AI News, Difference between revisions of "Cyberbotics' Robot Curriculum/What is Artificial Intelligence?"
- On Thursday, October 4, 2018
- By Read More
Difference between revisions of "Cyberbotics' Robot Curriculum/What is Artificial Intelligence?"
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an interdisciplinary field of study that includes computer science, engineering, philosophy and psychology.
Early in the 17th century, René Descartes envisioned the bodies of animals as complex but reducible machines, thus formulating the mechanistic theory, also known as the 'clockwork paradigm'.
Wilhelm Schickard created the first mechanical digital calculating machine in 1623, followed by machines of Blaise Pascal (1643) and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1671), who also invented the binary system.
In 1931 Kurt Gödel showed that sufficiently powerful consistent formal systems contain true theorems unprovable by any theorem-proving AI that is systematically deriving all possible theorems from the axioms.
During the 1960s and 1970s, Joel Moses demonstrated the power of symbolic reasoning for integration problems in the Macsyma program, the first successful knowledge-based program in mathematics.
Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler published 'A Pattern Recognition Program That Generates, Evaluates, and Adjusts Its Own Operators' in 1963, which described one of the first machine learning programs that could adaptively acquire and modify features and thereby overcome the limitations of simple perceptrons of Rosenblatt.
Ted Shortliffe demonstrated the power of rule-based systems for knowledge representation and inference in medical diagnosis and therapy in what is sometimes called the first expert system.
In 1995, one of Ernst Dickmanns' robot cars drove more than 1000 miles in traffic at up to 110 mph, tracking and passing other cars (simultaneously Dean Pomerleau of Carnegie Mellon tested a semi-autonomous car with human-controlled throttle and brakes).
Hence, he will interact with the machine, for example by chatting using the keyboard and the screen to try to understand whether or not there is a human intelligence behind this machine writing the answers to his questions.
Hence he will want to ask very complicated questions and see what the machine answers and try to determine if the answers are generated by an AI program or if they come from a real human being.
Although the original Turing test is often described as a computer chat session (see picture), the interaction between the observer and the machine may take very various forms, including a chess game, playing a virtual reality video game, interacting with a mobile robot, etc.
Unlike adults who will generally say that the robots were programmed in some way to perform this behavior, possibly mentioning the sensors, actuators and micro-processor of the robot, the children will describe the behavior of the robots using the same words they would use to describe the behavior of a cat running after a mouse.
They will grant feelings to the robots like ”he is afraid of”, ”he is angry”, ”he is excited”, ”he is quiet”, ”he wants to...”, etc.
For example if a benchmark consists in playing chess against the Deep Blue program, some observers may think that this requires some intelligence and hence it is a cognitive benchmark, whereas some other observers may object that it doesn't require intelligence and hence it is not a cognitive benchmark.
They include IQ tests developed by psychologists as well as animal intelligence tests developed by biologists to evaluate for example how well rats remember the path to a food source in a maze, or how do monkeys learn to press a lever to get food.
The last chapter of this book will introduce you to a series of robotics cognitive benchmarks (especially the Rat's Life benchmark) for which you will be able to design your own intelligent systems and compare them to others.
- On Saturday, May 30, 2020
How Machines Learn
How do all the algorithms around us learn to do their jobs? Bot Wallpapers on Patreon: Discuss this video: ..
The Dawn of Killer Robots (Full Length)
Subscribe to Motherboard Radio today! In INHUMAN KIND, Motherboard gains exclusive access to a small fleet of US Army bomb ..
Prof. David Chalmers - Artificial Intelligence & Consciousness
Prof. Chalmers is an Australian philosopher and cognitive scientist specializing in the areas of philosophy of mind and philosophy of language.
The Mind-Controlled Bionic Arm With a Sense of Touch
In the first episode of Humans+, Motherboard dives into the world of future prosthetics, and the people working on closing the gap between man and machine.
Behold The Future State-owned Beijing-based China Construction Bank (CCB) says its unmanned Shanghai branch will make ..
What Machines Can't Do - David Chalmers, Kate Devlin and Hilary Lawson
The late Alan Turing has been joined by Stephen Hawking and others in claiming that computers could overtake humanity. Will machines soon match their ...
I, for one, welcome our new robot overlords: Nick Hawes at TEDxUniversityofBirmingham
Nick Hawes is a senior lecturer in Intelligent Robotics at the University of Birmingham TEDx University of Birmingham showcased nine high-impact talks from ...
John Searle: "Consciousness in Artificial Intelligence" | Talks at Google
John Searle is the Slusser Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. His Talk at Google is focused on the philosophy of mind and the ...
Machine Learning Control: Overview
This lecture provides an overview of how to use machine learning optimization directly to design control laws, without the need for a model of the dynamics.
What Will Our Society Be Like When A.I. Is Everywhere?
What will our society be like when A.I. is everywhere? How will it affect the way we build businesses and engage with products and services? This event is ...