AI News, Difference between revisions of "Computer architecture"

Difference between revisions of "Computer architecture"

Discuss the notion of the modern computer as a Turing Machine in order to understand what an instruction is in the next section.

Data required for doing any job, in case of adding two numbers, is fetched either from input devices like keyboard, serial port or from memory itself.

In case of adding two numbers we move our input to registers in processor and call adding opcode and move the result to certain memory unit.

Pipelining is a technique of decomposing a sequential process into sub operations with each sub operation being executed in a special dedicated segment that operates concurrently with all other segments.

Simple way of viewing the pipeline structure is to imagine that each segment consists of an input register followed by a combinational circuit.

Schematic diagram of a modern von Neumann processor, where

the CPU is denoted by a shaded box -adapted from [Maf01].

Register file (a) block diagram, (b) implementation

of two read ports, and (c) implementation of write port -

Schematic high-level diagram of MIPS datapath from an implementational

Note that the execute step also includes writing of data

back to the register file, which is not shown in the figure, for simplicity

step does not include writing of results back to the register

Schematic diagram of a composite datapath for R-format and load/store instructions [MK98].

Schematic diagram of a composite datapath for R-format, load/store, and branch instructions [MK98].

Schematic diagram of composite datapath for R-format, load/store, and branch instructions (from Figure 4.11) with control

signals and extra multiplexer for WriteReg signal generation [MK98].

Schematic diagram of composite datapath for R-format, load/store, and branch instructions (from Figure 4.12) with control

Schematic diagram of composite datapath for R-format, load/store, branch, and jump instructions, with control signals

for the multicycle datapath finite-state control.

fetch and decode states of the multicycle datapath. Figure

numbers refer to figures in the textbook [Pat98,MK98].

numbers refer to figures in the textbook [Pat98,MK98].

(b) jump instruction-specific states of the multicycle datapath. Figure

CPI = [#Loads &#183 5 + #Stores &#183 4 + #ALU-instr's &#183

4 + #Branches &#183 3 + #Jumps &#183 3] / (Total Number of Instructions)

for the MIPS multicycle datapath, including exception handling [MK98].

Stack register

A stack register is a computer central processor register whose purpose is to keep track of a call stack.

Their subroutine instructions typically would save the current location in the jump address, and then set the program counter to the next address.[1]

While this is simpler than maintaining a stack, since there is only one return location per subroutine code section, there cannot be recursion without considerable effort on the part of the programmer.

(SS) is usually used to store information about the memory segment that stores the call stack of currently executed program.

Simpler processors store the stack pointer in a regular hardware register and use the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) to manipulate its value.

In its implementation, the stack pointer is split among two registers: ESPO, which is a 32-bit register, and ESPd, an 8-bit delta value that is updated directly by stack operations.

If ESPd is near overflow or the ESP register is referenced from other instructions (when ESPd ≠ 0), a synchronisation micro-op is inserted that updates the ESPO using the ALU and resets ESPd to 0.

A computer that is not connected to a network is referred

a network, typically using a cable, your computer becomes a workstation on

computer�s usual resources, referred to as local resources, such as

to network resources, which typically include application software,

being stored on the hard disks of multiple stand-alone computers (assuming

network is effective because if you store a file on your local hard disk, you

store the file on the hard disk of a server, you can access the file from any

installations schedule automated backup of the files and programs running on

the network servers, thereby minimizing the risk of loss of valuable information.

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