AI News, Difference between revisions of "Basic computer network components"

Difference between revisions of "Basic computer network components"

Computer networks share common devices, functions, and features including servers, clients, transmission media, shared data, shared printers and other hardware and software resources, network interface card(NIC), local operating system(LOS), and the network operating system (NOS).

Transmission Media - Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnect computers in a network, such as twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber cable.

Shared data - Shared data are data that file servers provide to clients such as data files, printer access programs and e-mail.

Local Operating System - A local operating system allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer, and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.

Network Operating System - The network operating system is a program that runs on computers and servers, and allows the computers to communicate over the network.

Like a hub, switch doesn't broadcast the received message to entire network, rather before sending it checks to which system or port should the message be sent.

LAN Cable A local area Network cable is also known as data cable or Ethernet cable which is a wired cable used to connect a device to the internet or to other devices like other computer, printers, etc.

Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others.

Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, topology, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent.

Computer networking may be considered a branch of electrical engineering, electronics engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.

computer network facilitates interpersonal communications allowing users to communicate efficiently and easily via various means: email, instant messaging, online chat, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing.

A network allows sharing of files, data, and other types of information giving authorized users the ability to access information stored on other computers on the network.

computer network may be used by security hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial-of-service attack.

A network packet is a formatted unit of data (a list of bits or bytes, usually a few tens of bytes to a few kilobytes long) carried by a packet-switched network.

The control information provides data the network needs to deliver the user data, for example: source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information.

When one user is not sending packets, the link can be filled with packets from other users, and so the cost can be shared, with relatively little interference, provided the link isn't overused.

The transmission media (often referred to in the literature as the physical media) used to link devices to form a computer network include electrical cable, optical fiber, and radio waves.

Both cases have a large round-trip delay time, which gives slow two-way communication, but doesn't prevent sending large amounts of information.

Apart from any physical transmission media there may be, networks comprise additional basic system building blocks, such as network interface controllers (NICs), repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, modems, and firewalls.

network interface controller (NIC) is computer hardware that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the ability to process low-level network information.

network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model to form a single network.

router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet or datagram (Internet protocol information from layer 3).

A destination in a routing table can include a 'null' interface, also known as the 'black hole' interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i.e.

As an example, with FDDI, the network topology is a ring (actually two counter-rotating rings), but the physical topology is often a star, because all neighboring connections can be routed via a central physical location.

The overlay network has no control over how packets are routed in the underlying network between two overlay nodes, but it can control, for example, the sequence of overlay nodes that a message traverses before it reaches its destination.

In a protocol stack (also see the OSI model), each protocol leverages the services of the protocol layer below it, until the lowest layer controls the hardware which sends information across the media.

IEEE 802.1Q describes VLANs, and IEEE 802.1X defines a port-based Network Access Control protocol, which forms the basis for the authentication mechanisms used in VLANs (but it is also found in WLANs) – it is what the home user sees when the user has to enter a 'wireless access key'.

Ethernet, sometimes simply called LAN, is a family of protocols used in wired LANs, described by a set of standards together called IEEE 802.3 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

At its core, the protocol suite defines the addressing, identification, and routing specifications for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and for IPv6, the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability.

Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers.

They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a variety of different sources, primarily to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM (Pulse-Code Modulation) format.

nanoscale communication network has key components implemented at the nanoscale including message carriers and leverages physical principles that differ from macroscale communication mechanisms.

Nanoscale communication extends communication to very small sensors and actuators such as those found in biological systems and also tends to operate in environments that would be too harsh for classical communication.[23]

local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings.

Newer standards such as ITU-T also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing wiring, such as coaxial cables, telephone lines, and power lines.[25]

The defining characteristics of a LAN, in contrast to a wide area network (WAN), include higher data transfer rates, limited geographic range, and lack of reliance on leased lines to provide connectivity.

home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices.

SANs are primarily used to make storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system.

The cost and complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption across both enterprise and small to medium-sized business environments.

The networking equipment (switches, routers) and transmission media (optical fiber, copper plant, Cat5 cabling, etc.) are almost entirely owned by the campus tenant / owner (an enterprise, university, government, etc.).

For example, a university campus network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings to connect academic colleges or departments, the library, and student residence halls.

Another example of a backbone network is the Internet backbone, which is the set of wide area networks (WANs) and core routers that tie together all networks connected to the Internet.

wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances.

WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

An enterprise private network is a network that a single organization builds to interconnect its office locations (e.g., production sites, head offices, remote offices, shops) so they can share computer resources.

virtual private network (VPN) is an overlay network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires.

global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc.

Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred documented, and often standardized, protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries.

Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths.

Darknets are distinct from other distributed peer-to-peer networks as sharing is anonymous (that is, IP addresses are not publicly shared), and therefore users can communicate with little fear of governmental or corporate interference.[29]

In packet switched networks, routing directs packet forwarding (the transit of logically addressed network packets from their source toward their ultimate destination) through intermediate nodes.

Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network.

A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either only to small increase in network throughput, or to an actual reduction in network throughput.

Network protocols that use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion—even after the initial load is reduced to a level that would not normally induce network congestion.

One example of this is the use of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOPs) in the ITU-T standard, which provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) Local area networking over existing home wires (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables).

Network security consists of provisions and policies adopted by the network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer network and its network-accessible resources.[37]

Network security is used on a variety of computer networks, both public and private, to secure daily transactions and communications among businesses, government agencies and individuals.

With the advent of programs such as the Total Information Awareness program, technologies such as high speed surveillance computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of citizens.[38]

However, many civil rights and privacy groups—such as Reporters Without Borders, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the American Civil Liberties Union—have expressed concern that increasing surveillance of citizens may lead to a mass surveillance society, with limited political and personal freedoms.

Some systems that normally offer end-to-end encryption have turned out to contain a back door that subverts negotiation of the encryption key between the communicating parties, for example Skype or Hushmail.

The end-to-end encryption paradigm does not directly address risks at the communications endpoints themselves, such as the technical exploitation of clients, poor quality random number generators, or key escrow.

The SSL client checks this certificate (all web browsers come with an exhaustive list of CA root certificates preloaded), and if the certificate checks out, the server is authenticated and the client negotiates a symmetric-key cipher for use in the session.

A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers, and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies.

The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways) that interconnect via the transmission media.

Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of interest under private administration usually by an enterprise, and is only accessible by authorized users (e.g.

From an engineering viewpoint, the Internet is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol.

How Can I Protect My Computers and Data When Someone Else Is Using My Network?

reading how easy it is for someone else to get onto my Wi-Fi network, and, similarly, thinking about how often I let my friends connect to my wireless network, I want to lock down the rest of my network so people connected to it can't go snooping around my computers—or at least secure my most super secret files and folders.

Most of them, by the way, are similar to the settings tweaks you should make to stay safe on public Wi-Fi networks, because, basically, the concept is the same: If you have any doubt at all when it comes to connecting your computer(s) to others, take a safety-first approach.

For extra security—and a less complex way to protect your files than on an account-by-account basis—, you'll want to protect the really private files on your network using encryption tools.

If you don't really need full-blown NSA-grade security, however, another option is to bury your files in hidden dot folders (e.g., ".hidden-folder") or, if you're so inclined, hide the file in an image, PDF, HTML or MP3 file via steganography.

As many readers have pointed out below, if your router hardware supports it, you can set up a separate wireless network altogether for your guests to access, protecting your computers.

Because these two routers are on different subnets (the Verizon router/modem has a 192.168.1.X subnet by default and the Netgear has a 10.0.0.X subnet by default) the information sent over each of these individual networks is separated and secured, so one network can be shared with guests and the other used privately.

Also, since we've got our tinfoil hats on already, remember the good old security basics: enabling your system's firewall, creating strong passwords, and keeping your system updated.

IOGEAR 4x4 USB 2.0 Peripheral Sharing Switch, for Multiple USB Devices GUS404

The molded cable design for the computer side eliminated needs for more USB cables and made field installation quick and easy Enables four computers to share up to 4 USB peripheral devices, more devices can be supported by adding USB hubs Easily switch to any of your connected computers with the press of a button USB 2.0 compliant, supporting data transfer rates of up to 480Mbps Charge mobile devices such as smart phones on any of the USB device port LED indicators the port focus for the active computer Over-current protection Supports hot-plugging which allows easily add or remove computers connected to the installation without having to power down the switch Molded in cable design simplifies the connections For PC Users Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 Available USB 2.0 port For MAC Users Mac 8.6 or greater.

Network switches

Network switches can be found in almost every office, business and school in the UK, and increasingly at home too.

It allows you to connect computers, printers, servers, games consoles and DVD drives and more, while all connected devices share an internet connection with the base computer.

Network switches are designed with low power consumption in mind, with most, including our Netgear network switches, boasting auto power-down functions that automatically shut down idle ports to save energy.

If you’re looking for a way to transfer large files, images, data and to share streaming across your home or business, a network switch provides a fast, reliable, and easy-to-use solution.

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