AI News, Difference between revisions of "Basic computer network components"

Difference between revisions of "Basic computer network components"

Computer networks share common devices, functions, and features including servers, clients, transmission media, shared data, shared printers and other hardware and software resources, network interface card(NIC), local operating system(LOS), and the network operating system (NOS).

For example, there are file servers, print servers, mail servers, communication servers, database servers, fax servers and web servers, to name a few.

Transmission Media - Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnect computers in a network, such as twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber cable.

Shared data - Shared data are data that file servers provide to clients such as data files, printer access programs and e-mail.

Local Operating System - A local operating system allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer, and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.

Network Operating System - The network operating system is a program that runs on computers and servers, and allows the computers to communicate over the network.

Like a hub, switch doesn't broadcast the received message to entire network, rather before sending it checks to which system or port should the message be sent.

LAN Cable A local area Network cable is also known as data cable or Ethernet cable which is a wired cable used to connect a device to the internet or to other devices like other computer, printers, etc.

Network-attached storage

Network-attached storage (NAS) is a file-level computer data storage server connected to a computer network providing data access to a heterogeneous group of clients.

Potential benefits of dedicated network-attached storage, compared to general-purpose servers also serving files, include faster data access, easier administration, and simple configuration.[1]

The hard disk drives with 'NAS' in their name are functionally similar to other drives but may have different firmware, vibration tolerance, or power dissipation to make them more suitable for use in RAID arrays, which are often used in NAS implementations.[2]

In an appropriately configured RAID array, a single bad block on a single drive can be recovered completely via the redundancy encoded across the RAID set.

If a drive spends several seconds executing extensive retries it might cause the RAID controller to flag the drive as 'down' whereas if it simply replied promptly that the block of data had a checksum error, the RAID controller would use the redundant data on the other drives to correct the error and continue without any problem.

Such a 'NAS' SATA hard disk drive can be used as an internal PC hard drive, without any problems or adjustments needed, as it simply supports additional options and may possibly be built to a higher quality standard (particularly if accompanied by a higher quoted MTBF figure and higher price) than a regular consumer drive.

NAS is generally not as customizable in terms of hardware (CPU, memory, storage components) or software (extensions, plug-ins, additional protocols) as a general-purpose server supplied with DAS.

One way to loosely conceptualize the difference between a NAS and a SAN is that NAS appears to the client OS (operating system) as a file server (the client can map network drives to shares on that server) whereas a disk available through a SAN still appears to the client OS as a disk, visible in disk and volume management utilities (along with client's local disks), and available to be formatted with a file system and mounted.

Starting in the early 2000s, a series of startups emerged offering alternative solutions to single filer solutions in the form of clustered NAS – Spinnaker Networks (acquired by NetApp in February 2004), Exanet (acquired by Dell in February 2010), Gluster (acquired by RedHat in 2011), ONStor (acquired by LSI in 2009), IBRIX (acquired by HP), Isilon (acquired by EMC – November 2010), PolyServe (acquired by HP in 2007), and Panasas, to name a few.

The price of NAS appliances has fallen sharply in recent years, offering flexible network-based storage to the home consumer market for little more than the cost of a regular USB or FireWire external hard disk.

however, NexentaStor requires more memory than consumer-oriented open source NAS solutions and also contains most of the features of enterprise class NAS solutions, such as snapshots, management utilities, tiering services, mirroring, and end-to-end checksumming due, in part, to the use of ZFS.

What is a network server?

A network server is a computer system, which is used as the central repository of data and various programs that are shared by users in a network.

You'll have to make sure you have a big enough hard drive (at least 100 GB) to store all the data you'll be putting on it, especially if you'll be using it to store videos, images, music or other files that take up a lot of room.

The next screen you get says to name your network by specifying a workgroup name, which you should leave as MSHOME, unless the other computers in your house are using a different workgroup name.

Server (computing)

In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called 'clients'.

This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices.

Servers can provide various functionalities, often called 'services', such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client.

Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.[2]

Client–server systems are today most frequently implemented by (and often identified with) the request–response model: a client sends a request to the server, which performs some action and sends a response back to the client, typically with a result or acknowledgement.

This often implies that it is more powerful and reliable than standard personal computers, but alternatively, large computing clusters may be composed of many relatively simple, replaceable server components.

The Jargon File defines 'server' in the common sense of a process performing service for requests, usually remote, with the 1981 (1.1.0) version reading:

In addition to server, the words serve and service (as noun and as verb) are frequently used, though servicer and servant are not.[a]

Originally used as 'servers serve users' (and 'users use servers'), in the sense of 'obey', today one often says that 'servers serve data', in the same sense as 'give'.

In principle, any computerized process that can be used or called by another process (particularly remotely, particularly to share a resource) is a server, and the calling process or processes is a client.

Thereafter, the pub–sub server forwards matching messages to the clients without any further requests: the server pushes messages to the client, rather than the client pulling messages from the server as in request–response.[6]

Since servers are usually accessed over a network, many run unattended without a computer monitor or input device, audio hardware and USB interfaces.

Critical components might be hot swappable, allowing technicians to replace them on the running server without shutting it down, and to guard against overheating, servers might have more powerful fans or use water cooling.

server farm or server cluster is a collection of computer servers maintained by an organization to supply server functionality far beyond the capability of a single device.

class of small specialist servers called network appliances are generally at the low end of the scale, often being smaller than common desktop computers.

In 2010, data centers (servers, cooling, and other electrical infrastructure) were responsible for 1.1-1.5% of electrical energy consumption worldwide and 1.7-2.2% in the United States.[13]

Basic computer network components

Computer networks share common devices, functions, and features including servers, clients, transmission media, shared data, shared printers and other hardware and software resources, network interface card(NIC), local operating system(LOS), and the network operating system (NOS).

For example, there are file servers, print servers, mail servers, communication servers, database servers, fax servers and web servers, to name a few.

Transmission Media - Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnect computers in a network, such as twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber cable.

Shared data - Shared data are data that file servers provide to clients such as data files, printer access programs and e-mail.

Local Operating System - A local operating system allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer, and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.

Network Operating System - The network operating system is a program that runs on computers and servers, and allows the computers to communicate over the network.

Unlike a hub, switch doesn't broadcast the received message to entire network, rather before sending it checks to which system or port should the message be sent.

LAN Cable A local area Network cable is also known as data cable or Ethernet cable which is a wired cable used to connect a device to the internet or to other devices like other computer, printers, etc.

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