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Complex adaptive system
complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.
is highly interdisciplinary and blends insights from the natural and social sciences to develop system-level models and insights that allow for heterogeneous agents, phase transition, and emergent behavior.
They are complex in that they are dynamic networks of interactions, and their relationships are not aggregations of the individual static entities, i.e., the behavior of the ensemble is not predicted by the behavior of the components.
They are a 'complex macroscopic collection' of relatively 'similar and partially connected micro-structures' formed in order to adapt to the changing environment and increase their survivability as a macro-structure.
The term complex adaptive systems, or complexity science, is often used to describe the loosely organized academic field that has grown up around the study of such systems.
Complexity science is not a single theory—it encompasses more than one theoretical framework and is highly interdisciplinary, seeking the answers to some fundamental questions about living, adaptable, changeable systems.
Hard theories use formal language that is precise, tend to see agents as having tangible properties, and usually see objects in a behavioral system that can be manipulated in some way.
Human social group-based endeavors, such as political parties, communities, geopolitical organizations, war, and terrorist networks are also considered CAS.
The internet and cyberspace—composed, collaborated, and managed by a complex mix of human–computer interactions, is also regarded as a complex adaptive system.
Another method of developing models for CAS involves developing complex network models by means of using interaction data of various CAS components.
In this hypothesis, the apparent trend towards more complex organisms is an illusion resulting from concentrating on the small number of large, very complex organisms that inhabit the right-hand tail of the complexity distribution and ignoring simpler and much more common organisms.
If there is a lack of an overall trend towards complexity in biology, this would not preclude the existence of forces driving systems towards complexity in a subset of cases.
Call for Papers
Please direct questions to:Evan Pineda, NASA Glenn Research CenterJessica Piness, Made in Space In the field of materials, papers are sought on topics related to current and cutting-edge research and development of aerospace and non-aerospace materials.
Special emphasis will be given to new and emerging technologies, such as nanostructured materials, materials for extreme environments and hypersonics, multidimensional composites, cryogenic materials, advanced fiber forms, polymers, metallics, ceramics, lightweight and super-lightweight materials, multifunctional materials and progress toward integration of material models into the product development process.
Prediction of flow characteristics in the bubble column reactor by the artificial pheromone-based communication of biological ants
Multiphase bubble column reactor (BCR) types are highly important for different industries because of their applications and efficiency (Kumar, Degaleesan, Laddha, &
A BCR’s structure is composed of a cylindrical vessel with a gas distributor at the bottom section so that the gas bubbles are fed into the reactor (Bouaifi, Hebrard, Bastoul, &
The BCR is particularly beneficial in petrochemical, chemical, metallurgical, and biochemical industries, and they are utilized as multiple reactors and contactors since these fluid-structure domains give a large surface area (Bombač, Rek, &
The BCRs in different industries such as pharmaceutical or biochemical are used in the processes that involve reactions such as chlorination, oxidation, polymerization, hydrogenation, and alkylation, which are advantageous for the production of synthetic fuels(Chen, Hasegawa, Tsutsumi, Otawara, &
It is the process of indirect coal liquefaction, resulting in various kinds of fuels like synthetic fuels, methanol synthesis, and transportation fuels (Chuntian &
As the advantage of the bubble columns, it can be stated that a catalyst or other packing chemical components are able to stay a long period even though they are extensively used (Asil, Pour, &
In order to numerically simulate complex turbulence behavior in the two-phase reactor, often the supercomputers provide the opportunity to calculate the liquid flow in the very complicated geometries.
In experimental observation, If the fluid flow is needed to be measured during operation, because of the requirement for the high-speed microscopic cameras and modern probes, it is not economical (Besagni, Guédon, &
Chau, 2018), neural networks (Taherei Ghazvinei et al., 2018), simulated annealing, and evolutionary algorithms are some of the soft-computing approaches that can be applied for predicting and simulating the chemical processes(Mahmoud &
The recent research works have been mainly focused on a specific dimension of soft-computing methods used for flow patterns production in the BCRs.
Mohammad Pourtousi (2016) used different type of big data in the bubble column reactor in the machine learning algorithm and they predicted pattern recognition of gas and liquid flow in the BCR (Fotovatikhah et al., 2018;
The application of ant colony algorithm is an appropriate alternative rather than using the CFD approach, which is costly in terms of computation, for the flow simulation in BCRs.