AI News, Felipe Hoffa

Felipe Hoffa

Industrial fishing covers more than 55% of our oceans - GlobalFishWatch processed 22 billion messages and tracked >70,000 industrial fishing vessels from 2012 to 2016.

For updates, links to example code, and more, visit: Description: Fishing effort and vessel presence is binned into grid cells 0.01 degrees on a side, and measured in units of hours.

1000 GIS Applications & Uses – How GIS Is Changing the World

One year in the making, these are some of your favorite GIS applications you haven’t heard of yet: GIS student project ideas, GIS case studies, GIS projects, GIS uses – From over 50 industries, this jam-packed guide of 1000 GIS applications will open your mind to our amazing planet and its inter-connectivity.

(How to win the farm using GIS) 2. Disease Control – Combating the spread of pests through by identifying critical intervention areas and efficient targeting control interventions. 3. Swiss

Alps Farming – Cultivating south-facing slopes in the Swiss Alps using aspect data because it shelters from cold and dry winds which is critical to successful crop growth. 4. 3D

Performance – Logging geographic coordinates of agricultural machinery in a farm field to better understand the spatially variability cost of field operation and machinery performance. 10. Future

Assimilation Model – Simulating soil, water and crop processes to better understand crop productivity and monitoring using the Crop Assimilation Model tool in GRASS GIS. 12. Water

– Breaking down primary food crops by sub-national administrative districts and aggregating by crop production, area harvested and crop yields. 16. Crop

Pasture Management – Collecting soils types, fence lines, roads and other data for better management for more meaningful reports and maps. 21. Agricultural

– Capturing irrigation infrastructure for land management decisions more than two-thirds of the world’s freshwater withdrawals are for irrigating crops. 24. Farm

Preservation – Establishing farm priority zones by analyzing the local farming landscape and constructing criteria for high-quality farming areas. 25. Versatile

Soil Moisture Budget – Simulating soil moisture conditions of cropland areas taking into account evapotranspiration, rainfall, runoff and other factors. 26. Drought

– Minimizing the impact of drought by analyzing the spatial distribution of rainfall and real-time sensors like SMAP, SMOS and synthetic aperture radar. 27. CropScape

Farming – Managing various sources of data for organic farming permits including tillage history, field inputs, crop rotations, and pest management measures on a field-by-field basis. 30. Agricultural

of Growing Period – Meeting the full evapotranspiration demands of crops when average temperatures are greater or equal to 5°C and precipitation plus moisture store in the soil exceed half the potential evapotranspiration.

Rover Landing – Examining how to landing the Mars Rover safely with operations criteria including latitude for solar power, soil softness, slopes using laser altimetry, dustiness, rockiness and a landing footprint. 37. Water

– Delivering planetary mapping to the international science community in public domain – from planetary topology to lunar geology.

Declination – Positioning with the magnetic declination, a varying angle from a true geographic north using NOAA National Geophysical Data Center 2015 data and the Magnetic Declination QGIS Plugin. 47. Gravity

51. Lost Cities – Revealing lost cities in the ground and their forgotten past using ground penetrating radar and infrared sensors.

Survey – Tackling a huge problem archaeologists face every day – collecting physical locations of their excavation findings from a wealth of sites. 53. Middle

Eastern Geodatabase for Antiquities – Recording, monitoring, and protecting archaeological sites to avoid impacting, factor cost for site mitigation – developed by the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) and the World Monuments Fund (WMF).

Landscape Dynamics – Modeling surface process change and landscape evolution to better understand the long-term interactions of humans and landscapes in the Mediterranean using GRASS GIS.

Site Investigation – Searching ancient maps for buildings, cemeteries, roads and fences as these sites present important clues to archaeological sites.

Tools – Characterizing geographic features suitable for making stone tools and clay pottery such as lithic materials, water resources, stream hydrology with geologic controls like bedrock outcrops and drainage basin floodplains. 59. Viewshed

Site Prediction – Connecting favorable slope, aspect, geology, hydrology and distance to water using the Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to predict archaeological sites. 61. Cultural

Heritage Inventory – Customizing and deploying the collection of cultural heritage field observations with open source geospatial software Arches.

Archaeology – Rendering accurate and efficient 3D recordings of archaeological heritage sites, in particular archaeological excavations with aerial imagery and 3D environments. 63. Shovel

Test Pits – Logging transects, shovel test pits and other recordings when they visit potential locations to conduct field investigations. 64. Predicting

Dinosaur Tracks – Getting the inside track on understanding exactly where dinosaurs once roamed the Earth with vegetation coverage, slope, aspect and proximity to landslides.

Simulation – Mastering the collective dynamics of interacting objects in urban phenomena at the scale of individual households, people, and units of real estate and at time-scales approaching “real time”.

Exposure – Harvesting light to assess the suitability of installing solar (photovoltaic) panels on roofs using 3D city models and geometric information such as the tilt, orientation and area of the roof. 70. City

Economic Zones – Carving out boundaries in the Arctic – Canada, Norway, Russia, Denmark (via Greenland) and the United States are limited to their economic adjacent to their coasts while all waters beyond is considered international water. 82. Shipping

Lakes – Mapping lakes under glaciers – isolated from the outside world for up to 35 million years, and may be final refuges for life, the like of which exists nowhere else on Earth.

Tracking – Logging the species richness of marine mammals like whales, seals, walruses and narwhals and seabirds or waterfowl in the Arctic. 88. Sea

Ice Index – Bringing together data on Antarctica’s ice sheet surface, thickness and boundary using passive remote sensing.

Bear – Keeping counts of the most vulnerable populations of polar bear (due to climate change) by comparing two satellite images over time. 95. Search

and Rescue – Lunging into search and rescue operations using the Safety and Operability Index which calculates risk based on factors such as sea ice, visibility, temperature, distance from SAR resources. 96. Environmental

98. Stream Order – Defining stream size based on a hierarchy of tributaries the Strahler Index (or Horton-Strahler Index) – an important indicator of fisheries and aquatic habitat. 99. Fish

Tracking – Stalking pigmy killer, sperm, beaked and false killer whales in the Pacific Ocean with online mapping applications.

– Listening to echoes with hydro-acoustics for the Crean Lake Hydro-Acoustics project – capturing lake depth, fish class, fish stock numbers, habitat preference related to temperature.

in Stream – Grasping the origin of mercury – which are contaminants to fish tissue – by studying the landscape such as soils and humus. 106. Fish

– Maintaining sustainable fish population levels with satellite monitoring of sea surface temperature and ocean colors (because they are indicative of specific fish species). 108. Stress

Approach Zone Encroachment – Pinpointing obstructions in the approach zone of a runway using detailed elevation data to ensure no collisions FAA Safety Analysis. 122. Airport

Sound Exposure – Assessing the relationship between aircraft-generated noise levels and land uses, noise receptors, and demographics in the airport environs. 123. Fly

– Immobilizing cross border travel with geofencing (virtual barriers) – perfect for car sharing and rental programs.

Vehicles – Sitting back and relaxing while Google’s autonomous car does all the work equipped with LiDAR, GPS, an inertial unit and sophisticated software.

Real-Time Driving – Saving time and money on your commute as drivers share real-time traffic information and road alerts with each other with Waze.

134. Market Share – Examining branch locations, competitor locations and demographic characteristics to identify areas worthy of expansion or determine market share in Maptitude.

Machine – Filling in market and service gaps by understanding where customers, facilities, and competitors are with address locating, database management and query tools. 136. World

Reinvestment Act (CRA) – Fulfilling the obligations to loan in areas with particular attention to low- and moderate-income households – using GIS to understand spatial demographics.

Analysis – Determining a trade area based on how long a customer must drive to get to the store – factoring in street speed limits, traffic volumes, and other impedance. 145. Internet

of Things – Improving efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit through a network of physical objects such as devices, vehicles, buildings and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange information with one another. 146. Market

Share Analysis – Optimizing the locations of facilities so the allocated demand is maximized in the presence of competitors using tools like location-allocation in ArcGIS.

Location – Resolving the nearest gas station, restaurants or coffee shop using GPS-based positioning and geocoded business data. 148. Property

Appraisal – Appraising residential properties using Census data and finding your property online through interactive property assessment viewers. 149. Internet

Geocoding – Mapping and analyzing user generated geocoded data to get a glimpse of what internet users (in the aggregate) think about particular places. 150. Geocoding

Population – Marketing products effectively with detailed daytime population demographics for an area reflecting who works in that area as opposed to residential demographics. 153. Local

– Increasing credibility and increasing sales with prospective clients, vendors and media by conveying complex data to increase sales. 156. Desire

Freight Network Model – Integrating highly detailed information about shipping costs, transfer costs, traffic volumes and network interconnectivity properties in a GIS-based platform.

– Recommending 50 million users search for restaurants, recommend bars, and check-in around the world with a Mapbox custom branded map.

Model – Calculating sales potential based on the Huff Model – an interaction model measuring the probabilities of consumers at each origin location patronizing a new store instead of other stores. 168. Consumer

Placement – Guiding the placement of new stores by studying disposable income, population, or other variables to best serve the population.

174. NASA Earth Observatory – Exploring the causes and effects of climate change of our atmosphere, oceans, land and life through the use of satellite data.

Together the Climate Change Puzzle – Combining various climate change data sets from various sources – for example relating land practices with atmosphere aerosols.

Climate Classification – Modelling observed and projected climate change scenarios with variables such as population growth, economic development and varying energy use and technological innovations. 187. Smog

Change – Measuring the effects of greenhouse gases being the main culprit of temperature change by mapping temperature at levels above the Earth’s surface. 189. Climate

192. Crime Patterns – Responding to crimes with a data-driven approach and deliver tailored responses through rapid deployment of personnel and resources.

Map – Keeping the community safer by streaming visual mediums for arson, assault, burglary, homicide, prostitution, robbery, theft, and vandalism in a city. 194. Auto

Policing – Patrolling Mapping clusters of burglaries or other crimes assigning more police in those locations using heat maps or Getis-Ord General G and point patterns. 200. Missing

Law – Obeying the requirement for local law enforcement agencies to notify residents about the presence of certain sex offenders in their area by only contacting a buffered area of the offender’s residence. 202. Forensic

GIS – Applying science and geographic information for the investigating of a crime – such as using GPS-recorded information in vehicles to prove the location at the scene of a crime.

Penalties – Dishing out extra penalties to criminals if convicted of selling drugs within a specified distance of a school property. 205. Illegal

Profiling – Using a connected series of crimes to determine the most probabilistic location of a criminal offender or offense – useful for finding serial criminals. 208. Stalking

Air Drug Markets – Uncovering relationship between crimes and the location of open air drug markets based on analogous crimes throughout other communities 212. Ankle

Search – Finding Osama Bin Laden using remote sensing imagery with biogeographic theory (distance-decay theory and island biogeography theory).

– Safeguarding chokepoints like bridges or dams where critical infrastructure converge – explosions here would cause multiple effects. 226. Bird

Strike – Flying safely through the Bird Avoidance Model (BAM) – a temporal raster grids equal to the sum of the mean bird mass for all species present. 227. Uranium

Nations Peacekeeping – Peacekeeping by means of having the geographic necessary for humanitarian aid, developing peace in war-torn countries and providing the necessary support. 234. Critical

Planning – Deploying troops and military equipment to combat zones intelligently by searching compressed and quick-loading reconnaissance imagery. 236. Motion

Video – Capturing georeferenced video to assess anything such as operational status of an industrial plant, bomb damage on a target or length of a runway.

Modelling – Modeling a potential attack to legitimize the needs and have policy makers truly understand the consequences of an attack with preparedness expenditures. 240. Helicopter

Trade Center – Responding to terrorist attacks including real-time data delivery, victim tracking, facility and resource vulnerability, data availability, implementation, environmental exposure and air monitoring (World Trade Center GIS Response) 245. Georeferenced

Grid Reference System – Locating points on the Earth with from three parts – grid zone designator, square identifier and numerical location.

Modeling – Uncovering areas prone to avalanches by assessing high slopes with sparse vegetation for residential planning, ski resorts and highway safety planning. 266. Tsunami

Assessment Tool Set (CATS) – Analyzing damage to the environment, the exposed population, and provides real-time resource allocation information to mitigate the consequences.

and Rescue – Rescuing missing persons drones using small, highly maneuverable unmanned aerial vehicles (drones). 271. Volcanic

Warning – Alerting citizens before a large-scale earthquake happens with a new generation of inter-operable early warning systems for multiple hazards.

Susceptibility – Mapping the susceptibility of earthquake induced landslides using an artificial neural networks and factors such as slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage.

Fragmentation Tools (LFT) – Classifying land cover types into forest fragmentation categories – patch, edge, perforated, and core.

Metrics – Calculates turn angles, step lengths, bearings, time intervals for a point time series dataset using GME.

Tribe – Equipping the Surui tribe with geo-tagging equipment to put an end to the deforestation and cultural devastation in their section of the Brazilian rain forest.

Bees – Stimulating spatial thinking processes by analyzing relationships between environmental characteristics and honey bee health and abundance (GIS Honey Bee Research) 288. Elk

Birds – Cross-referencing telemetry GPS migratory (Osprey) bird locations with Langley Air Force Base flying operations in an effort to reduce an aircraft strike.

– Bringing extinct species back to life and marking their previous habitats – like the passenger pigeon from 5 billion birds to zero in a couple of decades.

– Studying ecosystems in geographic space and through (geological) time along geographic gradients of latitude, elevation, isolation and habitat area. 300. Species

of Extinction – Describing existing conditions of habitat and predicting risk of extinctions, chance of recovery and mitigation measures – such as prohibiting hunting. 303. Habitat

Magnetic Alignment – Discovering how deer can sense magnetism through satellite image analysis and field observations of body alignments of deer beds in snow.

Directional Mean – Determining the trend for the movement of elk and moose in a stream valley could calculate the directional trend of migration routes for the two species. 313. Wa-Tor

Trends Modeler – Assessing long term climate trends, measuring seasonal trends in phenology, and decomposing image time series to seek recurrent patterns in space and time in IDRISI TerraSet. 316. Ecological

Mapping – Portraying economic data like unemployment and labor information in time-series thematic maps because maps speak to people 329. Exclusive

Costs of Pollution – Assessing greener growth options and the costs of pollution in India by understanding the current state of environment degradation.

Modelling – Using map algebra to depict the relationships of transportation and geography on access to adult literacy centers in Philadelphia.

– Putting concession licenses that give a company the right to drill for oil or gas and exploratory drilling boreholes on a map. 345. World

Yields and Scarcity – Estimating water yields and scarcity at a sub-watershed level to calculate hydroelectric potential to the year 2100.

Stockpiles – Capturing satellite imagery of frequent shots of open pit mines and resource stockpiles to better understand how much coal has been mined each month.

Sites Selection – Comparing hypothetical dam sites by potential water storage to understand how land use/land cover is impacted. 352. Energy

Farm Site Selection – Selecting suitable wind farm by understanding wind power, transmission capacity, road access and developable land.

Visibility – Discerning visibility of wind for potential changes on a landscape, such as the effect of adding wind farms, or the addition of a new building to an urban area. 355. Radar

Permits – Helping the user determine whether or not a requested permit is in an historic district, an aquifer protection district, wetland, or floodplain. 358. CAD

Environmental Management Plan – Mitigating the potential negative impacts of engineering projects by identifying environmentally sensitive sites and mitigation measures. 360. COGO

Dam – Damming a site artificially by raising the elevations along a dam site using a Euclidean distance grid and map algebra. 367. Development

Growth Simulation – Extinguishing fires faster by understand how they grow in discrete steps bringing together wind, weather and fuel for the fire.

Source Pollution – Modelling non-point source pollution like soil erosion and sedimentation which are often controlled by variables such as land use/cover, topography, soils and rainfall. 375. Wetland

and Greenfield Sites – Digging up the background information (Phase 1) and conducting the necessary geo-technical analyses to explore economic opportunities at brownfield and greenfield sites. 379. Ozone

– Identifying known cave and karst resources into a sinkhole digitization database for best interstate alignment selection.

Index Tool for Wetlands – Unearthing wetlands with Impoundment Index Tool to site potential wetland restoration projects, monitor wetland drainage and model beaver habitat.

385. Forest Inventory – Prioritizing timber harvesting units by referring to age class and forest type to better measure timber acreage and average estimates. 386. Forest

Heights – Measuring tree heights with altimetry and noticing how trees generally differ 20m with taller ones at the equator.

Simulation – Simulating the spread of an agent (like a fire) triggered by random events (such as lightning) on a raster landscape in discrete time.

Rain Forest – Maximizing satellite potential viewing soil erosion, watershed destabilization, climate degradation, and species extinction in Brazil. 402. Remnant

Rain Forest – Studying aspect data to find how remnants of rainforest are almost always found on east-facing slopes (with aspect) which are protected from dry westerly wind. 403. 4D

Microclimates – Studying microclimates (temperature from large bodies of water, topography, urban areas trapping heat) to carefully choose and position their plants and make them thrive. 415. Information

Gardening – Assessing average temperatures by zoning, water availability and position sheltering to identify buildings with the greatest potential for rooftop gardens. 418. Garden

Volumetric Data Visualization – Creating powerful, fast, customized 3D models with a fusion of geologic data, GIS data, well/borehole data, and point cloud data.

Interpretation – Digitizing surficial geology (surface sediments, their morphology and properties) with air photo interpretation and field validation. 424. qgSurf

Geology – Creating full 3D, volumetric models of geology direct from collected data integrating lithology data with surfaces.

Classification – Classifying landforms with qualitative analysis of the surface like summits, passes, convex/concave break lines, crests and more with gvSIG geomorphology tools. 434. Geologic

435. Spatial Autocorrelation – Testing whether the observed value of a variable at one locality is independent of the values of the variable at neighboring localities.

Tesselation – Defining sampling locations, helping to ensure that all regions within the study area are represented by the sampling results.

Cube – Binning data (netCDF) into a cube input and running statistics, trends and hot spot analyses over time.

– Making math operations in maps like adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, exponentiation, root, log, cosine and differentiation (Map-ematics – Joseph Berry) 444. Kriging

Hierarchy Process (AHP) – Combining input layers and a table with a number of factors comparing their comparative weights to calculate a new layer as a linear combination of the input layers. 446. Ordered

– Evaluating the risk of impact for the construction and situating industrial plants, landfills, agricultural activities and other potential groundwater contamination sources 467. Porous

for Disease Control (CDC) – Serving county-level maps of heart disease and stroke by race/ethnicity, gender, and age group, along with maps of social and economic factors and health services for the entire United States or for a chosen state or territory.

Snow – Forging a whole new field of study (epidemiology) by studying the spatial distribution of cholera cases and identifying the source of the outbreak as the public water pump on Broad Street. 473. Ebola

Analysis – Identifying built environmental patterns using cluster analysis and GIS: relationships with walking, cycling and body mass index.

Flu Shots – Determining an optimal site location for mobile flu shot vehicles to service where demand is needed most with location-allocation. 484. Geomedicine

–Tracking patient’s location history to determine if environmental and industrial hazards put them at risk for certain types of diseases 485. Madrid’s

Air – Visualization Madrid´s air (gases, particles, pollen, diseases, etc) with the aim to make visible the microscopic and invisible agents.

Trust – Overlapping factors like poverty and obesity, fresh supermarkets, diet-related disease – space to target for policy-makers 489. Public

Prescription Mapping – Mapping and analyzing influenza based on the prescriptions customers are making to respond to the need of users more efficiently.

– Piecing together walkable neighborhoods with health diseases like heart disease, hypertension, obesity and even breast cancer. 493. Anti-Smoking

Illness – Identifying areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpreting the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. 496. HIV

– Quantifying populations and health care availability when distance separates patients and health care providers.

Museum of Natural History – Apply biodiversity information to collect, organize and analyze biological and environmental data with the aim to provide new insights in conservation, ecology and evolution.

Weather – Tracking past ship movements and telling the stories of the people on board by studying weather patterns.

Accusers – Gathering the geographic location of the accusers and accused during the Salem witch trials to show inter-family feuds were a strong case for the trials instead of hysteria among young girls. 516. Cultural

Bridges – Agreeing on an acceptable term for “land bridge” – which was an area available due to the water tied up in ice sheets. 522. Lewis

Wetness Index – Combining slope and upstream area to give you relative measure of wetness as the first places where the ground saturates, begins to pool, and generates runoff. 527. Flow

Above River – Generating predictive surfaces for plant species distribution modeling using high resolution DEM data.

Accumulation – Answering the question “where did water come from” by picking a point (a single cell in the DEM) and tracing backwards showing all the contributing cells.

Statistics – Calculating the number of streams, the average stream length, the average area of catchments for Strahler stream orders (ILWIS) 546. Flow

Insecurity Drivers – Pinpointing the underlying drivers to food insecurity such as farming practices, climate change and changing demographics.

– Accelerating underwriting by sharing enterprise geographic data with risk factors, customer interaction and economic conditions. 569. Swimming

Pools – Crowd sourcing the search for swimming pools from sponsored campaigns who compile public and private sector data for a variety of markets including education, public safety, and insurance.

– Embedding hyperlinks with access actual photos, video, audio, text and data associated with map locations. 572. Mapzen

Search – Searching geographically with a spatial search engine for places based entirely on open-source tools and powered by entirely open data.

Search Engine – Correlating products and services to a GIS database record that corresponds to a unique geographic location – to geographically target advertising over the Internet (GIS-Based Search Engine)

Deserts – Accessing grocery stores in low income areas by incorporating information such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and public transit. 579. Service

Site Selection – Analyzing and eliminating sites within a buffer distance of sensitive populations (elderly, schools, hospitals, etc) and other overlay information like groundwater, transportation networks and surface water. 584. TerraClip

– Clipping data like you’ve never clipped before – extracting land cover, climate and agriculture data easily to the extent of your chosen country.

Distribution – Tracking flow, pressure and chemical concentrations for nodes, valves, pipes and tanks in a water distribution modelling software.

Use Policy – Reproducing individual behavior with agent-based modeling to simulate their behaviors and outcomes having a direct impact of the surrounding landscape.

Viewshed – Showing what is visible with distance, direction and pitch with viewable areas in green and hidden areas in red.

Collection – Increasing tax revenue by updated land and building property records, new construction records, and integrated departmental data into a single cadastral information system using Bentley Map. 601. COAST

COastal Adaptation to Sea level Rise Tool – Adapting to climate change decisions (building sea walls, proactive building ordinance, levees, zoning change, relocation with COAST.

Syntax Models – Gaining a better understanding of human behavior and connectivity through graphic representation of space configuration in urban structures. 603. Philadelphia

Constraints – Prohibiting construction where the overall stability of a bluff using aspect to understand how- south-facing slopes undergo more extensive freeze/thaw cycles.

Area Coding System – Unifying the representations of geographic coordinates, area codes, street addresses, postal codes, map grids and property identifiers of every location or area in the world. 609. Shared

Routing Efficiency – Balancing postal routes based on time and optimizing routes, number of routes or volume with sequenced stops.

Cities – Integrating urban development visions with GIS such as smart urban planning, smart utilities, smart transportation, smart public works and citizen engagement. 623. London

Collection – Defining areas of waste collection, finding suitable rounds of service when given a waste or transfer station.

– Managing city assets (road conditions, utilities, billboards and sign inventories) with mobile LiDAR to inventory and ensure safety standards. 635. Sewer

– Alerting citizens for boil water advisories by taking an area on a map, and connecting to a central database of phone numbers and automated message alerts. 637. Street

Mapping – Implemented a system to map cemeteries using unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs) and storing graves in a spatial database. 642. Open

Slope Stability – Modelling stability of slopes using geology and digital elevation models to understand potential of seismically-induced landslide hazards. 649. Water

652. Subsurface Volume Calculation – Calculating depth values to determine the volume of material between the surfaces or between a subsurface layer and the ground level with Global Mapper. 653. Quarries

Exploration – Identifying new opportunities and areas for coal exploration by assessing geological data and setting out exploration targets.

Rehabilitation – Restoring mines back to their original state using GIS tools like 3D profiling flooding of mine because almost all working mines require pumps to remove water. 659. Hazards

Assessments – Characterizing infrastructure, risk areas, and disaster zones, planning and implementation of hazards reductions measures to assist planners in selecting mitigation measures and emergency preparedness. 660. Hyperspectral

Imagery – Discovering new minerals from the existing 4000 types of compositions using airborne and satellite data.

Runoff – Controlling acid waste runoff from mines by capturing terrain topography, mine age and type and stream proximity.

664. Anchor Search – Searching for a lost anchor in a restricted area with electrical cables and gas pipelines using sonar and bathymetry.

Marine Traffic – Turning your computer into a marine traffic monitoring station giving perspective of nearby ships on the ocean.

Trading Ports – Climbing buoys as if you’re at giant marine trading ports – the arteries of our global economy.

Charts – Plotting out seamless, collarless, and dynamic mosaic of some 2,100 NOAA raster nautical charts at varying scales.

Use Planning – Outlining sustainable oceans through careful planning of ocean activity such as energy production, fishing and shipping.

Budgets – Simulating Earth’s energy budgets for anthropogenic and natural changes with anomalies of surface temperature and sea-level pressure.

and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) – Combining water columns, geoform, substrate and biotic components that are collectively used to define marine ecosystems.

Marine Sanctuaries – Designating 12 areas of the marine environment as special significance to better understand marine ecosystems and their spatial, temporal, and functional relationships among creatures, environments, and human perturbations.

Production – Mapping oil activity offshore including pipeline, significant oil and gas discoveries and restricted zones. 705. Pipeline

Rupture – Responding to pipeline ruptures to better understand surrounds and impact zones such as privately-owned parcels and critical fume areas. 706. Oil

Reserves – Measuring how much shadow is being casted of a floating roof’s oil tanks using geometry and high spatial resolution imagery. 710. Undersea

Impact Assessment – Gauging multiple layer including existing infrastructure, river crossings, soils and vegetation, groundwater and elevation/ slope to determine pipeline impact. 713. gvSIG

Basin Depositional Synthesis – Providing context for exploration in the Gulf of Mexico and reducing overall risk oil and gas companies by understanding the depositional history of drill.

Map – Mapping sound levels in parks to show how visitors and wildlife interact with each other and park resources (Noise Map – National Park Service)

– Dividing a road to peace of the former Yugoslavia at the valley bottom using terrain data to support diplomatic negotiation.

Geospatial Data Asset Management – Managing geospatial data as a capital asset for effective sharing, collaboration to support efficient and effective decision-making.

Rise Valuation – Characterizing commercial real estate by its unique age, size, location, and proximity to ensure that the property values are consistent between an assessed value and the sales price with Geomedia 3D visualization. 750. Construction

Estate Metrics – Choosing the right house to buy or build based on distance to schools, parks, transit stops and other geospatial metrics. 753. Google

755. Hurricane Andrew – Comparing geographically which homes fared better from Hurricane Andrew’s destruction because of changes in building code from Steve Doig’s piece that earned him a Pulitzer Prize. 756. North

GIS – Estimating the number of protestors at a Hong Kong rally by obtaining the average density of the crowd and estimating the number of protesters through aerial photo interpretation.

Data and Application Center (SEDAC) – Serving socioeconomic and Earth science data as an information gateway between the Earth and social sciences focuses on human interactions in the environment.

Engagement – Empowering populations who have little voice in the public arena to change geographic involvement and awareness on a local level.

Symbology – Taking advantage of pie charts, line graphs and bar charts to display socio-economic data by area. 781. Indigenous

Segmentation – Dividing U.S. residential areas into 67 distinctive segments based on their socioeconomic and demographic composition—then further classifies the segments into LifeMode and Urbanization Groups.

Rescue – Improving Humane operations and rescuing migrants through the deployment of emergency water stations on routes known to be used by migrants coming north through our desert.

Maps – Drawing each boundary object as a raised prism, where the height of the prism is relative to the associated data value.

– Studying clusters of graffiti with other factors such as proximity to city constructs such as crossing guards, phone boxes and electricity boxes. 794. Storytelling

in Myanmar – Building literacy in Myanmar and evaluating literacy programs in a GIS database with indicators such as budgeted funds, dropout levels and available training. 796. Gender

Studies – Exploring how transportation infrastructure support mobility access to basic services vital to achieving poverty reduction, gender equality, and sustainable development objectives in Ghana.

of Repose – Computing the steepest angle (depending on the material) of a surface at which loose material such as soil will remain in place rather than sliding or crumbling. 810. Salinity

and Summits – Detecting peaks and summits on a landscape to help model salinity with elevation such as depression areas have higher salinity.

Erosion – Finding the dominant vegetation types dependent on aspect and enhancing erosion modelling using aspect and vegetation to see how slopes will erode over time along with precipitation, temperature and growing periods. 813. Stereoscopy

Outdoors – Powering your fitness and outdoor applications with terrain maps that highlight thousands of biking, hiking and running trails as well as ascents through topography lines.

Management – Regulating radio spectrum to evaluate frequency interactions when approving applications using use terrain, environment, and building data.

Expansion – Planning expansion by better understanding signal strengths in three dimensional buildings – or mapping your home Wi-Fi signal in 2D.

Mode Detection – Detecting travel mode (walk, car, bus, subway and commuter rail) from a multi-modal transportation network using GIS and GPS in New York City. 873. Finding

886. Corridor Analyst – Identifying possible corridors and preferred transmission routes using Least Cost Path engineering, environment and combined routing algorithms.

Transportation System (ITS) – Feeding data from GPS units, video cameras, and road monitoring units to advance efficiency and safety of transportation systems. 910. Shortest

Path – Generating the shortest, fastest, or least-costly route between any number of origins and any number of destinations, with any number of intermediate points.

Parcel Delivery – Seeing every driver in near-real time to study safety and find shorter routes – saving time, tire tread, and costs. 915. Floating

Management – Planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient effective flow and storage of goods and services from a point of origin to point of consumption. 917. Street

Congestion – Alleviating traffic congestion by making the best possible use of the existing transportation network and gathering data to improve decisions for modifying the network. 937. Sidewalk

Management – Visualizing complex spatial webs of utility networks as the foundation to manage the lifecycle of network assets for utilities.

Pole Replacement – Obtaining all the information when replacing utility poles and other business operations (Asset ID, construction date, overhead/underground conductor and conductors it supports with number of wire and cable segments 956. Power

Demand Estimation – Combining building volume, number of floors and other characteristics to predict the energy demand for heating and cooling using 3D city models in Germany.

– Describing the world in online, editable maps and mashups with free data available for you to experiment with and create unique applications.

World Wind – Monitoring weather patterns, visualize cities and terrain, track the movement of planes, vehicles and ships, analyze geospatial data, and educate people about the Earth with the cross-platform, Java-based NASA World Wind.

– Measuring albedo for Earth’s heat budget using surface reflectance satellite data – bright areas reflect more than dark areas. 983. Solar

Ocean Color – Downloading chlorophyll-a concentrations and sea surfaces temperature data sets for studying the increasing risk from ocean acidification and hypoxia.