AI News, Clever Modular Robots Turn Legs Into Arms on Demand
Clever Modular Robots Turn Legs Into Arms on Demand
Robots that can be physically reconfigured to do lots of different things are, in theory, a great way to maximize versatility while saving time and effort.
You could, if you had a lot of time to kill and nothing better to do, pre-compute every possible combination of gaits and transitions in advance, but who would want to do that when you could instead “create new gaits online to enable rapid deployment minutes after reconfiguration.” Okay, yeah, that may not sound super exciting, but it means you can teach a dodecapod robot to transitioninto a septapod robot that can carry stuff with two arms while using a third to point a camera.
Programmed in advance, that is, which is fine, except that as robots get more modular and easier to physically reconfigure, it becomes more and more useful to have a generalized system that can dynamically generate gaits (and transitions between gaits) on the fly no matter what the leg configuration of your robot happens to be.
You could, if you had a lot of time to kill and nothing better to do, pre-compute every possible combination of gaits and transitions in advance, but who would want to do that when you could instead “create new gaits online to enable rapid deployment minutes after reconfiguration.” Okay, yeah, that may not sound super exciting, but it means you can teach a dodecapod robot to transition into a septapod robot that can carry stuff with two arms while using a third to point a camera.
Gait training strategies to optimize walking ability in people with stroke: A synthesis of the evidence
Given the many mechanisms which contribute to gait and the varying tasks and environments under which gait is utilized, an intervention that addresses different elements underlying walking and the broader framework of mobility might be optimal.
These programs generally have two, if not all three of the following components: graded strengthening using functional tasks (e.g., repetitive rise from a chair, stepping up and down a stepper), aerobic component (e.g., graded walking activity, stationary bicycle or goal of continuous period of functional tasks at least at a moderate intensity) and a variety of challenging walking activities with substantial postural control demands (e.g., walking backwards, on foam or stepping over obstacles).
The authors of these studies provide some indication of how the intensity is progressed (e.g., increasing heart rate or perceived exertion at set target zones, increasing number of repetitions, reduction of rest breaks).
The inpatient study by Blennerhassett and Dite  added a 4 week, 50 min group mobility and endurance circuit to standard of care treatment and had large effects with a 120% improvement in 6MWT of the circuit group compared to 60% improvement in the control group and these effects were maintained at 6 months after the extra training ended.
[84,85] evaluated the effects of a therapist-supervised home program which targeted balance, endurance, strength, flexibility and upper extremity function compared to usual care (about half of which received no physical therapy or occupational therapy services).
The small sample (n=20) study  found a trend towards improvement in gait speed, while the larger study (n=100)  found greater improvement in the 6MWT and gait speed with participants in the home program.
We performed a meta-analysis and found that intensive mobility training had a small significant homogeneous effect size (d=0.20, 95% CI −0.03 to 0.44, p=0.04) for the 6WMT [87,89,91–93] and a small homogenous effect size for walking speed (d=0.45, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.77, p<
Self-efficacy can be enhanced by an individual having positive experiences in executing walking tasks (mastery experience) or receiving verbal affirmation of their abilities from others (verbal persuasion), and also by the individual observing others successfully practising the tasks (vicarious experience) .
 attribute their improvements to three factors: 1) the exercise equipment could be used at home and exercises could be progressed independently, 2) a high level of social support may have motivated participants and 3) the follow-up assessment may have provided incentive to adhere to the program.
 found that three groups (stretching control group, resistance exercise group and agility exercise group) of older adults all continued to improve their function in the year after the intervention ended.
 reviewed 6 randomized controlled trials [58,117–121] for the effect of treatment time (total number of hours of therapy) on walking speed in people with stroke and found a significant effect size of 0.19.
Mechanical Impedance and Its Relations to Motor Control, Limb Dynamics, and Motion Biomechanics
Other factors affecting mechanical impedance include the body/support interface, such as footwear and terrain (e.g., ground stiffness) .
Static evaluation of the stiffness of various football boots in inversion–eversion motion showed that when using rigidly attached high boots, ligamentous load on the subtalar joint is reduced considerably .
For a one-DOF inverted pendulum model representing the colliding leg in running, the natural frequency of the cushioning mechanism was estimated using linearized and extended Kalman filter estimators .
Testing of the coupling of footwear and the supporting ground confirmed that ground stiffness strongly affects the impact forces and that it should therefore be considered as an essential parameter in footwear design .
Ground stiffness and damping were also reported to influence hopping strategies through adjustment of the spring-like mechanics of the leg and surface combination to regulate the body center of mass and work output during exercise .
The dynamics of impact to the hip during a fall was studied during pelvis release experiments in which the dynamic response of the body to a step change in vertical force applied to the hip was measured.
The effective moving mass was located at the hip and one vertical spring–damper combination represented the structural properties of the skin, fat, and muscle within the contact area, as well as the compressive properties of the proximal femur, hip joint, and pelvis.
The remaining elements were two horizontally oriented elements that consisted of the combined flexural stiffness and damping of the muscles and ligaments that span the spine and connect the pelvis to the trunk and lower limbs.
- On Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Siege of Emon | Critical Role RPG Episode 78
Check out our store for official Critical Role merch: Catch Critical Role live Thursdays at 7PM PT on Alpha and Twitch: Alpha: Twitch:
Our Hidden Worlds - Dr Rauni Kilde
Dr Rauni Kilde's lecture on the world's biggest secrets in Tampere, Finland on September 15, 2013. (w. English subtitles).
The Time Traders by Andre Norton
If it is possible to conquer space, then perhaps it is also possible to conquer time. At least that was the theory American scientists were exploring in an effort to explain the new sources...
Design Symposium: "Informal Robotics"
Unlike traditional robots, informal robots are light, flexible, and pliant; their fabrication involves the embedding of processors, sensors and actuators within materials such as folded laminates,...
ASC Science Sundays: Cara Malek - The Science & Art of Rigging Animated Characters
Before an animated dragon can fly or a panda can execute a kung fu kick, a character rigger must design and create the digital puppet to bring the character to life. Part anatomy, part computer...
State Of The Union 2015- Full Speech Enhanced With Graphics
President Barack Obama offers a new middle-class agenda in his 2015 State of the Union address to congress.
MIT Technology Day 2000 — "The Future of Atoms in an Age of Bits"
MIT Technology Day 2000, on the theme "The Future of Atoms in an Age of Bits," features speakers Rodney A. Brooks ("Flash, Machines and the Physical World"), William J. Mitchell ("E-Topia:...
MIT Technology Day 1996—"Miracle or Mirage: Technology at the Horizon"
MIT's Technology Day 1996, on the theme "Miracle or Mirage: Technology at the Horizon" features speakers Bran Ferren '74 ("There's No Bits like Show Bits"), David Baltimore LI '61 ("The Next...
WPT University Place: Walking and Strokes: A Delicate Balance
Kreg Gruben, Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering at UW-Madison, focuses on walking and the impact a stroke has on muscle control. Gruben discusses the physics behind rotational motion...
Making Your Home Work for You Design Strategies for Aging in Place
Meeting the needs of an aging population is an integral part of the design community's set of professional values and responsibilities. The challenge is to design environments that will be...