AI News, BOOK REVIEW: Difference between revisions of "Basic computer network components"

Difference between revisions of "Basic computer network components"

Computer networks share common devices, functions, and features including servers, clients, transmission media, shared data, shared printers and other hardware and software resources, network interface card(NIC), local operating system(LOS), and the network operating system (NOS).

For example, there are file servers, print servers, mail servers, communication servers, database servers, fax servers and web servers, to name a few.

Transmission Media - Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnect computers in a network, such as twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber cable.

Shared data - Shared data are data that file servers provide to clients such as data files, printer access programs and e-mail.

Shared printers and other peripherals - Shared printers and peripherals are hardware resources provided to the users of the network by servers.

Local Operating System - A local operating system allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer, and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.

Network Operating System - The network operating system is a program that runs on computers and servers, and allows the computers to communicate over the network.

Like a hub, switch doesn't broadcast the received message to entire network, rather before sending it checks to which system or port should the message be sent.

How Does a Network Switch Work?

An unmanaged network switch is designed so that you can simply plug them in and they work, no configuration required.

It directs data traffic, choosing the best route for information to travel across the network, so that it's transmitted as efficiently as possible.

You may find that you need to increase the number of ports that can plug into your router, so you can setup a network switch to connect with your router.

Your network switch connects to the router through one of the ports on the router, extending the number of devices in your small office network, such as desktop computers, printers, laptops, etc.

You'll get a secure, reliable, affordable network backed by Cisco and customized to meet your needs today, giving you a clear path to tomorrow.

Storage area network

SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays and tape libraries, accessible to servers so that the devices appear to the operating system as locally attached devices.

It grew out of data-centric mainframe architectures, where clients in a network can connect to several servers that store different types of data.[2]:11 To scale storage capacities as the volumes of data grew, direct attached storage (DAS) was developed, where disk arrays or just a bunch of disks (JBODs) are attached to the servers.

Out of it developed the network attached storage (NAS) architecture, where one or more dedicated file server or storage devices are made available in a LAN.[2]:18 Therefore the transfer of data, particularly for backup, still takes place over the existing LAN.

If more than a terabyte of data was stored at any one time, LAN bandwidth became a bottleneck.[2]:21-22 Therefore SANs were developed, where a dedicated storage network was attached to the LAN, and terabytes of data are transferred over a dedicated high speed and bandwidth network.

Through the host bus adapters the operating system of the server can communicate with the storage devices in the SAN.[3]:26 A cable connects to the host bus adapter card through the gigabit interface converter (GBIC).

SAN switches connect the servers with the storage devices and are typically non-blocking, thus transmitting data across all attached wires at the same time.[3]:29 When SANs were first built hubs were the only devices that were fibre channel capable, but fibre channel switches were developed and hubs are now rarely found in SANs.

Switches have the advantage over hubs that they allow all attached devices to communicate simultaneously, as a switch provides a dedicated link to connect all its ports with one another.[3]:34 SAN switches are for redundancy purposes set up in a meshed topology.

A single SAN switch can have as few as 8 ports, up to 32 ports with modular extentions.[3]:35 So called director class switches can have as many as 128 ports.[3]:36 When SANs were first built fibre channel had to be implemented over copper cables, these days multimode optical fibre cables are used in SANs.[3]:40 In switched SANs the fibre channel switched fabric protocol FC-SW-6 is used, where every device in the SAN has a hardcoded World Wide Name (WWN) address in the host bus adapter (HBA).

If a device is connected to the SAN its WWN is registered in the SAN switch name server.[3]:47 In place of a WWN, or world wide port name (WWPN), SAN fibre channel storage device vendors may also hardcode a world wide node name (WWNN).

In SANs disk arrays are joined through a RAID, which makes a lot of hard disks look and perform like one big storage device.[3]:48 Every storage device, or even partition on that storage device, has a logical unit number (LUN) assigned to it.

When a storage device receives a request to read or write data, it will check its access list to establish whether the node, identified by its LUN, is allowed to access the storage area, also identified by a LUN.[3]:148-149 LUN masking is a technique whereby the host bus adapter and the SAN software of a server restrict the LUNs for which commands are accepted.

In doing so LUNs that should in any case not be accessed by the server are masked.[3]:354 Another method to restrict server access to particular SAN storage devices is fabric-based access control, or zoning, which has to be implemented on the SAN networking devices and the servers.

Because a SAN is not a direct attached storage (DAS), the storage devices in the SAN are not owned and managed by a server.[1]:11 Potentially the data storage capacity that can be accessed by a single server through a SAN is infinite, and this storage capacity may also be accessible by other servers.[1]:12 Moreover SAN software must ensure that data is directly moved between storage devices within the SAN, with minimal server intervention.[1]:13

While out-of-band management means that management data is transmitted over dedicated links.[1]:174 SAN management software will collect management data from all storage devices in the storage layer, including info on read and write failure, storage capacity bottlenecks and failure of storage devices.

Networking and Communication"Check the reviewed one below"

Data communications refers to the transmission of this digital data between two or more computers and a computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data.

WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together so that users and computers can communicate with computers in other regions.

For example, there are file servers, print servers, mail servers, communication servers, database servers, print servers, fax servers and web servers, to name a few.

3.Transmission Media - Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnect computers in a network, such as twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber cable.

4.Shared data - Shared data are data that file servers provide to clients such as data files, printer access programs and e-mail.

On the receiver's side, the NIC processes bits received from the physical layer and processes the message based on its contents.

7.Local Operating System - A local operating system allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer, and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.

8.Network Operating System - The network operating system is a program that runs on computers and servers, and allows the computers to communicate over the network.

It uses physical device addresses in each incoming messages so that it can deliver the message to the right destination or port.

refers to the transmission of the digital data between two or more computers The physical connection between networked computing devices is established using either cable media or wireless media.

WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together so that users and computers can communicate with computers in other regions.

For example, there are file servers, print servers, mail servers, communication servers, database servers, print servers, fax servers and web servers, to name a few.

4.Shared data - Shared data are data that file servers provide to clients such as data files, printer access programs and e-mail.

5.Shared printers and other peripherals - Shared printers and peripherals are hardware resources provided to the users of the network by servers.

On the transmit side, the NIC passes frames of data on to the physical layer, which transmits the data to the physical link.

7.Local Operating System - A local operating system allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer, and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.

8.Network Operating System - The network operating system is a program that runs on computers and servers, and allows the computers to communicate over the network.

When a computer request information from a network or a specific computer, it sends the request to the hub through a cable.

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