AI News, fMRI Reads Thoughts In Real Time to Remotely Control Robot

fMRI Reads Thoughts In Real Time to Remotely Control Robot

In Israel, a researcher inside an fMRI machine thinks 'walk forward' or 'move right' or 'move left,' and a thousand kilometers away in France, a robot performs the movement based on the researcher's thoughts alone while sending back first-person video for an avatar-like experience:

fMRI, on the other hand, can (sort of) read your thoughts directly, with a vaguely alarming degree of accuracy, meaning that very little training is necessary: just picture a robot doing something, the fMRI will suck that picture straight out of your brain, and then get the robot to do the same thing.

The overall goal of the project is to enable people with physical disabilities to be able to control robotic systems, which would be awesome, but there are also plenty of ways in which direct fMRI control could be used to enhance robots in the commercial and military sectors.

Robot avatar body controlled by thought alone

For the first time, researchers have used fMRI – which detects your brain activity in real time – to allow someone to embody a robot hundreds of kilometres away using thought alone. “The

For the first time, researchers have used fMRI – which detects your brain activity in real time – to allow someone to embody a robot hundreds of kilometres away using thought alone.

Brain–computer interface

A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.

BCIs are often directed at researching, mapping, assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.[1] Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) under a grant from the National Science Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA.[2][3] The papers published after this research also mark the first appearance of the expression brain–computer interface in scientific literature.

The line-following behavior was the default robot behavior, utilizing autonomous intelligence and autonomous source of energy.[9][10] In 1990 report was given on a bidirectional adaptive BCI controlling computer buzzer by an anticipatory brain potential, the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) potential.[11][12] The experiment described how an expectation state of the brain, manifested by CNV, controls in a feedback loop the S2 buzzer in the S1-S2-CNV paradigm.

Monkeys have navigated computer cursors on screen and commanded robotic arms to perform simple tasks simply by thinking about the task and seeing the visual feedback, but without any motor output.[14] In May 2008 photographs that showed a monkey at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center operating a robotic arm by thinking were published in a number of well-known science journals and magazines.[15] Other research on cats has decoded their neural visual signals.[citation needed] In 1969 the operant conditioning studies of Fetz and colleagues, at the Regional Primate Research Center and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, showed for the first time that monkeys could learn to control the deflection of a biofeedback meter arm with neural activity.[16] Similar work in the 1970s established that monkeys could quickly learn to voluntarily control the firing rates of individual and multiple neurons in the primary motor cortex if they were rewarded for generating appropriate patterns of neural activity.[17] Studies that developed algorithms to reconstruct movements from motor cortex neurons, which control movement, date back to the 1970s.

He also found that dispersed groups of neurons, in different areas of the monkey's brains, collectively controlled motor commands, but was able to record the firings of neurons in only one area at a time, because of the technical limitations imposed by his equipment.[18] There has been rapid development in BCIs since the mid-1990s.[19] Several groups have been able to capture complex brain motor cortex signals by recording from neural ensembles (groups of neurons) and using these to control external devices.

Donoghue's group reported training rhesus monkeys to use a BCI to track visual targets on a computer screen (closed-loop BCI) with or without assistance of a joystick.[25] Schwartz's group created a BCI for three-dimensional tracking in virtual reality and also reproduced BCI control in a robotic arm.[26] The same group also created headlines when they demonstrated that a monkey could feed itself pieces of fruit and marshmallows using a robotic arm controlled by the animal's own brain signals.[27][28][29] Andersen's group used recordings of premovement activity from the posterior parietal cortex in their BCI, including signals created when experimental animals anticipated receiving a reward.[30] In addition to predicting kinematic and kinetic parameters of limb movements, BCIs that predict electromyographic or electrical activity of the muscles of primates are being developed.[31] Such BCIs could be used to restore mobility in paralyzed limbs by electrically stimulating muscles.

Because they lie in the grey matter, invasive devices produce the highest quality signals of BCI devices but are prone to scar-tissue build-up, causing the signal to become weaker, or even non-existent, as the body reacts to a foreign object in the brain.[36] In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness.

This also required him to be hooked up to a mainframe computer, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[37] In 2002, Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs.

Implanted in Nagle’s right precentral gyrus (area of the motor cortex for arm movement), the 96-electrode BrainGate implant allowed Nagle to control a robotic arm by thinking about moving his hand as well as a computer cursor, lights and TV.[42] One year later, professor Jonathan Wolpaw received the prize of the Altran Foundation for Innovation to develop a Brain Computer Interface with electrodes located on the surface of the skull, instead of directly in the brain.

More recently, research teams led by the Braingate group at Brown University[43] and a group led by University of Pittsburgh Medical Center,[44] both in collaborations with the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, have demonstrated further success in direct control of robotic prosthetic limbs with many degrees of freedom using direct connections to arrays of neurons in the motor cortex of patients with tetraplegia.

There has been preclinical demonstration of intracortical BCIs from the stroke perilesional cortex.[45] Electrocorticography (ECoG) measures the electrical activity of the brain taken from beneath the skull in a similar way to non-invasive electroencephalography, but the electrodes are embedded in a thin plastic pad that is placed above the cortex, beneath the dura mater.[46] ECoG technologies were first trialled in humans in 2004 by Eric Leuthardt and Daniel Moran from Washington University in St Louis.

ECoG is a very promising intermediate BCI modality because it has higher spatial resolution, better signal-to-noise ratio, wider frequency range, and less training requirements than scalp-recorded EEG, and at the same time has lower technical difficulty, lower clinical risk, and probably superior long-term stability than intracortical single-neuron recording.

This would allow researchers to monitor single neurons but require less contact with tissue and reduce the risk of scar-tissue build-up.[citation needed] In 2014, a BCI study using near-infrared spectroscopy for 'locked-in' patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was able to restore some basic ability of the patients to communicate with other people.[51] There have also been experiments in humans using non-invasive neuroimaging technologies as interfaces.

without fixing eyes on) chosen letter on a virtual keyboard with letters each having its own (background) circle that is micro-oscillating in brightness in different time transitions, where the letter selection is based on best fit between, on one hand, unintentional pupil-size oscillation pattern, and, on the other hand, the circle-in-background's brightness oscillation pattern.

For example, in experiments beginning in the mid-1990s, Niels Birbaumer at the University of Tübingen in Germany trained severely paralysed people to self-regulate the slow cortical potentials in their EEG to such an extent that these signals could be used as a binary signal to control a computer cursor.[53] (Birbaumer had earlier trained epileptics to prevent impending fits by controlling this low voltage wave.) The experiment saw ten patients trained to move a computer cursor by controlling their brainwaves.

Using advanced functional neuroimaging including BOLD functional MRI and EEG source imaging, Bin He and co-workers identified the co-variation and co-localization of electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals induced by motor imagination.[54] Refined by a neuroimaging approach and by a training protocol, Bin He and co-workers demonstrated the ability of a non-invasive EEG based brain-computer interface to control the flight of a virtual helicopter in 3-dimensional space, based upon motor imagination.[55] In June 2013 it was announced that Bin He had developed the technique to enable a remote-control helicopter to be guided through an obstacle course.[56] In addition to a brain-computer interface based on brain waves, as recorded from scalp EEG electrodes, Bin He and co-workers explored a virtual EEG signal-based brain-computer interface by first solving the EEG inverse problem and then used the resulting virtual EEG for brain-computer interface tasks.

The performance of the dry electrode compared favorably with that of the standard wet electrodes in terms of skin preparation, no gel requirements (dry), and higher signal-to-noise ratio.[60] In 1999 researchers at Case Western Reserve University, in Cleveland, Ohio, led by Hunter Peckham, used 64-electrode EEG skullcap to return limited hand movements to quadriplegic Jim Jatich.

For example, Gert Pfurtscheller of Graz University of Technology and colleagues demonstrated a BCI-controlled functional electrical stimulation system to restore upper extremity movements in a person with tetraplegia due to spinal cord injury.[62] Between 2012 and 2013, researchers at the University of California, Irvine demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to use BCI technology to restore brain-controlled walking after spinal cord injury.

In their spinal cord injury research study, a person with paraplegia was able to operate a BCI-robotic gait orthosis to regain basic brain-controlled ambulation.[63][64] In 2009 Alex Blainey, an independent researcher based in the UK, successfully used the Emotiv EPOC to control a 5 axis robot arm.[65] He then went on to make several demonstration mind controlled wheelchairs and home automation that could be operated by people with limited or no motor control such as those with paraplegia and cerebral palsy.

Experiments by scientists at the Fraunhofer Society in 2004 using neural networks led to noticeable improvements within 30 minutes of training.[66] Experiments by Eduardo Miranda, at the University of Plymouth in the UK, has aimed to use EEG recordings of mental activity associated with music to allow the disabled to express themselves musically through an encephalophone.[67] Ramaswamy Palaniappan has pioneered the development of BCI for use in biometrics to identify/authenticate a person.[68] The method has also been suggested for use as PIN generation device (for example in ATM and internet banking transactions.[69] The group which is now at University of Wolverhampton has previously developed analogue cursor control using thoughts.[70] Researchers at the University of Twente in the Netherlands have been conducting research on using BCIs for non-disabled individuals, proposing that BCIs could improve error handling, task performance, and user experience and that they could broaden the user spectrum.[71] They particularly focused on BCI games,[72] suggesting that BCI games could provide challenge, fantasy and sociality to game players and could, thus, improve player experience.[73] The first BCI session with 100% accuracy (based on 80 right-hand and 80 left-hand movement imaginations) was recorded in 1998 by Christoph Guger.

The BCI system used 27 electrodes overlaying the sensorimotor cortex, weighted the electrodes with Common Spatial Patterns, calculated the running variance and used a linear discriminant analysis.[74] Research is ongoing into military use of BCIs and since the 1970s DARPA has been funding research on this topic.[2][3] The current focus of research is user-to-user communication through analysis of neural signals.[75] The project 'Silent Talk' aims to detect and analyze the word-specific neural signals, using EEG, which occur before speech is vocalized, and to see if the patterns are generalizable.[76] In 2001, The OpenEEG Project[77] was initiated by a group of DIY neuroscientists and engineers.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have both been used successfully as non-invasive BCIs.[79] In a widely reported experiment, fMRI allowed two users being scanned to play Pong in real-time by altering their haemodynamic response or brain blood flow through biofeedback techniques.[80] fMRI measurements of haemodynamic responses in real time have also been used to control robot arms with a seven-second delay between thought and movement.[81] In 2008 research developed in the Advanced Telecommunications Research (ATR) Computational Neuroscience Laboratories in Kyoto, Japan, allowed the scientists to reconstruct images directly from the brain and display them on a computer in black and white at a resolution of 10x10 pixels.

These 100 one-second video extracts were then combined into a mashed-up image that resembled the video being watched.[84][85][86] Currently, there is a new field of gaming called Neurogaming, which uses non-invasive BCI in order to improve gameplay so that users can interact with a console without the use of a traditional controller.[87] Some Neurogaming software use a player's brain waves, heart rate, expressions, pupil dilation, and even emotions to complete tasks or affect the mood of the game.[88] For example, game developers at Emotiv have created non-invasive BCI that will determine the mood of a player and adjust music or scenery accordingly.

The advantage of P300 use within games is that the player does not have to teach himself/herself how to use a completely new control system and so only has to undertake short training instances, to learn the gameplay mechanics and basic use of the BCI paradigm.[92][95] In a $6.3 million Army initiative to invent devices for telepathic communication, Gerwin Schalk, underwritten in a $2.2 million grant, found the use of ECoG signals can discriminate the vowels and consonants embedded in spoken and imagined words, shedding light on the distinct mechanisms associated with production of vowels and consonants, and could provide the basis for brain-based communication using imagined speech.[50][96] In 2002 Kevin Warwick had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the Internet to investigate enhancement possibilities.

Using EEG to communicate imagined speech is less accurate than the invasive method of placing an electrode between the skull and the brain.[101] On 27 February 2013 the group with Miguel Nicolelis at Duke University and IINN-ELS successfully connected the brains of two rats with electronic interfaces that allowed them to directly share information, in the first-ever direct brain-to-brain interface.[102][103][104] On 3 September 2014, direct communication between human brains became a possibility over extended distances through Internet transmission of EEG signals.[105][106] In March and May 2014, a study conducted by Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale – Università di Padova, EVANLAB – Firenze, LiquidWeb s.r.l.

company and Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura – Università di Trieste, showed confirmatory results analyzing the EEG activity of two human partners spatially separated approximately 190 km apart when one member of the pair receives the stimulation and the second one is connected only mentally with the first.[107][108] Researchers have built devices to interface with neural cells and entire neural networks in cultures outside animals.

Its function is to encode experiences for storage as long-term memories elsewhere in the brain.[111] In 2004 Thomas DeMarse at the University of Florida used a culture of 25,000 neurons taken from a rat's brain to fly a F-22 fighter jet aircraft simulator.[112] After collection, the cortical neurons were cultured in a petri dish and rapidly began to reconnect themselves to form a living neural network.

Much as pharmaceutical science began as a balance for impairments and is now used to increase focus and reduce need for sleep, BCIs will likely transform gradually from therapies to enhancements.[116] Researchers are well aware that sound ethical guidelines, appropriately moderated enthusiasm in media coverage and education about BCI systems will be of utmost importance for the societal acceptance of this technology.

These systems typically entail more channels than the low-cost systems below, with much higher signal quality and robustness in real-world settings.[according to whom?] Some systems from new companies have been gaining attention for new BCI applications for new user groups, such as persons with stroke or coma.

Given the new prospect of allowing these patients to provide their views on this decision, there would seem to be a strong ethical pressure to develop this research direction to guarantee that DOC patients are given an opportunity to decide whether they want to live.[140][141] These and other articles describe new challenges and solutions to use BCI technology to help persons with DOC.

In addition, these patients could then be provided with BCI-based communication tools that could help them convey basic needs, adjust bed position and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), and otherwise empower them to make major life decisions and communicate.[142][143][144] This research effort was supported in part by different EU-funded projects, such as the DECODER project led by Prof.

the flexible nature of the organic background materials allowing the electronics created to bend, and the fabrication techniques utilized to create these devices resembles those used to create integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).[156] Flexible electronics were first developed in the 1960s and 1970s, but research interest increased in the mid-2000s.[157]

Real-life Avatar: The first mind-controlled robot surrogate

cia is controling me and my brainkwabben sound of thinking and puts my musical whit my heart and mindthought over in words what a supercomputer called hall 1972 under washington dc the

old nano chesscomputer of bill gates in the usa hall 1972 controles{super digital angel computer } whit the 5 digital angels sattelites around the world all the human beings thoughts and feelings and

big brother is reading the minds of human beings whit computers telefones laptops tablets whit the digital angelchips they have we

controle whit lasers the movement and mindcontrole of the pilot the americane jointstrikers airplanes missiles tanks laserpointed armerybullets etc peopl when you dont want that big brother is reading your thoughts and feelings learn to think in flatline thoughts and whit your equalizer feelings in the bible and in the holy koran is to read in

the end of times the devil {super nano computers whit ;fastcontrole;]are reading your mind and feelings be ware of your self in

is only one;hall 1972 its a selffeeling selfminded and whit a soul of mind a she computer]the old lady gamecomputer of bill gates what now is the godin of machines on this world and is controling everything what is happening on this world she

horse of troye virus are wormvirusses in a wormvirus people[the cia] can make a virusscanner when they can make and destroy a wormvirus progamma and find the 8 hackersattelites and cath the biggest orginisation of hackers [animously] and

this way you can protect all human beings whit a computer and phone and digital angels microchips in their brains or whit their heart was written by the poetry/poembook writer Paul Mark

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Always nice to see that someone actually reads your work I figured I could comment on some of the issues, and if you have any questions, please feel free to ask.

The main novelty of our study is the BCI control paradigm based on visuospatial attention, independent of both presented stimuli and eye-movements.Now, the question was raised about the absence of eye-movements.

Despite the fact that it has been shown in many, many studies that people have no problem moving the spatial attention without moving the eyes, it would of course be nice to have the data.However, it is quite clear from the activation patterns that the effect we measure does not come from eye-movements.

If you move your eyes towards one of the targets you induce intensity changes at the location of all three targets, plus in the complete foveal area (where the video is shown).

In that paper we also show examples of offline EOG measurements recorded during the task.I can tell you from my own experience that when you are in the scanner to control the robot, you really do not want to move the eyes since you immediately lose the control.

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