AI News, BOOK REVIEW: Difference between revisions of "Computer-aided design/History, Present and Future"

Difference between revisions of "Computer-aided design/History, Present and Future"

The design engineer still worked in 2D to create technical drawing consisting from 2D wireframe primitives (line, arc, B spline ...).

Nevertheless modifications and revisions were easier, and over time CAD software and hardware became cheaper and affordable for mid size companies.

3D wireframe features were developed in the beginning of the sixties, and in 1969 MAGI released Syntha Vision, the first commercially available solid modeler program.

3D modeling has become a norm, and it can be found even in applications for the wider public, like 3D buildings modeling in Google Maps, house furnishing (IMSI Floorplan), or garden planning.

Some anticipate 3D modelling without flat screens or mouse pointers -- a fully immersive 3D environment where modelling tools include special gloves and goggles.

Up to now, 3D goggles cause nausea, immersive technologies are expensive and complex, and most designers prefer using a keyboard, stylus, and mouse.

3D models created in CAD could be immediately presented in web browsers that will be able to display 3D models (and to zoom, rotate ...).

Other probable scenario is that a CAD company will start an open source project to boost its more profitable products based on same engine (for example CAM or CAE).

Improvements of hardware like 3D printers, laser and metal sintering will enable to produce complex parts effectively even in small series and from various materials like plastics, textile, ceramics or metal.

Products will be bought in the form of license, 3D model will be downloaded from Internet and manufactured on hardware connected to computer in local store or even at home.

It's also usefull as special software for transfering CAD's files (as PRO-E, SolidWorks ) to CNC machines, so after modeling and drawing comes programming and eaiser to understand CNC machines to make designed models as solid objects.

Genetic programming (GP) is machine learning technique that uses an evolutionary algorithm to optimize a population of designs according to a fitness landscape determined by a design ability to perform a given computational task.

Later will come new manufacturing processes similar to protein creation in ribosome, where 3D protein complex structures are based on only 20 building blocks (amino acids).

Computer program will serve like DNA, manufacturing hardware will serve as ribosome and one machine will be able to manufacture wide range of different products.

Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.[1]

CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.[2]

In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation (MDA) or computer-aided drafting (CAD), which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software.[4]

CAD software for mechanical design uses either vector-based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects.

As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.

CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more.

CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals, often called DCC digital content creation.

The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s.

Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry.[6]

Starting around the mid 1960s, with the IBM Drafting System, computer-aided design systems began to provide more capability than just an ability to reproduce manual drafting with electronic drafting, the cost-benefit for companies to switch to CAD became apparent.

CAD technology is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings, from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial structures (hospitals and factories).[8]

CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models or 2D drawings of physical components, but it is also used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of manufacturing methods of components.

CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle.

CAD is also used for the accurate creation of photo simulations that are often required in the preparation of Environmental Impact Reports, in which computer-aided designs of intended buildings are superimposed into photographs of existing environments to represent what that locale will be like, where the proposed facilities are allowed to be built.

These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting since these can be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft.

Freeform surface modeling is often combined with solids to allow the designer to create products that fit the human form and visual requirements as well as they interface with the machine.

A CAD system can be seen as built up from the interaction of a graphical user interface (GUI) with NURBS geometry or boundary representation (B-rep) data via a geometric modeling kernel.

However, some CAD systems can do graphically and computationally intensive tasks, so a modern graphics card, high speed (and possibly multiple) CPUs and large amounts of RAM may be recommended.

Some systems also support stereoscopic glasses for viewing the 3D model.Technologies which in the past were limited to larger installations or specialist applications have become available to a wide group of users.

CAD software enables engineers and architects to design, inspect and manage engineering projects within an integrated graphical user interface (GUI) on a personal computer system.

Examples of problems being solved in the mid-1940s to 50s include: servo motors controlled by generated pulse (1949), a digital computer with built-in computer operations to automatically co-ordinate transforms to compute radar related vectors (1951) and the essentially graphic mathematical process of forming a shape with a digital machine tool (1952).[20]

Ross, stated, 'As soon as I saw the interactive display equipment,' [being used by radar operators 1953] he saw it would be just what his SAGE related data reduction group needed.

The designers of these very early computers built utility programs so that programmers could debug programs using flowcharts on a display scope with logical switches that could be opened and closed during the debugging session.

Additional developments were carried out in the 1960s within the aircraft, automotive, industrial control and electronics industries in the area of 3D surface construction, NC programming, and design analysis, most of it independent of one another and often not publicly published until much later.

Also of importance to the development of CAD was the development of the B-rep solid modeling kernels (engines for manipulating geometrically and topologically consistent 3D objects) Parasolid (ShapeData) and ACIS (Spatial Technology Inc.) at the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, both inspired by the work of Ian Braid.

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