AI News, Difference between revisions of "Portal:Computer architecture"

Difference between revisions of "Portal:Computer architecture"

In computer engineering, computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system.

It is a blueprint and functional description of requirements (especially speeds and interconnections) and design implementations for the various parts of a computer — focusing largely on the way by which the central processing unit (CPU) performs internally and accesses addresses in memory.

It may also be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals.

Other factors influence speed, such as the mix of functional units, bus speeds, available memory, and the type and order of instructions in the programs being run.

This number is affected by a very wide range of design choices — for example, adding cache usually makes latency worse (slower) but makes throughput better.

Furthermore, designers have been known to add special features to their products, whether in hardware or software, which permit a specific benchmark to execute quickly but which do not offer similar advantages to other, more general tasks.

This process, known as 'swapping' or 'paging', is handled in software by the operating system's memory management subsystem, with support from specialized circuitry integrated into the CPU.

Furthermore, as computer multitasking became more prevalent, techniques to 'isolate' concurrently-running programs from each other were developed to prevent programs from interfering with each other, to enable more efficient RAM usage, for ease of program and library development, stability, reliability, and security.

In reality, the operating system manages how much real, physical memory is given to each concurrently-running program, and the OS and CPU together ensure that no program can access any memory it should not be allowed to access (for example, other programs' memory areas).

reconfigurable computing system compiles program source code to an intermediate code suitable for programming runtime reconfigurable field-programmable gate arrays, enabling a software design to be implemented directly in hardware.

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