AI News, Deep Learning - The Past, Present and Future of Artificial Intelligence

Deep Learning - The Past, Present and Future of Artificial Intelligence

One by one, the abilities and techniques that humans once imagined were uniquely our own have begun to fall to the onslaught of ever more powerful machines.

This talk will introduce the core concept of deep learning, explore why Sundar Pichai (CEO Google) recently announced that “machine learning is a core transformative way by which Google is rethinking everything they are doing” and explain why “deep learning is probably one of the most exciting things that is happening in the computer industry“ (Jen-Hsun Huang – CEO NVIDIA).

Why Deep Learning Is Suddenly Changing Your Life

Over the past four years, readers have doubtlessly noticed quantum leaps in the quality of a wide range of everyday technologies.

To gather up dog pictures, the app must identify anything from a Chihuahua to a German shepherd and not be tripped up if the pup is upside down or partially obscured, at the right of the frame or the left, in fog or snow, sun or shade.

Medical startups claim they’ll soon be able to use computers to read X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans more rapidly and accurately than radiologists, to diagnose cancer earlier and less invasively, and to accelerate the search for life-saving pharmaceuticals.

They’ve all been made possible by a family of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques popularly known as deep learning, though most scientists still prefer to call them by their original academic designation: deep neural networks.

Programmers have, rather, fed the computer a learning algorithm, exposed it to terabytes of data—hundreds of thousands of images or years’ worth of speech samples—to train it, and have then allowed the computer to figure out for itself how to recognize the desired objects, words, or sentences.

“You essentially have software writing software,” says Jen-Hsun Huang, CEO of graphics processing leader Nvidia nvda , which began placing a massive bet on deep learning about five years ago.

What’s changed is that today computer scientists have finally harnessed both the vast computational power and the enormous storehouses of data—images, video, audio, and text files strewn across the Internet—that, it turns out, are essential to making neural nets work well.

“We’re now living in an age,” Chen observes, “where it’s going to be mandatory for people building sophisticated software applications.” People will soon demand, he says, “ ‘Where’s your natural-language processing version?’ ‘How do I talk to your app?

The increased computational power that is making all this possible derives not only from Moore’s law but also from the realization in the late 2000s that graphics processing units (GPUs) made by Nvidia—the powerful chips that were first designed to give gamers rich, 3D visual experiences—were 20 to 50 times more efficient than traditional central processing units (CPUs) for deep-learning computations.

Its chief financial officer told investors that “the vast majority of the growth comes from deep learning by far.” The term “deep learning” came up 81 times during the 83-minute earnings call.

I think five years from now there will be a number of S&P 500 CEOs that will wish they’d started thinking earlier about their AI strategy.” Even the Internet metaphor doesn’t do justice to what AI with deep learning will mean, in Ng’s view.

The Dark Secret at the Heart of AI

Last year, a strange self-driving car was released onto the quiet roads of Monmouth County, New Jersey.

The experimental vehicle, developed by researchers at the chip maker Nvidia, didn’t look different from other autonomous cars, but it was unlike anything demonstrated by Google, Tesla, or General Motors, and it showed the rising power of artificial intelligence.

Information from the vehicle’s sensors goes straight into a huge network of artificial neurons that process the data and then deliver the commands required to operate the steering wheel, the brakes, and other systems.

The car’s underlying AI technology, known as deep learning, has proved very powerful at solving problems in recent years, and it has been widely deployed for tasks like image captioning, voice recognition, and language translation.

There is now hope that the same techniques will be able to diagnose deadly diseases, make million-dollar trading decisions, and do countless other things to transform whole industries.

But this won’t happen—or shouldn’t happen—unless we find ways of making techniques like deep learning more understandable to their creators and accountable to their users.

But banks, the military, employers, and others are now turning their attention to more complex machine-learning approaches that could make automated decision-making altogether inscrutable.

“Whether it’s an investment decision, a medical decision, or maybe a military decision, you don’t want to just rely on a ‘black box’ method.” There’s already an argument that being able to interrogate an AI system about how it reached its conclusions is a fundamental legal right.

The resulting program, which the researchers named Deep Patient, was trained using data from about 700,000 individuals, and when tested on new records, it proved incredibly good at predicting disease.

Without any expert instruction, Deep Patient had discovered patterns hidden in the hospital data that seemed to indicate when people were on the way to a wide range of ailments, including cancer of the liver.

If something like Deep Patient is actually going to help doctors, it will ideally give them the rationale for its prediction, to reassure them that it is accurate and to justify, say, a change in the drugs someone is being prescribed.

Many thought it made the most sense to build machines that reasoned according to rules and logic, making their inner workings transparent to anyone who cared to examine some code.

But it was not until the start of this decade, after several clever tweaks and refinements, that very large—or “deep”—neural networks demonstrated dramatic improvements in automated perception.

It has given computers extraordinary powers, like the ability to recognize spoken words almost as well as a person could, a skill too complex to code into the machine by hand.

The same approach can be applied, roughly speaking, to other inputs that lead a machine to teach itself: the sounds that make up words in speech, the letters and words that create sentences in text, or the steering-wheel movements required for driving.

The resulting images, produced by a project known as Deep Dream, showed grotesque, alien-like animals emerging from clouds and plants, and hallucinatory pagodas blooming across forests and mountain ranges.

In 2015, Clune’s group showed how certain images could fool such a network into perceiving things that aren’t there, because the images exploit the low-level patterns the system searches for.

The images that turn up are abstract (imagine an impressionistic take on a flamingo or a school bus), highlighting the mysterious nature of the machine’s perceptual abilities.

It is the interplay of calculations inside a deep neural network that is crucial to higher-level pattern recognition and complex decision-making, but those calculations are a quagmire of mathematical functions and variables.

“But once it becomes very large, and it has thousands of units per layer and maybe hundreds of layers, then it becomes quite un-understandable.” In the office next to Jaakkola is Regina Barzilay, an MIT professor who is determined to apply machine learning to medicine.

The diagnosis was shocking in itself, but Barzilay was also dismayed that cutting-edge statistical and machine-learning methods were not being used to help with oncological research or to guide patient treatment.

She envisions using more of the raw data that she says is currently underutilized: “imaging data, pathology data, all this information.” How well can we get along with machines that are

After she finished cancer treatment last year, Barzilay and her students began working with doctors at Massachusetts General Hospital to develop a system capable of mining pathology reports to identify patients with specific clinical characteristics that researchers might want to study.

Barzilay and her students are also developing a deep-learning algorithm capable of finding early signs of breast cancer in mammogram images, and they aim to give this system some ability to explain its reasoning, too.

The U.S. military is pouring billions into projects that will use machine learning to pilot vehicles and aircraft, identify targets, and help analysts sift through huge piles of intelligence data.

A silver-haired veteran of the agency who previously oversaw the DARPA project that eventually led to the creation of Siri, Gunning says automation is creeping into countless areas of the military.

But soldiers probably won’t feel comfortable in a robotic tank that doesn’t explain itself to them, and analysts will be reluctant to act on information without some reasoning.

A chapter of Dennett’s latest book, From Bacteria to Bach and Back, an encyclopedic treatise on consciousness, suggests that a natural part of the evolution of intelligence itself is the creation of systems capable of performing tasks their creators do not know how to do.

But since there may be no perfect answer, we should be as cautious of AI explanations as we are of each other’s—no matter how clever a machine seems.“If it can’t do better than us at explaining what it’s doing,” he says, “then don’t trustit.”

Deep learning

Learning can be supervised, semi-supervised or unsupervised.[1][2][3] Deep learning architectures such as deep neural networks, deep belief networks and recurrent neural networks have been applied to fields including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, audio recognition, social network filtering, machine translation, bioinformatics and drug design,[4] where they have produced results comparable to and in some cases superior[5] to human experts.[6] Deep learning models are vaguely inspired by information processing and communication patterns in biological nervous systems yet have various differences from the structural and functional properties of biological brains, which make them incompatible with neuroscience evidences.[7][8][9] Deep learning is a class of machine learning algorithms that:[10](pp199–200) Most modern deep learning models are based on an artificial neural network, although they can also include propositional formulas[11] or latent variables organized layer-wise in deep generative models such as the nodes in Deep Belief Networks and Deep Boltzmann Machines.

Examples of deep structures that can be trained in an unsupervised manner are neural history compressors[13] and deep belief networks.[1][14] Deep neural networks are generally interpreted in terms of the universal approximation theorem[15][16][17][18][19] or probabilistic inference.[10][11][1][2][14][20][21] The universal approximation theorem concerns the capacity of feedforward neural networks with a single hidden layer of finite size to approximate continuous functions.[15][16][17][18][19] In 1989, the first proof was published by George Cybenko for sigmoid activation functions[16] and was generalised to feed-forward multi-layer architectures in 1991 by Kurt Hornik.[17] The probabilistic interpretation[20] derives from the field of machine learning.

More specifically, the probabilistic interpretation considers the activation nonlinearity as a cumulative distribution function.[20] The probabilistic interpretation led to the introduction of dropout as regularizer in neural networks.[22] The probabilistic interpretation was introduced by researchers including Hopfield, Widrow and Narendra and popularized in surveys such as the one by Bishop.[23] The term Deep Learning was introduced to the machine learning community by Rina Dechter in 1986,[24][13] and to Artificial Neural Networks by Igor Aizenberg and colleagues in 2000, in the context of Boolean threshold neurons.[25][26] The first general, working learning algorithm for supervised, deep, feedforward, multilayer perceptrons was published by Alexey Ivakhnenko and Lapa in 1965.[27] A 1971 paper described a deep network with 8 layers trained by the group method of data handling algorithm.[28] Other deep learning working architectures, specifically those built for computer vision, began with the Neocognitron introduced by Kunihiko Fukushima in 1980.[29] In 1989, Yann LeCun et al.

Each layer in the feature extraction module extracted features with growing complexity regarding the previous layer.[38] In 1995, Brendan Frey demonstrated that it was possible to train (over two days) a network containing six fully connected layers and several hundred hidden units using the wake-sleep algorithm, co-developed with Peter Dayan and Hinton.[39] Many factors contribute to the slow speed, including the vanishing gradient problem analyzed in 1991 by Sepp Hochreiter.[40][41] Simpler models that use task-specific handcrafted features such as Gabor filters and support vector machines (SVMs) were a popular choice in the 1990s and 2000s, because of ANNs' computational cost and a lack of understanding of how the brain wires its biological networks.

In 2003, LSTM started to become competitive with traditional speech recognizers on certain tasks.[51] Later it was combined with connectionist temporal classification (CTC)[52] in stacks of LSTM RNNs.[53] In 2015, Google's speech recognition reportedly experienced a dramatic performance jump of 49% through CTC-trained LSTM, which they made available through Google Voice Search.[54] In 2006, publications by Geoff Hinton, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Osindero and Teh[55] [56][57] showed how a many-layered feedforward neural network could be effectively pre-trained one layer at a time, treating each layer in turn as an unsupervised restricted Boltzmann machine, then fine-tuning it using supervised backpropagation.[58] The papers referred to learning for deep belief nets.

It was believed that pre-training DNNs using generative models of deep belief nets (DBN) would overcome the main difficulties of neural nets.[69] However, it was discovered that replacing pre-training with large amounts of training data for straightforward backpropagation when using DNNs with large, context-dependent output layers produced error rates dramatically lower than then-state-of-the-art Gaussian mixture model (GMM)/Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and also than more-advanced generative model-based systems.[59][70] The nature of the recognition errors produced by the two types of systems was characteristically different,[71][68] offering technical insights into how to integrate deep learning into the existing highly efficient, run-time speech decoding system deployed by all major speech recognition systems.[10][72][73] Analysis around 2009-2010, contrasted the GMM (and other generative speech models) vs.

While there, Ng determined that GPUs could increase the speed of deep-learning systems by about 100 times.[79] In particular, GPUs are well-suited for the matrix/vector math involved in machine learning.[80][81] GPUs speed up training algorithms by orders of magnitude, reducing running times from weeks to days.[82][83] Specialized hardware and algorithm optimizations can be used for efficient processing.[84] In 2012, a team led by Dahl won the 'Merck Molecular Activity Challenge' using multi-task deep neural networks to predict the biomolecular target of one drug.[85][86] In 2014, Hochreiter's group used deep learning to detect off-target and toxic effects of environmental chemicals in nutrients, household products and drugs and won the 'Tox21 Data Challenge' of NIH, FDA and NCATS.[87][88][89] Significant additional impacts in image or object recognition were felt from 2011 to 2012.

The error rates listed below, including these early results and measured as percent phone error rates (PER), have been summarized over the past 20 years:[clarification needed] The debut of DNNs for speaker recognition in the late 1990s and speech recognition around 2009-2011 and of LSTM around 2003-2007, accelerated progress in eight major areas:[10][74][72] All major commercial speech recognition systems (e.g., Microsoft Cortana, Xbox, Skype Translator, Amazon Alexa, Google Now, Apple Siri, Baidu and iFlyTek voice search, and a range of Nuance speech products, etc.) are based on deep learning.[10][120][121][122] A

DNNs have proven themselves capable, for example, of a) identifying the style period of a given painting, b) 'capturing' the style of a given painting and applying it in a visually pleasing manner to an arbitrary photograph, and c) generating striking imagery based on random visual input fields.[126][127] Neural networks have been used for implementing language models since the early 2000s.[101][128] LSTM helped to improve machine translation and language modeling.[102][103][104] Other key techniques in this field are negative sampling[129] and word embedding.

A compositional vector grammar can be thought of as probabilistic context free grammar (PCFG) implemented by an RNN.[130] Recursive auto-encoders built atop word embeddings can assess sentence similarity and detect paraphrasing.[130] Deep neural architectures provide the best results for constituency parsing,[131] sentiment analysis,[132] information retrieval,[133][134] spoken language understanding,[135] machine translation,[102][136] contextual entity linking,[136] writing style recognition,[137] Text classifcation and others.[138] Google Translate (GT) uses a large end-to-end long short-term memory network.[139][140][141][142][143][144] GNMT uses an example-based machine translation method in which the system 'learns from millions of examples.'[140] It translates 'whole sentences at a time, rather than pieces.

These failures are caused by insufficient efficacy (on-target effect), undesired interactions (off-target effects), or unanticipated toxic effects.[148][149] Research has explored use of deep learning to predict biomolecular target,[85][86] off-target and toxic effects of environmental chemicals in nutrients, household products and drugs.[87][88][89] AtomNet is a deep learning system for structure-based rational drug design.[150] AtomNet was used to predict novel candidate biomolecules for disease targets such as the Ebola virus[151] and multiple sclerosis.[152][153] Deep reinforcement learning has been used to approximate the value of possible direct marketing actions, defined in terms of RFM variables.

An autoencoder ANN was used in bioinformatics, to predict gene ontology annotations and gene-function relationships.[157] In medical informatics, deep learning was used to predict sleep quality based on data from wearables[158][159] and predictions of health complications from electronic health record data.[160] Deep learning has also showed efficacy in healthcare.[161][162] Finding the appropriate mobile audience for mobile advertising is always challenging, since many data points must be considered and assimilated before a target segment can be created and used in ad serving by any ad server.[163][164] Deep learning has been used to interpret large, many-dimensioned advertising datasets.

On the one hand, several variants of the backpropagation algorithm have been proposed in order to increase its processing realism.[171][172] Other researchers have argued that unsupervised forms of deep learning, such as those based on hierarchical generative models and deep belief networks, may be closer to biological reality.[173][174] In this respect, generative neural network models have been related to neurobiological evidence about sampling-based processing in the cerebral cortex.[175] Although a systematic comparison between the human brain organization and the neuronal encoding in deep networks has not yet been established, several analogies have been reported.

systems, like Watson (...) use techniques like deep learning as just one element in a very complicated ensemble of techniques, ranging from the statistical technique of Bayesian inference to deductive reasoning.'[188] As an alternative to this emphasis on the limits of deep learning, one author speculated that it might be possible to train a machine vision stack to perform the sophisticated task of discriminating between 'old master' and amateur figure drawings, and hypothesized that such a sensitivity might represent the rudiments of a non-trivial machine empathy.[189] This same author proposed that this would be in line with anthropology, which identifies a concern with aesthetics as a key element of behavioral modernity.[190] In further reference to the idea that artistic sensitivity might inhere within relatively low levels of the cognitive hierarchy, a published series of graphic representations of the internal states of deep (20-30 layers) neural networks attempting to discern within essentially random data the images on which they were trained[191] demonstrate a visual appeal: the original research notice received well over 1,000 comments, and was the subject of what was for a time the most frequently accessed article on The Guardian's[192] web site.

Some deep learning architectures display problematic behaviors,[193] such as confidently classifying unrecognizable images as belonging to a familiar category of ordinary images[194] and misclassifying minuscule perturbations of correctly classified images.[195] Goertzel hypothesized that these behaviors are due to limitations in their internal representations and that these limitations would inhibit integration into heterogeneous multi-component AGI architectures.[193] These issues may possibly be addressed by deep learning architectures that internally form states homologous to image-grammar[196] decompositions of observed entities and events.[193] Learning a grammar (visual or linguistic) from training data would be equivalent to restricting the system to commonsense reasoning that operates on concepts in terms of grammatical production rules and is a basic goal of both human language acquisition[197] and AI.[198] As deep learning moves from the lab into the world, research and experience shows that artificial neural networks are vulnerable to hacks and deception.

Google Just Open Sourced TensorFlow, Its Artificial Intelligence Engine

Tech pundit Tim O'Reilly had just tried the new Google Photos app, and he was amazed by the depth of its artificial intelligence.

O'Reilly was standing a few feet from Google CEO and co-founder Larry Page this past May, at a small cocktail reception for the press at the annual Google I/O conference—the centerpiece of the company's year.

But its accuracy is enormously impressive—so impressive that O'Reilly couldn't understand why Google didn't sell access to its AI engine via the Internet, cloud-computing style, letting others drive their apps with the same machine learning.

"What we're hoping is that the community adopts this as a good way of expressing machine learning algorithms of lots of different types, and also contributes to building and improving [TensorFlow] in lots of different and interesting ways,"

And it's not sharing access to the remarkably advanced hardware infrastructure that drives this engine (that would certainly come with a price tag).

Google became the Internet's most dominant force in large part because of the uniquely powerful software and hardware it built inside its computer data centers—software and hardware that could help run all its online services, that could juggle traffic and data from an unprecedented number of people across the globe.

Typically, Google trains these neural nets using a vast array of machines equipped with GPU chips—computer processors that were originally built to render graphics for games and other highly visual applications, but have also proven quite adept at deep learning.

But after they've been trained—when it's time to put them into action—these neural nets run in different ways.

They often run on traditional computer processors inside the data center, and in some cases, they can run on mobile phones.

It can run entirely on a phone—without connecting to a data center across the 'net—letting you translate foreign text into your native language even when you don't have a good wireless signal.

It's a set of software libraries—a bunch of code—that you can slip into any application so that it too can learn tasks like image recognition, speech recognition, and language translation.

In open sourcing the tool, Google will also provide some sample neural networking models and algorithms, including models for recognizing photographs, identifying handwritten numbers, and analyzing text.

The rub is that Google is not yet open sourcing a version of TensorFlow that lets you train models across a vast array of machines.

But at the execution stage, the open source incarnation of TensorFlow will run on phones as well as desktops and laptops, and Google indicates that the company may eventually open source a version that runs across hundreds of machines.

Why this apparent change in Google philosophy—this decision to open source TensorFlow after spending so many years keeping important code to itself?

Deep learning originated with academics who openly shared their ideas, and many of them now work at Google—including University of Toronto professor Geoff Hinton, the godfather of deep learning.

The open source movement—where Internet companies share so many of their tools in order to accelerate the rate of development—has picked up considerable speed over the past decade.

Google has not handed the open source project to an independent third party, as many others have done in open sourcing major software.

But it has shared the code under what's called an Apache 2 license, meaning anyone is free to use the code as they please.

Like Torch and Theano, he says, it's good for quickly spinning up research projects, and like Caffe, it's good for pushing those research projects into the real world.

"A fair bit of the advancement in deep learning in the past three or four years has been helped by these kinds of libraries, which help researchers focus on their models.

Must Read Books for Beginners on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

The power to run tasks in automated manner, the power to make our lives comfrotable, the power to improve things continuously by studying decisions at large sacle .

We’re in the early days, but you’ll see us in a systematic way think about how we can apply machine learning to all these areas.’

When Elon Musk, the busiest man of planet right now, was asked about his secret of success, he replied, ‘I used to read books.

The motive of this article is not to promote any particular book, but you make you aware of a world which exists beyond video tutorials, blogs and podcasts.

Programming Collective Intelligence, PCI as it is popularly known, is one of the best books to start learning machine learning. If there is one book to choose on machine learning – it is this one.

The book was written long before data science and machine learning acquired the cult status they have today – but the topics and chapters are entirely relevant even today!

Some of the topics covered in the book are collaborative filtering techniques, search engine features, Bayesian filtering and Support vector machines. If you don’t have a copy of this book – order it as soon as you finish reading this article! The book uses Python to deliver machine learning in a fascinating manner.

It has interesting case studies which will help you to understand the importance of using machine learning algorithms.

This book provides a perfect introduction to machine learning. This book prepares you to understand complex areas of machine learning.

This book serves as a excellent reference for students keen to understand the use of statistical techniques in machine learning and pattern recognition.

More than just providing an overview of artificial intelligence, this book thoroughly covers subjects from search algorithms, reducing problems to search problems, working with logic, planning, and more advanced topics in AI such as reasoning with partial observability, machine learning and language processing.

It teaches basic artificial intelligence algorithms such as dimensionality, distance metrics, clustering, error calculation, hill climbing, Nelder Mead, and linear regression.

It delves deep into the practical aspects of A.I and teaches its readers the method to build and debug robust practical programs.

This books covers topics such as Neural networks, genetic programming, computer vision, heuristic search, knowledge representation and reasoning, Bayes networks and explains them with great ease.

In these books, the authors have not only explained the ML concepts precisely, but also mentioned their perspective and experiences using those concepts, which you would have missed otherwise!

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