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Criticism of Facebook

Criticism of Facebook has led to international media coverage and significant reporting of its legal troubles and the outsize influence it has on the lives and health of its users and employees, as well on its influence on the way media, specifically news, is reported and distributed.

with its most prominent case concerning allegations that CEO Mark Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named 'HarvardConnection' social network in 2004, instead allegedly opting to steal the idea and code to launch Facebook months before HarvardConnection began.[37][38][39]

On August 13, 2019, it was revealed that the company had in fact enlisted contractors to create and obtain transcripts of users, which were then analyzed to help spread political messages.[46][47][48]

Instant Personalization was a pilot program which shared Facebook account information with affiliated sites, such as sharing a user's list of 'liked' bands with a music website, so that when the user visits the site, their preferred music plays automatically.

As soon as you visit the sites in the pilot program (Yelp, Pandora, and Microsoft Docs) the sites can access your name, your picture, your gender, your current location, your list of friends, all the Pages you have Liked—everything Facebook classifies as public information.

On December 27, 2012, CBS News reported that Randi Zuckerberg, sister of Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, criticized a friend for being 'way uncool' in sharing a private Facebook photo of her on Twitter, only to be told that the image had appeared on a friend-of-a-friend's Facebook news feed.

A configuration problem on a Facebook server caused the PHP code to be displayed instead of the web page the code should have created, raising concerns about how secure private data on the site was.

On December 1, Facebook's credibility in regard to the Beacon program was further tested when it was reported that The New York Times 'essentially accuses' Mark Zuckerberg of lying to the paper and leaving Coca-Cola, which is reversing course on the program, a similar impression.[56]

In May 2010, Facebook added privacy controls and streamlined its privacy settings, giving users more ways to manage status updates and other information that is broadcast to the public News Feed.[63]

However, a user who presses 'like' or comments on the photo or status update of a friend cannot prevent that action from appearing in the news feeds of all the user's friends, even non-mutual ones.

The 'View As' option, used to show a user how privacy controls filter out what a specific given friend can see, only displays the user's timeline and gives no indication that items missing from the timeline may still be showing up in the friend's own news feed.

Government and local authorities rely on Facebook and other social networks to investigate crimes and obtain evidence to help establish a crime, provide location information, establish motives, prove and disprove alibis, and reveal communications.[65]

Facebook has willingly provided information in response to government subpoenas or requests, except with regard to private, unopened inbox messages less than 181 days old, which would require a warrant and a finding of probable cause under federal law under Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA).

One 2011 article noted that 'even when the government lacks reasonable suspicion of criminal activity and the user opts for the strictest privacy controls, Facebook users still cannot expect federal law to stop their 'private' content and communications from being used against them'.[66]

Indeed, Facebook's privacy policy states that 'We may also share information when we have a good faith belief it is necessary to prevent fraud or other illegal activity, to prevent imminent bodily harm, or to protect ourselves and you from people violating our Statement of Rights and Responsibilities.

Since the U.S. Congress has failed to meaningfully amend the ECPA to protect most communications on social-networking sites such as Facebook, and since the U.S. Supreme Court has largely refused to recognize a Fourth Amendment privacy right to information shared with a third party, there is no federal statutory or constitutional right that prevents the government from issuing requests that amount to fishing expeditions and there is no Facebook privacy policy that forbids the company from handing over private user information that suggests any illegal activity.[66]

The Assistant Commissioner found that Facebook did not do enough to ensure users granted meaningful consent for the disclosure of personal information to third parties and did not place adequate safeguards to prevent unauthorized access by third party developers to personal information.[69]

Two Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) students were able to use an automated script to download the publicly posted information of over 70,000 Facebook profiles from four schools (MIT, NYU, the University of Oklahoma, and Harvard University) as part of a research project on Facebook privacy published on December 14, 2005.[70]

Since then, Facebook has bolstered security protection for users, responding: 'We've built numerous defenses to combat phishing and malware, including complex automated systems that work behind the scenes to detect and flag Facebook accounts that are likely to be compromised (based on anomalous activity like lots of messages sent in a short period of time, or messages with links that are known to be bad).'[71]

second clause that brought criticism from some users allowed Facebook the right to sell users' data to private companies, stating 'We may share your information with third parties, including responsible companies with which we have a relationship.'

In September 2007, Facebook drew criticism after it began allowing search engines to index profile pages, though Facebook's privacy settings allow users to turn this off.[75]

However, there is barely any personal information presented to non-friends - if users leave the privacy controls on their default settings, the only personal information visible to a non-friend is the user's name, gender, profile picture and networks.[77]

An article in The New York Times in February 2008 pointed out that Facebook does not actually provide a mechanism for users to close their accounts, and raised the concern that private user data would remain indefinitely on Facebook's servers.[78]

an account allows it to be restored later, while deleting it will remove the account 'permanently', although some data submitted by that account ('like posting to a group or sending someone a message') will remain.[79]

Media outlets considered the app to effectively be spyware due to its behavior, adding that the app's listings did not readily disclaim Facebook's ownership of the app and its data collection practices.[84][85]

Since 2016, Facebook has also run 'Project Atlas'—publicly known as 'Facebook Research'—a market research program inviting teenagers and young adults between the ages of 13 and 35 to have data such as their app usage, web browsing history, web search history, location history, personal messages, photos, videos, emails, and Amazon order history, analyzed by Facebook.

In the wake of a January 2019 report by TechCrunch on Project Atlas, which alleged that Facebook bypassed the App Store by using an Apple enterprise program for apps used internally by a company's employees, Facebook refuted the article but later announced its discontinuation of the program on iOS.[89][90]

Notably, on January 1, 2008, one such memorial group posted the identity of murdered Toronto teenager Stefanie Rengel, whose family had not yet given the Toronto Police Service their consent to release her name to the media, and the identities of her accused killers, in defiance of Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act, which prohibits publishing the names of the under-age accused.[101]

While police and Facebook staff attempted to comply with the privacy regulations by deleting such posts, they noted difficulty in effectively policing the individual users who repeatedly republished the deleted information.[102]

The number one reason for users to quit Facebook was privacy concerns (48%), being followed by a general dissatisfaction with Facebook (14%), negative aspects regarding Facebook friends (13%), and the feeling of getting addicted to Facebook (6%).

National Journal Daily claims 'Facebook is facing new scrutiny over its decision to automatically turn on a new facial recognition feature aimed at helping users identify their friends in photos'.[109]

Zuckerberg showed no worries when speaking about Facebook's AIs, saying, 'Unsupervised learning is a long-term focus of our AI research team at Facebook, and it remains an important challenge for the whole AI research community' and 'It will save lives by diagnosing diseases and driving us around more safely.

The group claimed that Facebook failed to provide some of the requested data, including 'likes', facial recognition data, data about third party websites that use 'social plugins' visited by users, and information about uploaded videos.

In spring 2012, Facebook had to undertake many changes (e.g., having an extended download tool that should allow users to exercise the European right to access to all stored information or an update of the worldwide privacy policy).

An article published by USA Today in November 2011 claimed that Facebook creates logs of pages visited both by its members and by non-members, relying on tracking cookies to keep track of pages visited.[126]

Social networks, like Facebook, can have a detrimental effect on marriages, with users becoming worried about their spouse's contacts and relations with other people online, leading to marital breakdown and divorce.[130]

Previous studies have shown that romantic relationships can be damaged by excessive Internet use, Facebook jealousy, partner surveillance, ambiguous information, and online portrayal of intimate relationships.[136][137][138][139][140]

According to the article, researchers suspect that Facebook may contribute to an increase in divorce and infidelity rates in the near future due to the amount and ease of accessibility to connect with past partners.[135]

Stalking is not only limited to SNS stalking, but can lead to further 'in-person' stalking because nearly 25% of real-life stalking victims reported it started with online instant messaging (e.g., Facebook chat).[141][142]

Performative surveillance is the notion that people are very much aware that they are being surveiled on websites, like Facebook, and use the surveillance as an opportunity to portray themselves in a way that connotes a certain lifestyle—of which, that individual may, or may not, distort how they are perceived in reality.[143]

Facebook said that 'While knowledge of user ID does not permit access to anyone’s private information on Facebook, we plan to introduce new technical systems that will dramatically limit the sharing of User ID’s'.

A blog post by a member of Facebook's team further stated that 'press reports have exaggerated the implications of sharing a user ID', though still acknowledging that some of the apps were passing the ID in a manner that violated Facebook's policies.[144][145]

Facebook was also criticized for allowing the 2012 Barack Obama presidential campaign to analyze and target select users by providing the campaign with friendship connections of users who signed up for an application.

Although, the U.S government has yet to pass a national law protecting prospective employees and their social networking sites, from employers, the fourth amendment of the US constitution can protect prospective employees in specific situations.[159][160]

According to a survey of hiring managers by CareerBuilder.com, the most common deal breakers they found on Facebook profiles include references to drinking, poor communication skills, inappropriate photos, and lying about skills and/or qualifications.[161]

2011 study in the online journal First Monday examines how parents consistently enable children as young as 10 years old to sign up for accounts, directly violating Facebook's policy banning young visitors.

This policy is in compliance with a United States law, the 1998 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act, which requires minors aged 13 or younger to gain explicit parental consent to access commercial websites.

Of the 1,007 households surveyed for the study, 76% of parents reported that their child joined Facebook at an age younger than 13, the minimum age in the site's terms of service.

The findings of the study raise questions primarily about the shortcomings of United States federal law, but also implicitly continue to raise questions about whether or not Facebook does enough to publicize its terms of service with respect to minors.

The Journal of Education for Business states that 'a recent study of 200 Facebook profiles found that 42% had comments regarding alcohol, 53% had photos involving alcohol use, 20% had comments regarding sexual activities, 25% had seminude or sexually provocative photos, and 50% included the use of profanity.'[165]

Bugeja, author of the Oxford University Press text Interpersonal Divide (2005), quoted representatives of the American Association of University Professors and colleagues in higher education to document the distraction of students using Facebook and other social networks during class and at other venues in the wireless campus.

This same study found that certain Facebook activities like commenting and creating or RSVPing to events were positively related to student engagement while playing games and checking up on friends was negatively related.

The term phishing is one kind of online fraud in which criminals try to trick people into revealing passwords, credit card information, and other sensitive information.

Phishing takes the form of a message or Wall post that appears to come from someone on the user's Friend List but in actuality the message was sent by phishers using the friend's login information.

In September 2018, a software bug meant that photos that had been uploaded to Facebook accounts, but that had not been 'published' (and which therefore should have remained private between the user and Facebook), were exposed to app developers.[178]

In December 2018, it emerged that Facebook had, during the period 2010–2018, granted access to users' private messages, address book contents, and private posts, without the users' consent, to more than 150 third parties including Microsoft, Amazon, Yahoo, Netflix, and Spotify.

In December 2018, it emerged that Facebook's mobile app reveals the user's location to Facebook, even if the user does not use the 'check in' feature and has configured all relevant settings within the app so as to maximize location privacy.[180]

In February 2019, it emerged that a number of Facebook apps, including Flo, had been sending users' health data such as blood pressure and ovulation status to Facebook without users' informed consent.[182][183][184][185]

New York governor Andrew Cuomo called the practice an 'outrageous abuse of privacy', ordered New York's department of state and department of financial services to investigate, and encouraged federal regulators to step in.[186]

In March 2019, Facebook admitted that it had mistakenly stored 'hundreds of millions' of passwords of Facebook and Instagram users in plaintext (as opposed to being hashed and salted) on multiple internal systems accessible only to Facebook engineers, dating as far back as 2012.

In December 2019, the Hungarian Competition Authority fined Facebook around US$4 million for false advertising, ruling that Facebook cannot market itself as being a 'free' (no cost) service because the use of detailed personal information to deliver targeted advertising constituted a compensation that must be provided to Facebook in order to use the service.[192]

Such highlights include, but are not limited to, journal posts, videos, and photos that depict or reference such positive or otherwise outstanding activities, experiences, and facts.

This effect is caused mainly by the fact that most users of Facebook usually only display the positive aspects of their lives while excluding the negative, though it is also strongly connected to inequality and the disparities between social groups as Facebook is open to users from all classes of society.

state that this kind of envy has profound effects on other aspects of life and can lead to severe depression, self-loathing, rage and hatred, resentment, feelings of inferiority and insecurity, pessimism, suicidal tendencies and desires, social isolation, and other issues that can prove very serious.

joint study conducted by two German universities demonstrated Facebook envy and found that as many as one out of three people actually feel worse and less satisfied with their lives after visiting the site.

Causes of stress included fear of missing important social information, fear of offending contacts, discomfort or guilt from rejecting user requests or deleting unwanted contacts or being unfriended or blocked by Facebook friends or other users, the displeasure of having friend requests rejected or ignored, the pressure to be entertaining, criticism or intimidation from other Facebook users, and having to use appropriate etiquette for different types of friends.[208]

It is caused by the extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs offline friends) while age has only an indirect effect.

The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include perceptions of SNS exhaustion, low user satisfaction, and high intentions to reduce or stop using SNS.[210]

Another study conducted in 2012 by researchers from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business in the United States found that drugs like alcohol and tobacco could not keep up with social networking sites regarding their level of addictiveness.[212]

Facebook has, at least in the political field, a counter-effect on being informed: in two studies from the US with a total of more than 2,000 participants, the influence of social media on the general knowledge on political issues was examined in the context of two US presidential elections.

Many studies have attempted to discover whether Facebook has a positive or negative effect on children’s and teenagers’ social lives, and many of them have come to the conclusion that there are distinct social problems that arise with Facebook usage.

When that self is then broken down by others by badmouthing, criticism, harassment, criminalization or vilification, intimidation, demonization, demoralization, belittlement, or attacking someone over the site it can cause much of the envy, anger, or depression.[215][216][217][218]

The researchers concluded that they had found 'some of the first experimental evidence to support the controversial claims that emotions can spread throughout a network, [though] the effect sizes from the manipulations are small.'[222]

Shortly thereafter, on July 3, 2014, USA Today reported that the privacy watchdog group Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) had filed a formal complaint with the Federal Trade Commission claiming that Facebook had broken the law when it conducted the study on the emotions of its users without their knowledge or consent.

In its complaint, EPIC alleged that Facebook had deceived users by secretly conducting a psychological experiment on their emotions: 'At the time of the experiment, Facebook did not state in the Data Use Policy that user data would be used for research purposes.

(2014) found a 0.07%—that's not 7 percent, that's 1/15th of one percent!!—decrease in negative words in people's status updates when the number of negative posts on their Facebook news feed decreased.

In the UK, the study was also criticised by the British Psychological Society which said, in a letter to The Guardian, 'There has undoubtedly been some degree of harm caused, with many individuals affected by increased levels of negative emotion, with consequent potential economic costs, increase in possible mental health problems and burden on health services.

In November 2017, the Irish Independent recorded that for the 2016 financial year, Facebook had paid €30 million of Irish corporation tax on €12.6 billion of revenues that were routed through Ireland, giving an Irish effective tax rate of under 1%.[238]

Many of these contractors face unrealistic expectations, harsh working conditions, and constant exposure to disturbing content, including graphic violence, animal abuse, and child pornography.[242][243]

Selena Scola, an employee of contractor Pro Unlimited, Inc., sued her employer after she developed PTSD as a result of 'constant and unmitigated exposure to highly toxic and extremely disturbing images at the workplace'.[248]

Plans for a Facebook-owned real estate development known as 'Willow Village' have been criticized for resembling a 'company town', which often curtails the rights of residents, and encourages or forces employees to remain within an environment created and monitored by their employer outside of work hours.[249]

In 2015, some Facebook pages were accused of plagiarizing videos from YouTube users and re-posting them as their own content using Facebook's video platform, and in some cases, achieving higher levels of engagement and views than the original YouTube post.

Videos hosted by Facebook are given a higher priority and prominence within the platform and its user experience (including direct embedding within the News Feed and pages), giving a disadvantage to posting it as a link to the original external source.[251][252]

In August 2015, Facebook announced a video-matching technology aiming to identify reposted videos, and also stated its intention to improve its procedures to remove infringing content faster.[253]

Having previously refused to delete such clips under the guideline that users have the right to depict the 'world in which we live', Facebook changed its stance in May, announcing that it would remove reported videos while evaluating its policy.[255]

further stating that 'Sometimes, those experiences and issues involve graphic content that is of public interest or concern, such as human rights abuses, acts of terrorism, and other violence.

Two days later, Facebook removed a video of a beheading following 'worldwide outrage', and while acknowledging its commitment to allowing people to upload gory material for the purpose of condemnation, it also stated that it would be further strengthening its enforcement to prevent glorification.[257]

“If groups are using those platforms to propagate their campaigns then those platforms should seriously look at their role because they could then be assisting in that process of further crimes being committed,” he said.[citation needed]

Erin Saltman, Facebook's policy manager for Counterterrorism in Europe, Middle East and Africa, told BBC Arabic, “Sometimes there are very conflicting narratives of whether or not the victim is a terrorist, or whether it's a civilian over who's committing that act, we cannot be the pure arbiters of truth.”[264]

and brought the government to rapidly issue a law that would force Internet service providers to deny access to entire websites in case of refused removal of illegal contents.

Facebook criticized the government's efforts, telling Bloomberg that it 'would be like closing an entire railway network just because of offensive graffiti at one station', and that 'Facebook would always remove any content promoting violence and already had a takedown procedure in place.'[292]

Shortly after the suicide of high school student Alexis Pilkington, anonymous posters began trolling for reactions across various message boards, referring to Pilkington as a 'suicidal CUSS', and posting graphic images on her Facebook memorial page.

In April 2011, Bradley Paul Hampson was sentenced to three years in jail after pleading guilty to two counts of using a carriage service (the Internet) to cause offense, for posts on Facebook memorial pages, and one count each of distributing and possessing child pornography when he posted images on the memorial pages of the deceased with phalluses superimposed alongside phrases such as 'Woot I'm dead'.[297][298]

Rape Is No Joke (RINJ), a group opposing the pages, argued that removing 'pro-rape' pages from Facebook and other social media was not a violation of free speech in the context of Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the concepts recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.[300] RINJ

The campaign highlighted content that promoted domestic and sexual violence against women, and used over 57,000 tweets and more than 4,900 emails to create outcomes such as the withdrawal of advertising from Facebook by 15 companies, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK.

but then agreed to take action on May 29, 2013 after it had 'become clear that our systems to identify and remove hate speech have failed to work as effectively as we would like, particularly around issues of gender-based hate'.[304]

However, when presented with the images, Facebook cancelled the interview, and told the BBC that it had been reported to the National Crime Agency for illegally distributing child exploitation images (the NCA could not confirm whether the BBC was actually being investigated).[306]

In July 2017, GMA News reported that 'a number' of secret Facebook groups that had been engaging in illegal activity of sharing 'obscene' photos of women had been exposed, with the Philippine National Bureau of Investigation warning group members of the possibility of being liable for violating child pornography and anti-voyeurism laws.

Senator Risa Hontiveros responded to the incidents with the proposal of a law that would impose 'stiff penalties' on such group members, stating that 'These people have no right to enjoy our internet freedom only to abuse our women and children.

They said the page inciting against Palestinians was closed by Facebook (on the same day that it was reported) for 'containing credible threat of violence' which 'violated our [Facebook's] community standards', but not the page inciting against Israelis.

Israeli politicians have complained that Facebook does not comply or assist with requests from the police for tracking and reporting individuals when they share their intent to kill or commit any other act of terrorism on their Facebook pages.

In June 2016, following the murder of Hallel Ariel, 13, by a terrorist who posted on Facebook, Israeli Minister of Public Security Gilad Erdan charged that 'Facebook, which has brought a positive revolution to the world, has become a monster...The dialogue, the incitement, the lies of the young Palestinian generation are happening on the Facebook platform.'

In July 2016, a civil action for $1 billion in damages was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York on behalf of the victims and family members of four Israeli-Americans and one US citizen killed by Hamas terrorists since June 2014.[316][317]

The plaintiffs claimed that Facebook knowingly provided its social media platform and communication services to Hamas in violation of provisions of US Anti-Terrorism laws which prohibits US businesses from providing any material support, including services, to designated terrorist groups and their leaders.

The suit claims that Hamas 'used and relied on Facebook's online social network platform and communications services to facilitate and carry out its terrorist activity, including the terrorist attacks in which Hamas murdered and injured the victims and their families in this case'.[316][317]

the court found that Facebook and other social media companies are not considered to be the publishers of material users post when digital tools used by the company match content with what the tool identifies as interested consumers.[318][319]

The terror cells received Hezbollah funding and planned to conduct suicide bombings and ambushes and had begun preparing explosive devices for attacks, said the security service, which claimed credit for preventing the attacks.

Currently, legislation is being prepared in Israel, allowing fines of 300,000 shekels for Facebook and other social media like Twitter and YouTube for every post inciting or praising terrorism that isn't removed within 48 hours, and could possibly lead to further acts of terrorism.[323]

The company claimed that the majority of the terrorism accounts that are found are discovered by Facebook itself, while it reviews reports of terrorism content 'urgently', and, in cases of imminent harm, 'promptly inform authorities'.

It also develops new tools to aid in its efforts, including the use of artificial intelligence to match terrorist images and videos, detecting when content is shared across related accounts, and developing technologies to stop repeat offenders.

In June 2017, The Guardian reported that a software bug had exposed the personal details of 1,000 Facebook workers involved in reviewing and removing terrorism content, by displaying their profiles in the 'Activity' logs of Facebook groups related to terrorism efforts,.

In Facebook's Dublin, Ireland headquarters, six individuals were determined to be 'high priority' victims of the error, after the company concluded that their profiles were likely viewed by potential terrorists in groups such as ISIS, Hezbollah and the Kurdistan Workers' Party.

A Facebook spokesperson stated that 'Our investigation found that only a small fraction of the names were likely viewed, and we never had evidence of any threat to the people impacted or their families as a result of this matter', and Craig D’Souza, Facebook's head of global investigations, said: 'Keep in mind that when the person sees your name on the list, it was in their activity log, which contains a lot of information [...] there is a good chance that they associate you with another admin of the group or a hacker'.

As a result of the data leak, Facebook is reportedly testing the use of alternative, administrative accounts for workers reviewing content, rather than requiring workers to sign in with their personal profiles.[326][327]

On October 26, 2018 social network Facebook announced that it has deleted 82 accounts created in Iran that included posts advocating harsh issues such as race, immigration, and U.S. President Donald Trump.[328]

Although Facebook initially denied claims of issues with fake new stories and their algorithms, they fired the entire trending team involved with a fake news story about Megyn Kelly being a 'closeted liberal'.[334]

From c.2018 until 27 March 2019, Facebook's internal policy was to permit 'white nationalist' content but not 'white supremacist' content, despite advice stating there is no distinction.[342]

A user claimed responsibility via the anonymous Android and iOS app Secret for reporting 'fake names' which caused user profiles to be suspended, specifically targeting the stage names of drag queens.[346]

On October 1, 2014, Chris Cox, Chief Product Officer at Facebook, offered an apology: 'In the two weeks since the real-name policy issues surfaced, we've had the chance to hear from many of you in these communities and understand the policy more clearly as you experience it.

We owe you a better service and a better experience using Facebook, and we're going to fix the way this policy gets handled so everyone affected here can go back to using Facebook as you were.'[347]

The site is developing a protocol that will allow members to provide specifics as to their 'special circumstance' or 'unique situation' with a request to use pseudonyms, subject to verification of their true identities.

At that time, this was already being tested in the U.S. Product manager Todd Gage and vice president of global operations Justin Osofsky also promised a new method for reducing the number of members who must go through ID verification while ensuring the safety of others on Facebook.

The fake name reporting procedure will also be modified, forcing anyone who makes such an allegation to provide specifics that would be investigated and giving the accused individual time to dispute the allegation.[350]

Some users have complained that this policy allows Facebook to empower abusive users to harass them by allowing them to submit reports on even benign comments and photos as being 'offensive' or 'in violation of Facebook Rights and Responsibilities' and that enough of these reports result in the user who is being harassed in this way getting their account blocked for a predetermined number of days or weeks, or even deactivated entirely.[352]

The automated emailing system used when filling out a support form often refers users back to the help center or to pages that are outdated and cannot be accessed, leaving users at a dead end with no further support available.

On September 18, 2009, Facebook went down for the second time in 2009, the first time being when a group of hackers were deliberately trying to drown out a political speaker who had social networking problems from continuously speaking against the Iranian election results.[358]

Australian technologist Nik Cubrilovic discovered that when a user logs out of Facebook, the cookies from that login are still kept in the browser, allowing Facebook to track users on websites that include 'social widgets' distributed by the social network.

As of December 2015, to comply with a court order citing violations of the European Union Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications—which requires users to consent to tracking and storage of data by websites, Facebook no longer allows users in Belgium to view any content on the service, even public pages, without being registered and logged in.[364]

On March 27, 2016, following a bombing in Lahore, Pakistan, Facebook activated its 'Safety Check' feature, which allows people to let friends and loved ones know they are okay following a crisis or natural disaster, to people who were never in danger, or even close to the Pakistan explosion.

Images have been removed from user pages on topics such as breastfeeding[379], nudes in art, apparent breasts, naked mannequins[380], kisses between persons of the same sex and family photos.[381]

Although photos that show an exposed breast violate Facebook's decency code, even when the baby covered the nipple, Facebook took several days to respond to criticism and deactivate a paid advertisement for a dating service that used a photo of a topless model.[386]

Around July 1, 2015 Facebook started to automatically ban accounts that use the word 'moskal', which is a widely used historical slang term for people of Russia (formerly Moskovia until 1721), which may be seen offensive by some individuals.

A human rights group superimposed pellet injuries similar to those inflicted on Kashmiri people on the faces of popular Indian actors, famous people including Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and even Prime Minister Narendra Modi as a response, which went viral.[396][397]

In May 2016, Facebook and other technology companies agreed to a new 'code of conduct' by the European Commission to review hateful online content within 24 hours of being notified, and subsequently remove such content if necessary.[404][405][406]

2010, the Office of the Data Protection Supervisor, a branch of the government of the Isle of Man, received so many complaints about Facebook that they deemed it necessary to provide a 'Facebook Guidance' booklet (available online as a PDF file), which cited (amongst other things) Facebook policies and guidelines and included an elusive Facebook telephone number.

This number when called, however, proved to provide no telephone support for Facebook users, and only played back a recorded message advising callers to review Facebook's online help information.[414]

After a UNM user signed into Facebook from off campus, a message from Facebook said, 'We are working with the UNM administration to lift the block and have explained that it was instituted based on erroneous information, but they have not yet committed to restore your access.'

However, after Facebook created an encrypted login and displayed a precautionary message not to use university passwords for access, UNM unblocked access the following spring semester.[431]

Advanced users cannot limit the amount of information anyone can access in their profiles, but Facebook promotes the sharing of personal information for marketing purposes, leading to the promotion of the service using personal data from users who are not fully aware of this.

On April 12, 2011, a three-judge panel of a federal appeals court in San Francisco ruled that the Winklevoss brothers, whose fight over Facebook's origins was a major narrative arc of the film The Social Network, cannot back out of a settlement they signed with the company in 2008.

According to Ceglia, he and Zuckerberg signed a contract on April 28, 2003, that for an initial fee of $1,000, entitles Ceglia to 50% of the website's revenue, as well as additional 1% interest per each day after January 1, 2004, until website completion.

In addition to this statement Zuckerberg explained the paradox created when people want to share their information (phone number, pictures, email address, etc.) with the public, but at the same time desire to remain in complete control of who has access to this info.[476]

However, the new terms were harshly criticized in a report by computer scientists from the University of Cambridge, who stated that the democratic process surrounding the new terms is disingenuous and significant problems remain in the new terms.[481]

claiming that Facebook's new policy of sharing users' home address and mobile phone information with third-party developers were 'misleading and fail[ed] to provide users clear and privacy protections', particularly for children under age 18.[485]

Facebook’s team believed that through the Beacon system people could inspire their friends to buy similar products, however, users did not like the idea of sharing certain online purchases with their Facebook friends.[493]

As of December 2010[update], the 36-month running count of complaints about Facebook logged with the Better Business Bureau is 1136, including 101 ('Making a full refund, as the consumer requested'), 868 ('Agreeing to perform according to their contract'), 1 ('Refuse [sic] to adjust, relying on terms of agreement'), 20 ('Unassigned'), 0 ('Unanswered') and 136 ('Refusing to make an adjustment').[497]

Marcy Scott Lynn, of Facebook's sustainability program, said it looked forward 'to a day when our primary energy sources are clean and renewable' and that the company is 'working with Greenpeace and others to help bring that day closer'.[511][512]

Despite the significant increase in likes, Muller noticed his page has actually decreased in engagement – there were fewer people commenting, sharing, and liking his posts and updates despite the significant increase in 'likes'.

Facebook has faced allegations that its advertising platforms facilitate housing discrimination by means of internal functions for targeted advertising, which allowed advertisers to target or exclude specific audiences from campaigns.[525][526][527]

Researchers have also found that Facebook's advertising platform may be inherently discriminatory, since ad delivery is also influenced by how often specific demographics interact with specific types of advertising—even if they are not explicitly determined by the advertiser.[528]

Under the United States' Fair Housing Act, it is illegal to show a preference for or against tenants based on specific protected classes (including race, ethnicity, and disabilities), when advertising or negotiating the rental or sale of housing.

In 2016, ProPublica found that advertisers could target or exclude users from advertising based on an 'Ethnic Affinity'—a demographic trait which is determined based on a user's interests and behaviors on Facebook, and not explicitly provided by the user.

Advertisers who attempt to create ads for housing, employment, or credit (HEC) opportunities would be blocked from using ethnic affinities (renamed 'multicultural affinities' and now classified as behaviors) to target the ad.

They were also able to successfully create housing ads that excluded users based on interests and other factors that effectively imply associations with protected classes, including interests in wheelchair ramps, the Spanish-language television network Telemundo, and New York City ZIP codes with majority minority populations.

In July 2018, Facebook signed a legally binding agreement with the State of Washington to take further steps within 90 days to prevent the use of its advertising platform for housing discrimination against protected classes.[531]

On March 19, 2019, Facebook settled a lawsuit over the matter with the National Fair Housing Alliance, agreeing to create a separate portal for HEC advertising with limited targeting options by September 2019, and to provide a public archive of all HEC advertising.[533][534]

Furthermore, there are lots of work which try to detect fake profile using automated means, in one such work machine learning techniques are used to detect fake users.[539]

The best way for your stories to appear in the News Feed filter is to create stories that are highly engaging, as high quality, interesting stories are most likely to garner likes and comments by the user's friends.[476]

Following a difficult 2017, marked by accusations of relaying Fake news and revelations about groups close to Russia which tried to influence the 2016 US presidential election (see Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections) via advertisements on his service, Mark Zuckerberg, announced in his traditional January post:

To this end, the new algorithm is supposed to determine the publications around which a user is most likely to interact with his friends, and make them appear higher in the News Feed instead of items for example from media companies or brands.

This change which seems to be just another update of the social network, is widely criticized because of the heavy consequences it might lead to “In countries such as the Philippines, Myanmar and South Sudan and emerging democracies such Bolivia and Serbia, it is not ethical to plead platform neutrality or to set up the promise of a functioning news ecosystem and then simply withdraw at a whim”.[559] Indeed,

NRS: CHAPTER 200 - CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON

����� (b) Committed in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of sexual assault, kidnapping, arson, robbery, burglary, invasion of the home, sexual abuse of a child, sexual molestation of a child under the age of 14 years, child abuse or abuse of an older person or vulnerable person pursuant to NRS 200.5099;

����� (d) Committed on the property of a public or private school, at an activity sponsored by a public or private school or on a school bus while the bus was engaged in its official duties by a person who intended to create a great risk of death or substantial bodily harm to more than one person by means of a weapon, device or course of action that would normally be hazardous to the lives of more than one person;

����� 4.  A person convicted of murder of the first degree is guilty of a category A felony and shall be punished: ����� (a) By death, only if one or more aggravating circumstances are found and any mitigating circumstance or circumstances which are found do not outweigh the aggravating circumstance or circumstances, unless a court has made a finding pursuant to NRS 174.098 that the defendant is a person with an intellectual disability and has stricken the notice of intent to seek the death penalty;

and ����� (e) �Sexual molestation� means any willful and lewd or lascivious act, other than acts constituting the crime of sexual assault, upon or with the body, or any part or member thereof, of a child under the age of 14 years, with the intent of arousing, appealing to, or gratifying the lust, passions or sexual desires of the perpetrator or of the child.

����� 4.  The murder was committed while the person was engaged, alone or with others, in the commission of, or an attempt to commit or flight after committing or attempting to commit, any robbery, arson in the first degree, burglary, invasion of the home or kidnapping in the first degree, and the person charged: ����� (a) Killed or attempted to kill the person murdered;

For the purposes of this subsection, �peace officer� means: ����� (a) An employee of the Department of Corrections who does not exercise general control over offenders imprisoned within the institutions and facilities of the Department, but whose normal duties require the employee to come into contact with those offenders when carrying out the duties prescribed by the Director of the Department.

For the purposes of this subsection: ����� (a) �Nonconsensual� means against the victim�s will or under conditions in which the person knows or reasonably should know that the victim is mentally or physically incapable of resisting, consenting or understanding the nature of his or her conduct, including, but not limited to, conditions in which the person knows or reasonably should know that the victim is dead.

����� 14.  The murder was committed on the property of a public or private school, at an activity sponsored by a public or private school or on a school bus while the bus was engaged in its official duties by a person who intended to create a great risk of death or substantial bodily harm to more than one person by means of a weapon, device or course of action that would normally be hazardous to the lives of more than one person.

����� 1.  In cases of voluntary manslaughter, there must be a serious and highly provoking injury inflicted upon the person killing, sufficient to excite an irresistible passion in a reasonable person, or an attempt by the person killed to commit a serious personal injury on the person killing.

����� 1.  Except under the circumstances provided in NRS 484B.550 and 484B.653, involuntary manslaughter is the killing of a human being, without any intent to do so, in the commission of an unlawful act, or a lawful act which probably might produce such a consequence in an unlawful manner, but where the involuntary killing occurs in the commission of an unlawful act, which, in its consequences, naturally tends to destroy the life of a human being, or is committed in the prosecution of a felonious intent, the offense is murder.

human being in necessary self-defense, or in defense of an occupied habitation, an occupied motor vehicle or a person, against one who manifestly intends or endeavors to commit a crime of violence, or against any person or persons who manifestly intend and endeavor, in a violent, riotous, tumultuous or surreptitious manner, to enter the occupied habitation or occupied motor vehicle, of another for the purpose of assaulting or offering personal violence to any person dwelling or being therein.

����� 2.  There is a rebuttable presumption that the circumstances were sufficient to excite the fears of a reasonable person and that the person killing really acted under the influence of those fears and not in a spirit of revenge if the person killing: ����� (a) Knew or reasonably believed that the person who was killed was entering unlawfully and with force, or attempting to enter unlawfully and with force, the occupied habitation or occupied motor vehicle, of another;

NCL � 10079] ����� NRS 200.160  Additional cases of justifiable homicide.  Homicide is also justifiable when committed: ����� 1.  In the lawful defense of the slayer, or his or her spouse, parent, child, brother or sister, or of any other person in his or her presence or company, when there is reasonable ground to apprehend a design on the part of the person slain to commit a felony or to do some great personal injury to the slayer or to any such person, and there is imminent danger of such design being accomplished;

2017, 787) ����� NRS 200.170  Burden of proving circumstances of mitigation or justifiable or excusable homicide.  The killing of the deceased named in the indictment or information by the defendant being proved, the burden of proving circumstances of mitigation, or that justify or excuse the homicide, will devolve on the accused, unless the proof on the part of the prosecution sufficiently manifests that the crime committed only amounts to manslaughter, or that the accused was justified, or excused in committing the homicide.

penalty.  A person who willfully kills an unborn quick child, by any injury committed upon the mother of the child, commits manslaughter and shall be punished for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 10 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $10,000.

penalty.  A woman who takes or uses, or submits to the use of, any drug, medicine or substance, or any instrument or other means, with the intent to terminate her pregnancy after the 24th week of pregnancy, unless the same is performed upon herself upon the advice of a physician acting pursuant to the provisions of NRS 442.250, and thereby causes the death of the child of the pregnancy, commits manslaughter and shall be punished for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a

penalties.  A person navigating a vessel for gain who willfully or negligently receives so many passengers or such a quantity of other lading on board that by means thereof the vessel sinks, is overset or injured, and thereby a human being is drowned or otherwise killed, commits manslaughter and shall be punished: ����� 1.  If the overloading is negligent, for a category D felony as provided in NRS 193.130.

penalty.  A person who makes or keeps gunpowder or any other explosive substance in a city or town in any quantity or manner prohibited by law or by ordinance of the municipality commits manslaughter if an explosion thereof occurs whereby the death of a human being is occasioned, and shall be punished for a category D felony as provided in NRS 193.130.

����� 1.  If a court determines that a person who is currently enrolled in a secondary school unlawfully caused or attempted to cause serious bodily injury to another person, the court shall provide the information specified in subsection 2 to the school district in which the offender is currently enrolled.

If a person cuts out or disables the tongue, puts out an eye, slits the nose, ear or lip, or disables any limb or member of another, or voluntarily, or of purpose, puts out an eye, that person is guilty of mayhem which is a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 2 years and a maximum term of not more than 10 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $10,000.

����� 1.  A person who willfully seizes, confines, inveigles, entices, decoys, abducts, conceals, kidnaps or carries away a person by any means whatsoever with the intent to hold or detain, or who holds or detains, the person for ransom, or reward, or for the purpose of committing sexual assault, extortion or robbery upon or from the person, or for the purpose of killing the person or inflicting substantial bodily harm upon the person, or to exact from relatives, friends, or any other person any money or valuable thing for the return or disposition of the kidnapped person, and a person who leads, takes, entices, or carries away or detains any minor with the intent to keep, imprison, or confine the minor from his or her parents, guardians, or any other person having lawful custody of the minor, or with the intent to hold the minor to unlawful service, or perpetrate upon the person of the minor any unlawful act is guilty of kidnapping in the first degree which is a

����� 2.  A person who willfully and without authority of law seizes, inveigles, takes, carries away or kidnaps another person with the intent to keep the person secretly imprisoned within the State, or for the purpose of conveying the person out of the State without authority of law, or in any manner held to service or detained against the person�s will, is guilty of kidnapping in the second degree which is a category B felony.

1995, 1184) ����� NRS 200.320  Kidnapping in first degree: Penalties.  A person convicted of kidnapping in the first degree is guilty of a category A felony and shall be punished: ����� 1.  Where the kidnapped person suffers substantial bodily harm during the act of kidnapping or the subsequent detention and confinement or in attempted escape or escape therefrom, by imprisonment in the state prison: ����� (a) For life without the possibility of parole;

1995, 1184) ����� NRS 200.330  Kidnapping in second degree: Penalties.  A person convicted of kidnapping in the second degree is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 2 years and a maximum term of not more than 15 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $15,000.

1943 NCL � 10612.09] ����� NRS 200.357  Law enforcement officer required to take child into protective custody if child in danger of being removed from jurisdiction.  A law enforcement officer who is conducting an investigation or making an arrest concerning the abduction of a child shall take the child into protective custody if the law enforcement officer reasonably believes that the child is in danger of being removed from the jurisdiction.

����� 1.  A person having a limited right of custody to a child by operation of law or pursuant to an order, judgment or decree of any court, including a judgment or decree which grants another person rights to custody or visitation of the child, or any parent having no right of custody to the child, who: ����� (a) In violation of an order, judgment or decree of any court willfully detains, conceals or removes the child from a parent, guardian or other person having lawful custody or a right of visitation of the child;

����� 2.  Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a parent who has joint legal and physical custody of a child pursuant to NRS 125C.0015 shall not willfully conceal or remove the child from the custody of the other parent with the specific intent to frustrate the efforts of the other parent to establish or maintain a meaningful relationship with the child.

����� 4.  A parent who has joint physical custody of a child pursuant to an order, judgment or decree of a court shall not relocate with the child pursuant to NRS 125C.0065 without the written consent of the non-relocating parent or before the court enters an order granting the parent primary physical custody of the child and permission to relocate with the child, as applicable.

����� 11.  This section does not apply to a person who detains, conceals, removes or relocates with a child to protect the child from the imminent danger of abuse or neglect or to protect himself or herself from imminent physical harm, and reported the detention, concealment, removal or relocation to a law enforcement agency or an agency which provides child welfare services within 24 hours after detaining, concealing, removing or relocating with the child, or as soon as the circumstances allowed.

����� 1.  A person is guilty of sexual assault if he or she: ����� (a) Subjects another person to sexual penetration, or forces another person to make a sexual penetration on himself or herself or another, or on a beast, against the will of the victim or under conditions in which the perpetrator knows or should know that the victim is mentally or physically incapable of resisting or understanding the nature of his or her conduct;

����� 2.  Except as otherwise provided in subsections 3 and 4, a person who commits a sexual assault is guilty of a category A felony and shall be punished: ����� (a) If substantial bodily harm to the victim results from the actions of the defendant committed in connection with or as a part of the sexual assault, by imprisonment in the state prison: ������������ (1) For life without the possibility of parole;

����� 3.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 4, a person who commits a sexual assault against a child under the age of 16 years is guilty of a category A felony and shall be punished: ����� (a) If the crime results in substantial bodily harm to the child, by imprisonment in the state prison for life without the possibility of parole.

2015, 2235) ����� NRS 200.368  Statutory sexual seduction: Penalties.  A person who commits statutory sexual seduction shall be punished: ����� 1.  If the person is 21 years of age or older at the time of the commission of the offense, for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a

1987, 1165) ����� NRS 200.377  Victims of certain sexual offenses: Legislative findings and declarations.  The Legislature finds and declares that: ����� 1.  This State has a compelling interest in assuring that the victim of a sexual offense, an offense involving a pupil or child or sex trafficking: ����� (a) Reports the sexual offense, offense involving a

����� 1.  A victim of a sexual offense, an offense involving a pupil or child or sex trafficking may choose a pseudonym to be used instead of the victim�s name on all files, records and documents pertaining to the sexual offense, offense involving a pupil or child or sex trafficking, including, without limitation, criminal intelligence and investigative reports, court records and media releases.

����� 1.  A public officer or employee who has access to any records, files or other documents which include the photograph, likeness, name, address, telephone number or other fact or information that reveals the identity of a victim of a sexual offense, an offense involving a pupil or child or sex trafficking shall not intentionally or knowingly disclose the identifying information to any person other than: ����� (a) The defendant or the defendant�s attorney;

2017, 2319) ����� NRS 200.3774  Victims of certain sexual offenses: Effect of waiver of confidentiality.  The provisions of NRS 200.3771, 200.3772 and 200.3773 do not apply if the victim of the sexual offense, offense involving a pupil or child or sex trafficking voluntarily waives, in writing, the confidentiality of the information concerning the victim�s identity.

����� 1.  In addition to any other remedy provided by law, a person who reasonably believes that the crime of sexual assault has been committed against him or her by another person may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for a temporary or extended order directing the person who allegedly committed the sexual assault to: ����� (a) Stay away from the home, school, business or place of employment of the victim of the alleged sexual assault and any other location specifically named by the court.

����� 2.  If a defendant charged with a crime involving sexual assault is released from custody before trial or is found guilty at the trial, the court may issue a temporary or extended order or provide as a condition of the release or sentence that the defendant: ����� (a) Stay away from the home, school, business or place of employment of the victim of the alleged sexual assault and any other location specifically named by the court.

����� 7.  A temporary or extended order issued pursuant to this section must provide notice that a person who is arrested for violating the order will not be admitted to bail sooner than 12 hours after the arrest if: ����� (a) The arresting officer determines that such a violation is accompanied by a direct or indirect threat of harm;

����� 5.  At any time while the extended order is in effect, the party who obtained the extended order or the adverse party may appear and move for its dissolution or modification based on changes of circumstance of the parties, and in that event the court shall proceed to hear and determine such motion as expeditiously as the ends of justice require.

����� (Added to NRS by 2009, 230) ����� NRS 200.37835  Duty to transmit information concerning temporary or extended order to Central Repository.  Any time a court issues a temporary or extended order for protection against a person alleged to have committed the crime of sexual assault and any time a person serves such an order, or receives any information or takes any other action pursuant to NRS 200.378 to 200.37835, inclusive, the court or person, as applicable, shall cause to be transmitted, in the manner prescribed by the Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History, any information required by the Central Repository in a manner which ensures that the information is received by the Central Repository by the end of the next business day.

[Effective through December 31, 2019.] ����� 1.  Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a law enforcement agency shall, not later than 30 days after receiving a sexual assault forensic evidence kit, submit the sexual assault forensic evidence kit to the applicable forensic laboratory responsible for conducting a genetic marker analysis.

The report must contain: ����� (a) With regard to any sexual assault forensic evidence kit received by the forensic laboratory before January 1, 2015: ������������ (1) The total number of such sexual assault forensic evidence kits tested during the immediately preceding calendar year;

����� (b) With regard to any sexual assault forensic evidence kit received by the forensic laboratory on or after January 1, 2015: ������������ (1) The total number of such sexual assault forensic evidence kits tested during the immediately preceding calendar year and, for each such sexual assault forensic evidence kit, the date on which: ������������������ (I) The forensic evidence was obtained from a forensic medical examination;

[Effective January 1, 2020.] ����� 1.  Within 72 hours after conducting a forensic medical examination, a medical provider shall notify the law enforcement agency having jurisdiction over the alleged sexual assault of the victim and the law enforcement agency shall take possession of the sexual assault forensic evidence kit.

����� 2.  If a law enforcement agency determines it does not have jurisdiction over an alleged sexual assault, the law enforcement agency shall notify the law enforcement agency having proper jurisdiction of such an assault within 5 days after taking possession of the sexual assault forensic evidence kit.

����� 3.  Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a law enforcement agency shall, not later than 30 days after receiving notice pursuant to subsection 1 or 2 of a sexual assault forensic evidence kit, submit the sexual assault forensic evidence kit to the applicable forensic laboratory responsible for conducting a genetic marker analysis.

����� 6.  A forensic laboratory shall, not later than 120 days after receiving a sexual assault forensic evidence kit from a law enforcement agency, test the sexual assault forensic evidence kit, unless the victim requests, in writing, to defer the genetic marker analysis of the sexual assault forensic evidence kit pursuant to NRS 178A.220.

����� 2.  The program to track sexual assault forensic evidence kits must: ����� (a) Track the location and status of sexual assault forensic evidence kits, including, without limitation, the initial forensic medical examination, receipt by a law enforcement agency and receipt and genetic marker analysis at a forensic laboratory.

����� (b) Allow providers of health care who perform forensic medical examinations, law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, forensic laboratories and any other entities having sexual assault forensic evidence kits in their custody to track the status and location of sexual assault forensic evidence kits.

����� 3.  The department or division designated pursuant to subsection 1 shall, on or before January 1 and July 1 of each year, submit to the Governor and the Director of the Legislative Counsel Bureau for transmittal to the Advisory Commission on the Administration of Justice and post on the Internet website maintained by the department or division a report concerning the statewide program to track sexual assault forensic evidence kits.

����� 4.  Each law enforcement agency, prosecutor, forensic laboratory and provider of health care who performs forensic medical examinations in this State shall participate in the statewide program to track sexual assault forensic evidence kits for the purpose of tracking the status of any sexual assault forensic evidence kits in the custody of the agency, prosecutor, laboratory or provider, or a third party under contract with such agency, prosecutor, laboratory or provider.

2019, 408) ATTEMPTS TO KILL ����� NRS 200.390  Administration of poison: Penalty.  A person who willfully and maliciously administers or causes to be administered to or taken by a person, any poison, or other noxious or destructive substance or liquid, with the intention to cause the death of the person, and being thereof duly convicted, is guilty of a category A felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison: ����� 1.  For life with the possibility of parole, with eligibility for parole beginning when a minimum of 5 years has been served;

����� 4.  A person who is convicted of battery with the intent to commit sexual assault shall be punished: ����� (a) If the crime results in substantial bodily harm to the victim or is committed by strangulation, for a category A felony by imprisonment in the state prison: ������������ (1) For life without the possibility of parole;

2015, 2236) ADMINISTRATION OF DRUG TO AID COMMISSION OF CRIME ����� NRS 200.405  Administration of drug to aid commission of felony: Penalty.  Unless a greater penalty is provided in NRS 200.408, a person who administers to another person any chloroform, ether, laudanum, or any controlled substance, anesthetic, or intoxicating or emetic agent, with the intent thereby to enable or assist himself or herself or any other person to commit a felony, is guilty of a

����� 1.  A person who causes to be administered to another person any controlled substance without that person�s knowledge and with the intent thereby to enable or assist himself or herself or any other person to commit a crime of violence against that person or the property of that person, is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a

person fights, by previous appointment or agreement, a duel with a rifle, shotgun, pistol, bowie knife, dirk, smallsword, backsword or other dangerous weapon, and in so doing kills his or her antagonist, or any person, or inflicts such a wound that the party or parties injured die thereof, each such offender is guilty of murder in the first degree, which is a category A felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished as provided in subsection 4 of NRS 200.030.

witness�s privilege.  Any person who is present at the time of fighting any duel with deadly weapons, as second, aid, surgeon or spectator, or who advises or gives assistance to such a duel, is a competent witness against any person offending against any of the provisions of NRS 200.410 and may be compelled to appear and give evidence before any justice of the peace, grand jury or court, in the same manner as other witnesses;

����� 1.  If a person, upon previous concert and agreement, fights with any other person or gives, sends or authorizes any other person to give or send a challenge verbally or in writing to fight any other person, the person giving, sending or accepting the challenge to fight any other person shall be punished: ����� (a) If the fight does not involve the use of a deadly weapon, for a gross misdemeanor;

fight, or should a person die from any injuries received in such a fight, the person causing or having any agency in causing the death, either by fighting or by giving or sending for himself or herself or for any other person, or in receiving for himself or herself or for any other person, the challenge to fight, is guilty of murder in the first degree which is a category A felony and shall be punished as provided in subsection 4 of NRS 200.030.

����� 4.  Unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to subsection 5, if the false imprisonment is committed by using the person so imprisoned as a shield or to avoid arrest, the person convicted of such a false imprisonment is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 15 years.

����� 2.  Unless a greater penalty is provided in NRS 200.4631, a person who is found guilty of holding a person in involuntary servitude is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished: ����� (a) Where the victim suffers substantial bodily harm while held in involuntary servitude or in attempted escape or escape therefrom, by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 7 years and a maximum term of not more than 20 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $50,000.

����� 1.  A person who has physical custody of a minor, allows a minor to reside in his or her residence, is in a position of authority over a minor or provides care for any length of time to a minor and who knowingly: ����� (a) Obtains labor or services from the minor by causing or threatening to cause serious harm to the minor or by engaging in a pattern of conduct that results in physical injury to the minor, sexual abuse of the minor or sexual assault of the minor pursuant to NRS 200.366;

����� (b) �Serious harm� means any harm, whether physical or nonphysical, including, without limitation, psychological, financial or reputational harm, that is sufficiently serious, under the circumstances, to compel a reasonable person of the same background and in the same circumstances as the victim to perform or to continue to provide labor or services to avoid incurring that harm.

����� 1.  A person shall not transport, procure transportation for or assist in the transportation of or procurement of transportation for another person into the State of Nevada whom the person knows or has reason to know does not have the legal right to enter or remain in the United States with the intent to: ����� (a) Subject the person to involuntary servitude or any other act prohibited pursuant to NRS 200.463, 200.4631 or 200.465;

����� 2.  A person who violates the provisions of subsection 1 is guilty of trafficking in persons for illegal purposes and shall be punished for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 20 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $50,000.

����� 1.  Except as otherwise provided in this section, a person shall not: ����� (a) Recruit, transport, transfer, harbor, provide, obtain, maintain or solicit a child in furtherance of a transaction, or advertise or facilitate a transaction, pursuant to which a parent of the child or a person with custody of the child places the child in the physical custody of another person who is not a relative of the child, for the purpose of permanently avoiding or divesting himself or herself of responsibility for the child.

����� (c) A temporary placement of a child with another person by a parent of the child or a person with legal or physical custody of the child, with an intent to return for the child, including, without limitation, a temporary placement of a child while the parent of the child or the person with legal or physical custody of the child is on vacation, incarcerated, serving in the military, receiving medical treatment or incapacitated;

medical student, a perfusionist or a physician assistant licensed pursuant to chapter 630 of NRS, a practitioner of respiratory care, a homeopathic physician, an advanced practitioner of homeopathy, a homeopathic assistant, an osteopathic physician, a physician assistant licensed pursuant to chapter 633 of NRS, a podiatric physician, a podiatry hygienist, a physical therapist, a medical laboratory technician, an optometrist, a chiropractor, a chiropractor�s assistant, a doctor of Oriental medicine, a nurse, a student nurse, a certified nursing assistant, a nursing assistant trainee, a medication aide - certified, a

dentist, a dental student, a dental hygienist, a dental hygienist student, a pharmacist, a pharmacy student, an intern pharmacist, an attendant on an ambulance or air ambulance, a psychologist, a social worker, a marriage and family therapist, a marriage and family therapist intern, a clinical professional counselor, a clinical professional counselor intern, a licensed dietitian, an emergency medical technician, an advanced emergency medical technician and a paramedic.

����� (c) If paragraph (d) does not apply to the circumstances of the crime and if the assault is committed upon an officer, a provider of health care, a school employee, a taxicab driver or a transit operator who is performing his or her duty or upon a sports official based on the performance of his or her duties at a sporting event and the person charged knew or should have known that the victim was an officer, a provider of health care, a school employee, a taxicab driver, a transit operator or a sports official, for a gross misdemeanor, unless the assault is made with the use of a deadly weapon or the present ability to use a deadly weapon, then for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by both fine and imprisonment.

provider of health care, a school employee, a taxicab driver or a transit operator who is performing his or her duty or upon a sports official based on the performance of his or her duties at a sporting event by a probationer, a prisoner who is in lawful custody or confinement or a parolee, and the probationer, prisoner or parolee charged knew or should have known that the victim was an officer, a provider of health care, a school employee, a taxicab driver, a transit operator or a sports official, for a category D felony as provided in NRS 193.130, unless the assault is made with the use of a deadly weapon or the present ability to use a deadly weapon, then for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by both fine and imprisonment.

medical student, a perfusionist or a physician assistant licensed pursuant to chapter 630 of NRS, a practitioner of respiratory care, a homeopathic physician, an advanced practitioner of homeopathy, a homeopathic assistant, an osteopathic physician, a physician assistant licensed pursuant to chapter 633 of NRS, a podiatric physician, a podiatry hygienist, a physical therapist, a medical laboratory technician, an optometrist, a chiropractor, a chiropractor�s assistant, a doctor of Oriental medicine, a nurse, a student nurse, a certified nursing assistant, a nursing assistant trainee, a medication aide - certified, a

dentist, a dental student, a dental hygienist, a dental hygienist student, a pharmacist, a pharmacy student, an intern pharmacist, an attendant on an ambulance or air ambulance, a psychologist, a social worker, a marriage and family therapist, a marriage and family therapist intern, a clinical professional counselor, a clinical professional counselor intern, a licensed dietitian, the holder of a license or a limited license issued under the provisions of chapter 653 of NRS, an emergency medical technician, an advanced emergency medical technician and a paramedic.

����� (c) If paragraph (d) does not apply to the circumstances of the crime and if the assault is committed upon an officer, a provider of health care, a school employee, a taxicab driver or a transit operator who is performing his or her duty or upon a sports official based on the performance of his or her duties at a sporting event and the person charged knew or should have known that the victim was an officer, a provider of health care, a school employee, a taxicab driver, a transit operator or a sports official, for a gross misdemeanor, unless the assault is made with the use of a deadly weapon or the present ability to use a deadly weapon, then for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by both fine and imprisonment.

provider of health care, a school employee, a taxicab driver or a transit operator who is performing his or her duty or upon a sports official based on the performance of his or her duties at a sporting event by a probationer, a prisoner who is in lawful custody or confinement or a parolee, and the probationer, prisoner or parolee charged knew or should have known that the victim was an officer, a provider of health care, a school employee, a taxicab driver, a transit operator or a sports official, for a category D felony as provided in NRS 193.130, unless the assault is made with the use of a deadly weapon or the present ability to use a deadly weapon, then for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by both fine and imprisonment.

����� 2.  Except as otherwise provided in NRS 200.485, a person convicted of a battery, other than a battery committed by an adult upon a child which constitutes child abuse, shall be punished: ����� (a) If the battery is not committed with a deadly weapon, and no substantial bodily harm to the victim results, except under circumstances where a greater penalty is provided in this section or NRS 197.090, for a misdemeanor.

����� (d) If the battery is committed upon an officer, provider of health care, school employee, taxicab driver or transit operator who is performing his or her duty or upon a sports official based on the performance of his or her duties at a sporting event and the person charged knew or should have known that the victim was an officer, provider of health care, school employee, taxicab driver, transit operator or sports official, for a

����� 2.  Unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to subsection 3 or NRS 200.481, a person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, if the battery is committed by strangulation as described in NRS 200.481, is guilty of a category C felony and shall be punished as provided in NRS 193.130.

����� 4.  Unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to NRS 200.481, a person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, if the battery is committed against a victim who was pregnant at the time of the battery and the person knew or should have known that the victim was pregnant: ����� (a) For the first offense, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

����� 5.  Unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to NRS 200.481, a person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, if the battery causes substantial bodily harm, is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison of a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not less than $1,000, but not more than $5,000.

����� 6.  In addition to any other penalty, if a person is convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, the court shall: ����� (a) For the first offense within 7 years, require the person to participate in weekly counseling sessions of not less than 1 1/2 hours per week for not less than 6 months, but not more than 12 months, at his or her expense, in a program for the treatment of persons who commit domestic violence that has been certified pursuant to NRS 439.258.

����� (b) For the second offense within 7 years, require the person to participate in weekly counseling sessions of not less than 1 1/2 hours per week for 12 months, at his or her expense, in a program for the treatment of persons who commit domestic violence that has been certified pursuant to NRS 439.258.

If the court refers a child to an agency which provides child welfare services, the court shall require the person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018 to reimburse the agency for the costs of any services provided, to the extent of the convicted person�s ability to pay.

battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, a prosecuting attorney shall not dismiss such a charge in exchange for a plea of guilty, guilty but mentally ill or nolo contendere to a lesser charge or for any other reason unless the prosecuting attorney knows, or it is obvious, that the charge is not supported by probable cause or cannot be proved at the time of trial.

����� 12.  A person who violates any provision included in a judgment of conviction or admonishment of rights issued pursuant to this section concerning the surrender, sale, transfer, ownership, possession, custody or control of a firearm is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $5,000.

The court must include in the judgment of conviction or admonishment of rights a statement that a violation of such a provision in the judgment or admonishment is a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $5,000.

[Effective July 1, 2020.] ����� 1.  Unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to subsections 2 to 5, inclusive, or NRS 200.481, a person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018: ����� (a) For the first offense within 7 years, is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be sentenced to: ������������ (1) Imprisonment in the city or county jail or detention facility for not less than 2 days, but not more than 6 months;

����� 2.  Unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to subsection 3 or NRS 200.481, a person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, if the battery is committed by strangulation as described in NRS 200.481, is guilty of a category C felony and shall be punished as provided in NRS 193.130.

����� 4.  Unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to NRS 200.481, a person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, if the battery is committed against a victim who was pregnant at the time of the battery and the person knew or should have known that the victim was pregnant: ����� (a) For the first offense, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

����� 5.  Unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to NRS 200.481, a person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, if the battery causes substantial bodily harm, is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison of a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not less than $1,000, but not more than $5,000.

����� 6.  In addition to any other penalty, if a person is convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, the court shall: ����� (a) For the first offense within 7 years, require the person to participate in weekly counseling sessions of not less than 1 1/2 hours per week for not less than 6 months, at his or her expense, in a program for the treatment of persons who commit domestic violence that has been certified pursuant to NRS 439.258.

����� (b) For the second offense within 7 years, require the person to participate in weekly counseling sessions of not less than 1 1/2 hours per week for not less than 12 months, at his or her expense, in a program for the treatment of persons who commit domestic violence that has been certified pursuant to NRS 439.258.

If the court refers a child to an agency which provides child welfare services, the court shall require the person convicted of a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018 to reimburse the agency for the costs of any services provided, to the extent of the convicted person�s ability to pay.

battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018, a prosecuting attorney shall not dismiss such a charge in exchange for a plea of guilty, guilty but mentally ill or nolo contendere to a lesser charge or for any other reason unless the prosecuting attorney knows, or it is obvious, that the charge is not supported by probable cause or cannot be proved at the time of trial.

����� 12.  A person who violates any provision included in a judgment of conviction or admonishment of rights issued pursuant to this section concerning the surrender, sale, transfer, ownership, possession, custody or control of a firearm is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $5,000.

The court must include in the judgment of conviction or admonishment of rights a statement that a violation of such a provision in the judgment or admonishment is a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $5,000.

����� 1.  A person who willfully causes a child who is less than 18 years of age to suffer unjustifiable physical pain or mental suffering as a result of abuse or neglect or to be placed in a situation where the child may suffer physical pain or mental suffering as the result of abuse or neglect: ����� (a) If substantial bodily or mental harm results to the child: ������������ (1) If the child is less than 14 years of age and the harm is the result of sexual abuse or exploitation, is guilty of a category A felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for life with the possibility of parole, with eligibility for parole beginning when a

or ����� (b) If substantial bodily or mental harm does not result to the child: ������������ (1) If the person has not previously been convicted of a violation of this section or of a violation of the law of any other jurisdiction that prohibits the same or similar conduct, is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a

result of abuse or neglect or to be placed in a situation where the child may suffer physical pain or mental suffering as the result of abuse or neglect: ����� (a) If substantial bodily or mental harm results to the child: ������������ (1) If the child is less than 14 years of age and the harm is the result of sexual abuse or exploitation, is guilty of a category A felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for life with the possibility of parole, with eligibility for parole beginning when a

����� 4.  As used in this section: ����� (a) �Abuse or neglect� means physical or mental injury of a nonaccidental nature, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child under the age of 18 years, as set forth in paragraph (d) and NRS 432B.070, 432B.100, 432B.110, 432B.140 and 432B.150, under circumstances which indicate that the child�s health or welfare is harmed or threatened with harm.

����� (Added to NRS by 1997, 678) ����� NRS 200.5085  Use of nonmedical remedial treatment.  A child is not abused or neglected, nor is the child�s health or welfare harmed or threatened for the sole reason that his or her parent or guardian, in good faith, selects and depends upon nonmedical remedial treatment for such child, if such treatment is recognized and permitted under the laws of this State in lieu of medical treatment.

����� (Added to NRS by 1979, 437) ABUSE, NEGLECT, EXPLOITATION, ISOLATION OR ABANDONMENT OF OLDER PERSONS AND VULNERABLE PERSONS ����� NRS 200.5091  Policy of State.  It is the policy of this State to provide for the cooperation of law enforcement officials, courts of competent jurisdiction and all appropriate state agencies providing human services in identifying the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation and abandonment of older persons and vulnerable persons through the complete reporting of abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation and abandonment of older persons and vulnerable persons.

����� 3.  �Exploitation� means any act taken by a person who has the trust and confidence of an older person or a vulnerable person or any use of the power of attorney or guardianship of an older person or a vulnerable person to: ����� (a) Obtain control, through deception, intimidation or undue influence, over the older person�s or vulnerable person�s money, assets or property with the intention of permanently depriving the older person or vulnerable person of the ownership, use, benefit or possession of his or her money, assets or property;

����� 4.  �Isolation� means preventing an older person or a vulnerable person from having contact with another person by: ����� (a) Intentionally preventing the older person or vulnerable person from receiving visitors, mail or telephone calls, including, without limitation, communicating to a person who comes to visit the older person or vulnerable person or a person who telephones the older person or vulnerable person that the older person or vulnerable person is not present or does not want to meet with or talk to the visitor or caller knowing that the statement is false, contrary to the express wishes of the older person or vulnerable person and intended to prevent the older person or vulnerable person from having contact with the visitor;

����� 5.  �Neglect� means the failure of a person or a manager of a facility who has assumed legal responsibility or a contractual obligation for caring for an older person or a vulnerable person or who has voluntarily assumed responsibility for his or her care to provide food, shelter, clothing or services which are necessary to maintain the physical or mental health of the older person or vulnerable person.

2019, 3484) ����� NRS 200.50925  �Reasonable cause to believe� and �as soon as reasonably practicable� defined.  For the purposes of NRS 200.5091 to 200.50995, inclusive, a person: ����� 1.  Has �reasonable cause to believe� if, in light of all the surrounding facts and circumstances which are known or which reasonably should be known to the person at the time, a reasonable person would believe, under those facts and circumstances, that an act, transaction, event, situation or condition exists, is occurring or has occurred.

[Effective through December 31, 2019.] ����� 1.  Any person who is described in subsection 4 and who, in a professional or occupational capacity, knows or has reasonable cause to believe that an older person or vulnerable person has been abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned shall: ����� (a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2, report the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person to: ������������ (1) The local office of the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department of Health and Human Services;

����� 2.  If a person who is required to make a report pursuant to subsection 1 knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person involves an act or omission of the Aging and Disability Services Division, another division of the Department of Health and Human Services or a law enforcement agency, the person shall make the report to an agency other than the one alleged to have committed the act or omission.

����� 4.  A report must be made pursuant to subsection 1 by the following persons: ����� (a) Every physician, dentist, dental hygienist, chiropractor, optometrist, podiatric physician, medical examiner, resident, intern, professional or practical nurse, physician assistant licensed pursuant to chapter 630 or 633 of NRS, perfusionist, psychiatrist, psychologist, marriage and family therapist, clinical professional counselor, clinical alcohol and drug counselor, alcohol and drug counselor, music therapist, athletic trainer, driver of an ambulance, paramedic, licensed dietitian or other person providing medical services licensed or certified to practice in this State, who examines, attends or treats an older person or vulnerable person who appears to have been abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned.

����� (b) Any personnel of a hospital or similar institution engaged in the admission, examination, care or treatment of persons or an administrator, manager or other person in charge of a hospital or similar institution upon notification of the suspected abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or vulnerable person by a member of the staff of the hospital.

����� 6.  If a person who is required to make a report pursuant to subsection 1 knows or has reasonable cause to believe that an older person or vulnerable person has died as a result of abuse, neglect, isolation or abandonment, the person shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, report this belief to the appropriate medical examiner or coroner, who shall investigate the cause of death of the older person or vulnerable person and submit to the appropriate local law enforcement agencies, the appropriate prosecuting attorney, the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Unit for the Investigation and Prosecution of Crimes his or her written findings.

����� 8.  If the investigation of a report results in the belief that an older person or vulnerable person is abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned, the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department of Health and Human Services or the county�s office for protective services may provide protective services to the older person or vulnerable person if the older person or vulnerable person is able and willing to accept them.

[Effective January 1, 2020.] ����� 1.  Any person who is described in subsection 4 and who, in a professional or occupational capacity, knows or has reasonable cause to believe that an older person or vulnerable person has been abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned shall: ����� (a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2, report the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person to: ������������ (1) The local office of the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department of Health and Human Services;

����� 2.  If a person who is required to make a report pursuant to subsection 1 knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person involves an act or omission of the Aging and Disability Services Division, another division of the Department of Health and Human Services or a law enforcement agency, the person shall make the report to an agency other than the one alleged to have committed the act or omission.

����� 4.  A report must be made pursuant to subsection 1 by the following persons: ����� (a) Every physician, dentist, dental hygienist, chiropractor, optometrist, podiatric physician, medical examiner, resident, intern, professional or practical nurse, physician assistant licensed pursuant to chapter 630 or 633 of NRS, perfusionist, psychiatrist, psychologist, marriage and family therapist, clinical professional counselor, clinical alcohol and drug counselor, alcohol and drug counselor, music therapist, athletic trainer, driver of an ambulance, paramedic, licensed dietitian, holder of a license or a limited license issued under the provisions of chapter 653 of NRS or other person providing medical services licensed or certified to practice in this State, who examines, attends or treats an older person or vulnerable person who appears to have been abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned.

����� (b) Any personnel of a hospital or similar institution engaged in the admission, examination, care or treatment of persons or an administrator, manager or other person in charge of a hospital or similar institution upon notification of the suspected abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or vulnerable person by a member of the staff of the hospital.

����� 6.  If a person who is required to make a report pursuant to subsection 1 knows or has reasonable cause to believe that an older person or vulnerable person has died as a result of abuse, neglect, isolation or abandonment, the person shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, report this belief to the appropriate medical examiner or coroner, who shall investigate the cause of death of the older person or vulnerable person and submit to the appropriate local law enforcement agencies, the appropriate prosecuting attorney, the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Unit for the Investigation and Prosecution of Crimes his or her written findings.

����� 8.  If the investigation of a report results in the belief that an older person or vulnerable person is abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned, the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department of Health and Human Services or the county�s office for protective services may provide protective services to the older person or vulnerable person if the older person or vulnerable person is able and willing to accept them.

����� 1.  A person may make a report pursuant to NRS 200.5093 by telephone or, in light of all the surrounding facts and circumstances which are known or which reasonably should be known to the person at the time, by any other means of oral, written or electronic communication that a reasonable person would believe, under those facts and circumstances, is a reliable and swift means of communicating information to the person who receives the report.

����� 2.  A person, law enforcement agency or public or private agency, institution or facility who willfully releases data or information concerning the reports and investigation of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of older persons or vulnerable persons, except: ����� (a) Pursuant to a criminal prosecution;

����� 3.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2 and NRS 200.50982, data or information concerning the reports and investigations of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or a vulnerable person is available only to: ����� (a) A physician who is providing care to an older person or a vulnerable person who may have been abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned;

����� (h) A legal guardian of the older person or vulnerable person, if the identity of the person who was responsible for reporting the alleged abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person to the public agency is protected, and the legal guardian of the older person or vulnerable person is not the person suspected of such abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment;

����� (i) If the older person or vulnerable person is deceased, the executor or administrator of his or her estate, if the identity of the person who was responsible for reporting the alleged abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person to the public agency is protected, and the executor or administrator is not the person suspected of such abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment;

����� 4.  If the person who is reported to have abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned an older person or a vulnerable person is the holder of a license or certificate issued pursuant to chapters 449, 630 to 641B, inclusive, or 654 of NRS, the information contained in the report must be submitted to the board that issued the license.

����� 5.  If data or information concerning the reports and investigations of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or a vulnerable person is made available pursuant to paragraph (b) or (j) of subsection 3 or subsection 4, the name and any other identifying information of the person who made the report must be redacted before the data or information is made available.

����� 2.  A person, law enforcement agency or public or private agency, institution or facility who willfully releases data or information concerning the reports and investigation of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of older persons or vulnerable persons, except: ����� (a) Pursuant to a criminal prosecution;

����� 3.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2 and NRS 200.50982, data or information concerning the reports and investigations of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or a vulnerable person is available only to: ����� (a) A physician who is providing care to an older person or a vulnerable person who may have been abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned;

����� (h) A legal guardian of the older person or vulnerable person, if the identity of the person who was responsible for reporting the alleged abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person to the public agency is protected, and the legal guardian of the older person or vulnerable person is not the person suspected of such abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment;

����� (i) If the older person or vulnerable person is deceased, the executor or administrator of his or her estate, if the identity of the person who was responsible for reporting the alleged abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person to the public agency is protected, and the executor or administrator is not the person suspected of such abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment;

����� 4.  If the person who is reported to have abused, neglected, exploited, isolated or abandoned an older person or a vulnerable person is the holder of a license or certificate issued pursuant to chapters 449, 630 to 641B, inclusive, 653 or 654 of NRS, the information contained in the report must be submitted to the board that issued the license.

����� 5.  If data or information concerning the reports and investigations of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or a vulnerable person is made available pursuant to paragraph (b) or (j) of subsection 3 or subsection 4, the name and any other identifying information of the person who made the report must be redacted before the data or information is made available.

2019, 2716, 3488, effective January 1, 2020) ����� NRS 200.50955  Law enforcement agency: Required to act promptly in obtaining certain warrants.  A law enforcement agency shall promptly seek to obtain a warrant for the arrest of any person the agency has probable cause to believe is criminally responsible for the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or a vulnerable person.

2017, 2528, 2834) ����� NRS 200.5097  Admissibility of evidence.  In any proceeding resulting from a report made or action taken pursuant to NRS 200.5091 to 200.50995, inclusive, or in any other proceeding, the report or its contents or any other fact related thereto or to the condition of the older person or vulnerable person who is the subject of the report may not be excluded on the ground that the matter would otherwise be privileged against disclosure under chapter 49 of NRS.

����� 2.  The Administrator of the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department may organize one or more teams to assist in strategic assessment and planning of protective services, issues regarding the delivery of service, programs or individual plans for preventing, identifying, remedying or treating abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of older persons or vulnerable persons.

����� 2.  Upon the request of the Aging and Disability Services Division, the employee designated pursuant to subsection 1 shall offer consultation and advice to the Division regarding a report submitted pursuant to NRS 200.5093 and 200.5094 or a request for assistance by the Division relating to abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or vulnerable person.

����� 1.  The provisions of NRS 200.5091 to 200.50995, inclusive, do not prohibit: ����� (a) An agency which is investigating a report of abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment, or which provides protective services, from disclosing data or information concerning the reports and investigations of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or a vulnerable person to other federal, state or local agencies or the legal representatives of the older person or vulnerable person on whose behalf the investigation is being conducted if: ������������ (1) The agency making the disclosure determines that the disclosure is in the best interest of the older person or vulnerable person;

����� (b) An attorney who receives data or information pursuant to paragraph (k) of subsection 3 of NRS 200.5095 from disclosing data or information concerning a report or investigation of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of an older person or vulnerable person to a court of competent jurisdiction in a guardianship proceeding concerning the older person or vulnerable person.

and ����� (c) A summary of any events, incidents or arrests which have occurred at the residence of the suspect or the older person or vulnerable person within the past 90 days and which involve physical violence or concerns related to public safety or the health or safety of the older person or vulnerable person.

����� 3.  An attorney shall make the disclosure pursuant to paragraph (b) of subsection 1 to the court within 20 days after his or her receipt of data or information concerning a report or investigation of the abuse, neglect, exploitation, isolation or abandonment of the older person or vulnerable person.

����� 1.  Notwithstanding any other statute to the contrary, the local office of the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department of Health and Human Services and a county�s office for protective services, if one exists in the county where a violation is alleged to have occurred, may for the purpose of investigating an alleged violation of NRS 200.5091 to 200.50995, inclusive, inspect all records pertaining to the older person or vulnerable person on whose behalf the investigation is being conducted, including, but not limited to, that person�s medical and financial records.

If the Aging and Disability Services Division or the county�s office for protective services has reasonable cause to believe that the guardian is abusing, neglecting, exploiting, isolating or abandoning the older person or vulnerable person, the inspection may be conducted without the consent of the guardian, except that if the records to be inspected are in the personal possession of the guardian, the inspection must be approved by a court of competent jurisdiction.

2019, 3491) ����� NRS 200.50986  Petition for removal of guardian of older person or vulnerable person.  The local office of the Aging and Disability Services Division of the Department of Health and Human Services or the county�s office for protective services may petition a court in accordance with NRS 159.185, 159.1853 or 159.1905 for the removal of the guardian of an older person or vulnerable person, or the termination or modification of that guardianship, if, based on its investigation, the Aging and Disability Services Division or the county�s office of protective services has reasonable cause to believe that the guardian is abusing, neglecting, exploiting, isolating or abandoning the older person or vulnerable person in violation of NRS 200.5091 to 200.50995, inclusive.

or ����� (b) For the second and all subsequent offenses or if the person has been previously convicted of violating a law of any other jurisdiction that prohibits the same or similar conduct, of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 2 years and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, �

����� 2.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 7, any person who has assumed responsibility, legally, voluntarily or pursuant to a contract, to care for an older person or a vulnerable person and who neglects the older person or vulnerable person, causing the older person or vulnerable person to suffer physical pain or mental suffering, permits or allows the older person or vulnerable person to suffer unjustifiable physical pain or mental suffering or permits or allows the older person or vulnerable person to be placed in a situation where the older person or vulnerable person may suffer physical pain or mental suffering as the result of abuse or neglect is guilty: ����� (a) For the first offense, of either of the following, as determined by the court: ������������ (1) A category C felony and shall be punished as provided in NRS 193.130;

����� 3.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 4, any person who exploits an older person or a vulnerable person shall be punished: ����� (a) For the first offense, if the value of any money, assets and property obtained or used: ������������ (1) Is less than $650, of either of the following, as determined by the court: ������������������ (I) A category C felony as provided in NRS 193.130;

����� 6.  A person who violates any provision of subsection 1, if substantial bodily or mental harm or death results to the older person or vulnerable person, is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 2 years and a maximum term of not more than 20 years, unless a more severe penalty is prescribed by law for the act or omission which brings about the abuse.

����� 7.  A person who violates any provision of subsection 2, if substantial bodily or mental harm or death results to the older person or vulnerable person, shall be punished for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 2 years and a maximum term of not more than 20 years, unless a more severe penalty is prescribed by law for the act or omission which brings about the abuse or neglect.

����� (c) �Substantial mental harm� means an injury to the intellectual or psychological capacity or the emotional condition of an older person or a vulnerable person as evidenced by an observable and substantial impairment of the ability of the older person or vulnerable person to function within his or her normal range of performance or behavior.

����� 1.  A person who conspires with another to commit abuse, exploitation or isolation of an older person or a vulnerable person as prohibited by NRS 200.5099 shall be punished: ����� (a) For the first offense, for a gross misdemeanor by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than 364 days, or by a fine of not more than $2,000, or by both fine and imprisonment;

����� 1.  A libel is a malicious defamation, expressed by printing, writing, signs, pictures or the like, tending to blacken the memory of the dead, or to impeach the honesty, integrity, virtue, or reputation, or to publish the natural defects of a living person or persons, or community of persons, or association of persons, and thereby to expose them to public hatred, contempt or ridicule.

NCL � 10111] ����� NRS 200.530  Liability of editor or publisher.  Every editor or proprietor of a book, newspaper or serial, and every manager of a copartnership or corporation by which any book, newspaper or serial is issued, is chargeable with the publication of any matter contained in any such book, newspaper or serial, but in every prosecution for libel the defendant may show in his or her defense that the matter complained of was published without his or her knowledge or fault and against his or her wishes by another who had no authority from the defendant to make such publication, and was retracted by the defendant as soon as known with an equal degree of publicity.

NCL � 10113] ����� NRS 200.550  Furnishing libelous information: Penalty.  Every person who shall willfully state, deliver or transmit by any means whatever to any manager, editor, publisher, reporter or other employee of a publisher of any newspaper, magazine, publication, periodical or serial any statement concerning any person or corporation which, if published therein, would be a libel shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

NCL � 10114] ����� NRS 200.560  Threatening to publish libel: Penalty.  Every person who shall threaten another with the publication of a libel concerning the latter, or his or her spouse, parent, child or other family member, and every person who offers to prevent the publication of a libel upon another person upon condition of the payment of, or with intent to extort, money or other valuable consideration from any person, shall be guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

����� 1.  A person who, without lawful authority, willfully or maliciously engages in a course of conduct directed towards a victim that would cause a reasonable person under similar circumstances to feel terrorized, frightened, intimidated, harassed or fearful for his or her immediate safety or the immediate safety of a family or household member, and that actually causes the victim to feel terrorized, frightened, intimidated, harassed or fearful for his or her immediate safety or the immediate safety of a

����� 2.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 3 or 4 and unless a more severe penalty is prescribed by law, a person who commits the crime of stalking where the victim is under the age of 16 and the person is 5 or more years older than the victim: ����� (a) For the first offense, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

����� 4.  A person who commits the crime of stalking with the use of an Internet or network site, electronic mail, text messaging or any other similar means of communication to publish, display or distribute information in a manner that substantially increases the risk of harm or violence to the victim shall be punished for a category C felony as provided in NRS 193.130.

����� 7.  If the court finds that a person convicted of stalking pursuant to this section committed the crime against a person listed in subsection 1 of NRS 33.018 and that the victim has an ongoing, reasonable fear of physical harm, the court shall enter the finding in its judgment of conviction or admonishment of rights.

����� 9.  A person who violates any provision included in a judgment of conviction or admonishment of rights issued pursuant to this section concerning the surrender, sale, transfer, ownership, possession, custody or control of a firearm is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $5,000.

The court must include in the judgment of conviction or admonishment of rights a statement that a violation of such a provision in the judgment or admonishment is a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $5,000.

������������ (2) The activities of a reporter, photographer, camera operator or other person while gathering information for communication to the public if that person is employed or engaged by or has contracted with a newspaper, periodical, press association or radio or television station and is acting solely within that professional capacity.

����� 1.  In addition to any other remedy provided by law, a person who reasonably believes that the crime of stalking, aggravated stalking or harassment is being committed against him or her by another person may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for a temporary or extended order directing the person who is allegedly committing the crime to: ����� (a) Stay away from the home, school, business or place of employment of the victim of the alleged crime and any other location specifically named by the court.

����� 2.  If a defendant charged with a crime involving harassment, stalking or aggravated stalking is released from custody before trial or is found guilty at the trial, the court may issue a temporary or extended order or provide as a condition of the release or sentence that the defendant: ����� (a) Stay away from the home, school, business or place of employment of the victim of the alleged crime and any other location specifically named by the court.

����� 7.  A temporary or extended order issued pursuant to this section must provide notice that a person who is arrested for violating the order will not be admitted to bail sooner than 12 hours after the person�s arrest if: ����� (a) The arresting officer determines that such a violation is accompanied by a direct or indirect threat of harm;

����� 5.  At any time while the extended order is in effect, the party who obtained the extended order or the adverse party may appear and move for its dissolution or modification based on changes of circumstance of the parties, and in that event the court shall proceed to hear and determine such motion as expeditiously as the ends of justice require.

A 2005, 955) ����� NRS 200.599  Duty to transmit information concerning temporary or extended order to Central Repository.  Any time a court issues a temporary or extended order for protection against stalking, aggravated stalking or harassment and any time a person serves such an order, or receives any information or takes any other action pursuant to NRS 200.571 to 200.601, inclusive, the court or person, as applicable, shall cause to be transmitted, in the manner prescribed by the Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History, any information required by the Central Repository in a manner which ensures that the information is received by the Central Repository by the end of the next business day.

����� 1.  A person shall not knowingly enter upon the property or premises of another or upon the property or premises owned by him or her and leased or rented to another with the intent to surreptitiously conceal himself or herself on the property or premises and peer, peep or spy through a window, door or other opening of a building or structure that is used as a dwelling on the property or premises.

����� 2.  A person who violates subsection 1 is guilty of: ����� (a) If the person is in possession of a deadly weapon at the time of the violation, a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 6 years, and may be further punished by a fine of not more than $5,000.

����� 4.  As used in this section, �hazing� means an activity in which a person intentionally or recklessly endangers the physical health of another person for the purpose of initiation into or affiliation with a student organization, academic association or athletic team at a high school, college or university in this state.

����� 2.  �Wire communication� means the transmission of writing, signs, signals, pictures and sounds of all kinds by wire, cable, or other similar connection between the points of origin and reception of such transmission, including all facilities and services incidental to such transmission, which facilities and services include, among other things, the receipt, forwarding and delivering of communications.

����� 4.  NRS 200.610 to 200.690, inclusive, do not prohibit the recording, and NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, do not prohibit the reception in evidence, of conversations on wire communications installed in the office of an official law enforcement or fire-fighting agency, or a public utility, if the equipment used for the recording is installed in a facility for wire communications or on a telephone with a number listed in a directory, on which emergency calls or requests by a person for response by the law enforcement or fire-fighting agency or public utility are likely to be received.

In addition, those sections do not prohibit the recording or reception in evidence of conversations initiated by the law enforcement or fire-fighting agency or public utility from such a facility or telephone in connection with responding to the original call or request, if the agency or public utility informs the other party that the conversation is being recorded.

1989, 660) ����� NRS 200.640  Unauthorized connection with facilities prohibited.  Except as otherwise provided in NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, and 200.620, a person shall not make any connection, either physically or by induction, with the wire or radio communication facilities of any person engaged in the business of providing service and facilities for communication unless the connection is authorized by the person providing the service and facilities.

1981, 1561) ����� NRS 200.650  Unauthorized, surreptitious intrusion of privacy by listening device prohibited.  Except as otherwise provided in NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, and 704.195, a person shall not intrude upon the privacy of other persons by surreptitiously listening to, monitoring or recording, or attempting to listen to, monitor or record, by means of any mechanical, electronic or other listening device, any private conversation engaged in by the other persons, or disclose the existence, content, substance, purport, effect or meaning of any conversation so listened to, monitored or recorded, unless authorized to do so by one of the persons engaging in the conversation.

����� 3.  �Sexual conduct� means sexual intercourse, lewd exhibition of the genitals, fellatio, cunnilingus, bestiality, anal intercourse, excretion, sado-masochistic abuse, masturbation, or the penetration of any part of a person�s body or of any object manipulated or inserted by a person into the genital or anal opening of the body of another.

����� 2.  A person who knowingly uses, encourages, entices, coerces or permits a minor to be the subject of a sexual portrayal in a performance is guilty of a category A felony and shall be punished as provided in NRS 200.750, regardless of whether the minor is aware that the sexual portrayal is part of a performance.

penalty.  A person who knowingly prepares, advertises or distributes any item or material that depicts a minor engaging in, or simulating, or assisting others to engage in or simulate, sexual conduct is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 15 years, or by a fine of not more than $15,000, or by both fine and imprisonment.

����� 1.  Any person who, knowingly, willfully and with the specific intent to view any film, photograph or other visual presentation depicting a person under the age of 16 years engaging in or simulating sexual conduct, uses the Internet to control such a film, photograph or other visual presentation is guilty of: ����� (a) For the first offense, a category C felony and shall be punished as provided in NRS 193.130.

penalties.  A person who knowingly and willfully has in his or her possession for any purpose any film, photograph or other visual presentation depicting a person under the age of 16 years as the subject of a sexual portrayal or engaging in or simulating, or assisting others to engage in or simulate, sexual conduct: ����� 1.  For the first offense, is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a

2011, 1062) ����� NRS 200.750  Penalties.  A person punishable pursuant to NRS 200.710 or 200.720 shall be punished for a category A felony by imprisonment in the state prison: ����� 1.  If the minor is 14 years of age or older, for life with the possibility of parole, with eligibility for parole beginning when a minimum of 5 years has been served, and shall be further punished by a fine of not more than $100,000.

����� (Added to NRS by 2015, 2233) ����� NRS 200.770  �Intimate image� defined.  �Intimate image�: ����� 1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2, includes, without limitation, a photograph, film, videotape or other recorded image which depicts: ����� (a) The fully exposed nipple of the female breast of another person, including through transparent clothing;

����� 1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 3, a person commits the crime of unlawful dissemination of an intimate image when, with the intent to harass, harm or terrorize another person, the person electronically disseminates or sells an intimate image which depicts the other person and the other person: ����� (a) Did not give prior consent to the electronic dissemination or the sale of the intimate image;

[Effective through December 31, 2019.]  �Surgical procedure� means any invasive medical procedure where a break in the skin is created and there is contact with the mucosa or any minimally invasive medical procedure where a break in the skin is created or which involves manipulation of the internal body cavity beyond a natural or artificial body orifice which requires a license to perform pursuant to chapters 630 to 637, inclusive, 639 or 640 of NRS.

[Effective January 1, 2020.]  �Surgical procedure� means any invasive medical procedure where a break in the skin is created and there is contact with the mucosa or any minimally invasive medical procedure where a break in the skin is created or which involves manipulation of the internal body cavity beyond a natural or artificial body orifice which requires a license to perform pursuant to chapters 630 to 637, inclusive, 639, 640 or 653 of NRS.

����� 2.  Substantial bodily harm other than death to the person who received the procedure is guilty of a category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 2 years and a maximum term of not more than 20 years and shall be further punished by a fine of not less than $2,000 but not more than $5,000.

����� 1.  A minor shall not knowingly and willfully use an electronic communication device to transmit or distribute, or otherwise knowingly and willfully transmit or distribute, an image of bullying committed against a minor to another person with the intent to encourage, further or promote bullying and to cause harm to the minor.

����� 4.  As used in this section: ����� (a) �Bullying� means a willful act which is written, verbal or physical, or a course of conduct on the part of one or more persons which is not otherwise authorized by law and which exposes a person one time or repeatedly and over time to one or more negative actions which is highly offensive to a reasonable person and: ������������ (1) Is intended to cause or actually causes the person to suffer harm or serious emotional distress;

Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) – a short history

She inputs a latent fingerprint collected from a crime scene, and instantly gets a portrait of the bad guy, with full identifying details. 

fingerprint identification, a process that automatically matches one or several unknown fingerprints against a database of known and/or unknown prints.

successful identification of a suspect, these systems have fundamentally changed the way that authorities approach the investigation of a wide range of crimes and criminal activities.

At first glance, the principle of using modern technology to automate the laborious and time-consuming task of manually processing fingerprints taken from a suspect and/or crime scene appears straightforward.

AFIS into a highly efficient and effective tool, capable of scrutinizing vast databases and providing potential fingerprint matches in a matter of minutes, is the product of intensive research and development that now stretches back over five decades.

Alongside the ever-present 'traditional' crime, the onset of new challenges, such as global terrorism and illegal immigration, has only heightened the need for authorities to identify individuals that might pose a threat to homeland safety and security.

With the new generation of ABIS software, fingerprint examiners can process multiple complex biometric transactions with high accuracy and link

Gemalto CABIS 7.0) ABIS can process multiple complex biometric transactions with high speed and accuracy and link, for example, face recognition to fingerprint or iris recognition, overcoming identification limitations commonly encountered in unimodal systems.

fingerprint scanner​ technology is replacing the traditional ink-based fingerprinting in many countries (source Gemalto) Criminal identification systems originally emerged in the late 19thcentury.

They were triggered by the landmark development of the Henry System of fingerprint classification in which fingerprints are sorted by physiological characteristics and anthropometrics also known as Bertillon system, in which measurements are obtained from suspects and filed.

Recognizing the potential of emerging technology to help achieve this goal, agencies including the FBI, UK Home Office, and police authorities in Japan and France all undertook research initiatives. 

Latent prints, in contrast, are those recovered from a crime scene or physical evidence, using chemical, physical and/or lighting techniques.

To know more about the work of forensic analysts and their achievements, we give a short insight into a video on how, today,  SFPD's Automated Biometric Identification System​ is helping to enhance public safety in this iconic Californian community.​ By 1999, 500 AFISes were deployed around the world.

Markets and Markets, the automated fingerprint identification system market size is estimated to reach USD 8.49 Billion by 2020, at an estimated CAGR of 21.0% between 2015 and 2020. 

palm prints, interfacing the AFIS with other criminal justice information systems, interfacing with digital mugshots and livescan devices, and the use of multi-modal biometrics (e.g.

A latent image is marked up and submitted for a sequential search to both the latent fingerprint database (LFP) and the latent palmprint database (LPP) thereby removing the need to remark and resubmit a second time.

​​Notably, the system architecture is designed to enable local, state, federal and international law enforcement communities, as well as civil organizations, to efficiently access or exchange critical information round the clock, 365 days a year.

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