instance, an RN network is given a set of objects in an image and is trained to figure out the relation between the objects- say, if the sphere in the image is bigger than the cube.

The ability for deep neural networks to perform complicated relational reasoning with unstructured data has been documented in these two papers- A simple neural network module for relational reasoning and Visual Interaction Networks.

AI has outsmarted humans in a significant number of fields and it won’t be bizarre to think that in the near future, most of the human jobs would be taken over by the machines.

What’s the Difference Between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning?

This is the first of a multi-part series explaining the fundamentals of deep learning by long-time tech journalist Michael Copeland.

The easiest way to think of their relationship is to visualize them as concentric circles with AI — the idea that came first — the largest, then machine learning — which blossomed later, and finally deep learning — which is driving today’s AI explosion —  fitting inside both.

It also has to do with the simultaneous one-two punch of practically infinite storage and a flood of data of every stripe (that whole Big Data movement) – images, text, transactions, mapping data, you name it.

Let’s walk through how computer scientists have moved from something of a bust — until 2012 — to a boom that has unleashed applications used by hundreds of millions of people every day.

Back in that summer of ’56 conference the dream of those AI pioneers was to construct complex machines — enabled by emerging computers — that possessed the same characteristics of human intelligence.

So rather than hand-coding software routines with a specific set of instructions to accomplish a particular task, the machine is “trained” using large amounts of data and algorithms that give it the ability to learn how to perform the task.

Machine learning came directly from minds of the early AI crowd, and the algorithmic approaches over the years included decision tree learning, inductive logic programming.

But, unlike a biological brain where any neuron can connect to any other neuron within a certain physical distance, these artificial neural networks have discrete layers, connections, and directions of data propagation.

Attributes of a stop sign image are chopped up and “examined” by the neurons —  its octogonal shape, its fire-engine red color, its distinctive letters, its traffic-sign size, and its motion or lack thereof.

In our example the system might be 86% confident the image is a stop sign, 7% confident it’s a speed limit sign, and 5% it’s a kite stuck in a tree ,and so on — and the network architecture then tells the neural network whether it is right or not.

Still, a small heretical research group led by Geoffrey Hinton at the University of Toronto kept at it, finally parallelizing the algorithms for supercomputers to run and proving the concept, but it wasn’t until GPUs were deployed in the effort that the promise was realized.

It needs to see hundreds of thousands, even millions of images, until the weightings of the neuron inputs are tuned so precisely that it gets the answer right practically every time — fog or no fog, sun or rain.

Today, image recognition by machines trained via deep learning in some scenarios is better than humans, and that ranges from cats to identifying indicators for cancer in blood and tumors in MRI scans.

Machine Learning is Fun! Part 3: Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks

First, the good news is that our “8” recognizer really does work well on simple images where the letter is right in the middle of the image: But now the really bad news: Our “8” recognizer totally fails to work when the letter isn’t perfectly centered in the image.

We can just write a script to generate new images with the “8”s in all kinds of different positions in the image: Using this technique, we can easily create an endless supply of training data.

But once we figured out how to use 3d graphics cards (which were designed to do matrix multiplication really fast) instead of normal computer processors, working with large neural networks suddenly became practical.

It doesn’t make sense to train a network to recognize an “8” at the top of a picture separately from training it to recognize an “8” at the bottom of a picture as if those were two totally different objects.

Instead of feeding entire images into our neural network as one grid of numbers, we’re going to do something a lot smarter that takes advantage of the idea that an object is the same no matter where it appears in a picture.

Here’s how it’s going to work, step by step — Similar to our sliding window search above, let’s pass a sliding window over the entire original image and save each result as a separate, tiny picture tile: By doing this, we turned our original image into 77 equally-sized tiny image tiles.

We’ll do the exact same thing here, but we’ll do it for each individual image tile: However, there’s one big twist: We’ll keep the same neural network weights for every single tile in the same original image.

It looks like this: In other words, we’ve started with a large image and we ended with a slightly smaller array that records which sections of our original image were the most interesting.

We’ll just look at each 2x2 square of the array and keep the biggest number: The idea here is that if we found something interesting in any of the four input tiles that makes up each 2x2 grid square, we’ll just keep the most interesting bit.

So from start to finish, our whole five-step pipeline looks like this: Our image processing pipeline is a series of steps: convolution, max-pooling, and finally a fully-connected network.

For example, the first convolution step might learn to recognize sharp edges, the second convolution step might recognize beaks using it’s knowledge of sharp edges, the third step might recognize entire birds using it’s knowledge of beaks, etc.

Here’s what a more realistic deep convolutional network (like you would find in a research paper) looks like: In this case, they start a 224 x 224 pixel image, apply convolution and max pooling twice, apply convolution 3 more times, apply max pooling and then have two fully-connected layers.

Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to 'learn' (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.[1] The name machine learning was coined in 1959 by Arthur Samuel.[2] Evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence,[3] machine learning explores the study and construction of algorithms that can learn from and make predictions on data[4] – such algorithms overcome following strictly static program instructions by making data-driven predictions or decisions,[5]:2 through building a model from sample inputs.

Mitchell provided a widely quoted, more formal definition of the algorithms studied in the machine learning field: 'A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.'[13] This definition of the tasks in which machine learning is concerned offers a fundamentally operational definition rather than defining the field in cognitive terms.

Machine learning tasks are typically classified into two broad categories, depending on whether there is a learning 'signal' or 'feedback' available to a learning system: Another categorization of machine learning tasks arises when one considers the desired output of a machine-learned system:[5]:3 Among other categories of machine learning problems, learning to learn learns its own inductive bias based on previous experience.

Developmental learning, elaborated for robot learning, generates its own sequences (also called curriculum) of learning situations to cumulatively acquire repertoires of novel skills through autonomous self-exploration and social interaction with human teachers and using guidance mechanisms such as active learning, maturation, motor synergies, and imitation.

Probabilistic systems were plagued by theoretical and practical problems of data acquisition and representation.[17]:488 By 1980, expert systems had come to dominate AI, and statistics was out of favor.[18] Work on symbolic/knowledge-based learning did continue within AI, leading to inductive logic programming, but the more statistical line of research was now outside the field of AI proper, in pattern recognition and information retrieval.[17]:708–710;

Machine learning and data mining often employ the same methods and overlap significantly, but while machine learning focuses on prediction, based on known properties learned from the training data, data mining focuses on the discovery of (previously) unknown properties in the data (this is the analysis step of knowledge discovery in databases).

Much of the confusion between these two research communities (which do often have separate conferences and separate journals, ECML PKDD being a major exception) comes from the basic assumptions they work with: in machine learning, performance is usually evaluated with respect to the ability to reproduce known knowledge, while in knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD) the key task is the discovery of previously unknown knowledge.

Jordan, the ideas of machine learning, from methodological principles to theoretical tools, have had a long pre-history in statistics.[20] He also suggested the term data science as a placeholder to call the overall field.[20] Leo Breiman distinguished two statistical modelling paradigms: data model and algorithmic model,[21] wherein 'algorithmic model' means more or less the machine learning algorithms like Random forest.

Multilinear subspace learning algorithms aim to learn low-dimensional representations directly from tensor representations for multidimensional data, without reshaping them into (high-dimensional) vectors.[27] Deep learning algorithms discover multiple levels of representation, or a hierarchy of features, with higher-level, more abstract features defined in terms of (or generating) lower-level features.

In machine learning, genetic algorithms found some uses in the 1980s and 1990s.[31][32] Conversely, machine learning techniques have been used to improve the performance of genetic and evolutionary algorithms.[33] Rule-based machine learning is a general term for any machine learning method that identifies, learns, or evolves 'rules' to store, manipulate or apply, knowledge.

They seek to identify a set of context-dependent rules that collectively store and apply knowledge in a piecewise manner in order to make predictions.[35] Applications for machine learning include: In 2006, the online movie company Netflix held the first 'Netflix Prize' competition to find a program to better predict user preferences and improve the accuracy on its existing Cinematch movie recommendation algorithm by at least 10%.

A joint team made up of researchers from AT&T Labs-Research in collaboration with the teams Big Chaos and Pragmatic Theory built an ensemble model to win the Grand Prize in 2009 for $1 million.[41] Shortly after the prize was awarded, Netflix realized that viewers' ratings were not the best indicators of their viewing patterns ('everything is a recommendation') and they changed their recommendation engine accordingly.[42] In 2010 The Wall Street Journal wrote about the firm Rebellion Research and their use of Machine Learning to predict the financial crisis.

[43] In 2012, co-founder of Sun Microsystems Vinod Khosla predicted that 80% of medical doctors jobs would be lost in the next two decades to automated machine learning medical diagnostic software.[44] In 2014, it has been reported that a machine learning algorithm has been applied in Art History to study fine art paintings, and that it may have revealed previously unrecognized influences between artists.[45] Although machine learning has been very transformative in some fields, effective machine learning is difficult because finding patterns is hard and often not enough training data are available;

as a result, machine-learning programs often fail to deliver.[46][47] Classification machine learning models can be validated by accuracy estimation techniques like the Holdout method, which splits the data in a training and test set (conventionally 2/3 training set and 1/3 test set designation) and evaluates the performance of the training model on the test set.

Systems which are trained on datasets collected with biases may exhibit these biases upon use (algorithmic bias), thus digitizing cultural prejudices.[50] For example, using job hiring data from a firm with racist hiring policies may lead to a machine learning system duplicating the bias by scoring job applicants against similarity to previous successful applicants.[51][52] Responsible collection of data and documentation of algorithmic rules used by a system thus is a critical part of machine learning.

There is huge potential for machine learning in health care to provide professionals a great tool to diagnose, medicate, and even plan recovery paths for patients, but this will not happen until the personal biases mentioned previously, and these 'greed' biases are addressed.[54] Software suites containing a variety of machine learning algorithms include the following :

Google Researchers Are Learning How Machines Learn

Inside a neural network, each neuron works to identify a particular characteristic that might show up in a photo, like a line that curves from right to left at a certain angle or several lines that merge to form a larger shape.

Google wants to provide tools that show what each neuron is trying to identify, which ones are successful and how their efforts combine to determine what is actually in the photo — perhaps a dog or a tuxedo or a bird.

How Machines Learn

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