AI News, Category: General

Category: General

We were concerned about the strange dichotomy by which people separated old media from new media to make their point about quality, ethics, and aesthetics.

Just like people were scoffing social media to be just doodles, scribbling, or worse, I now see people scornfully raising their eyebrows about the lack of structure, missing consistency, and other alleged flaws they imagine Big Data to carry.

Again what these people see, is just an evil new vice swamped over their mature businesses by unseasoned startups, however insanely well funded.

It was wrong in the 90s when the web started, it was wrong again in the 2000s regarding social media, and it will not become right this time.

The traditional concept of media becomes more and more directly intertwined with data, with data storytelling, data journalism, and their likes, indirectly because search, targeted advertising, content filtering, and other predictive technologies increasingly influence what we will find presented as media content.

The survey was done face to face, based on a cautiously drawn sample of 10.000 people per year.

my employer was also involved in direct marketing with a huge database of addresses, call centers, and logistics, we developed a method to use the highly curated market survey with its rather small sample to calibrate and enhance the “dirty”

Television ratings are measured by expensive panels in most markets, usually run and funded by joint industry committees like BARB in the UK or AGF in Germany.

We again found a way to infuse the TV panel data into the online data and could by that calculate the probabilities that the owner of a certain cookie would have had contact with a certain advertising campaign on TV or not.

So again, a small but highly curated and very specialized data set was used to greatly increase the value of the larger Big Data set.

Godfrey Harold Hardy Another example where small but highly curated data is crucial for data science, are data sets that contain scientific information, which otherwise is not inherent in the data.

Detection of relevant content with ngram ranking, or text comparison based on cosine vector distance are the most powerful tools to analyze texts even in unfamiliar languages or alphabets.

However, all the quantitative text mining procedures require the text to be preprocessed: All vocabulary with only grammatical function that would not add to the meaning has to be stripped off first.

It is also useful to bring the words to their root form (picture verbs into infinitive, nouns into nominative singular).

fractals as an art-thing where certainly more a fad, not well suited to turn into real art, generative art as such has since then become a strong branch in the Arts.

science is said to be useful if its development tends to accentuate the existing inequalities in the distribution of wealth, or more directly promotes the destruction of human life.

Ethical data is relevant for people’s lives: To control traffic, to make agriculture more sustainable, to supply energy, to help plan cities and administer the states.

Thus, it does not come as a surprise that we start to see the development of the communication platforms that are genuinely meant to support and at the same time to experiment with new forms of political participation, like Proxy-Voting or Liquid Democracy, which had been hardly conceivable without the infrastructure of the Web.

Since these new forms of presenting, debating, and voting for policies have been occurring just recently, we can expect that many other varieties will appear, new concepts to translate the internet paradigm into social decision making.

Nonetheless, I already see that using data for quantitative simulation is a good approach to approximate the complex dynamics of future data-driven political decision-making.

Politics as defined by Aristotle means to have the freedom to make decisions based on ethics and beliefs, and not driven by necessities, the latter is what he calls economics.

Godfrey Harold Hardy Now returning to Hardy’s quote from the beginning, when I was studying mathematics, I was puzzled by the strange aestheticism that many mathematicians would force upon their train of thoughts.

Kepler could dismiss the simple heliocentric model because Tycho Brahe had measured the movements of the planets to such accuracy that the model of circular orbits could no longer be maintained.

Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity relies on the data of Michelson and Morley who had shown that light would travel at constant speed, no matter the angle to the direction of our earth’s travel around the sun it was measured.

Finally, while mathematics is turning partially into syntax, the core of physics at the same time unfolds in the strange blossoms of the most beautiful mathematics imaginable.

the entirety of the cosmos, and quantum physics on the smallest scale lies the alien world of black holes, string theory, and quantum gravity.

The scale of these phenomena, the fabric of space-time is likely defined by relating Planck’s constant to Newton’s constant and the speed of light is so unimaginably small –

However, I hope that we will see many examples of valuable data, of data that helps people, that creates experiences unseen, and that opens the doors to new worlds of our knowledge and imagination.

Slow Data

We were concerned about the strange dichotomy by which people separated old media from new media to make their point about quality, ethics, and aesthetics.

Just like people were scoffing social media to be just doodles, scribbling, or worse, I now see people scornfully raising their eyebrows about the lack of structure, missing consistency, and other alleged flaws they imagine Big Data to carry.

Again what these people see, is just an evil new vice swamped over their mature businesses by unseasoned startups, however insanely well funded.

It was wrong in the 90s when the web started, it was wrong again in the 2000s regarding social media, and it will not become right this time.

The traditional concept of media becomes more and more directly intertwined with data, with data storytelling, data journalism, and their likes, indirectly because search, targeted advertising, content filtering, and other predictive technologies increasingly influence what we will find presented as media content.

The survey was done face to face, based on a cautiously drawn sample of 10.000 people per year.

my employer was also involved in direct marketing with a huge database of addresses, call centers, and logistics, we developed a method to use the highly curated market survey with its rather small sample to calibrate and enhance the “dirty”

Television ratings are measured by expensive panels in most markets, usually run and funded by joint industry committees like BARB in the UK or AGF in Germany.

We again found a way to infuse the TV panel data into the online data and could by that calculate the probabilities that the owner of a certain cookie would have had contact with a certain advertising campaign on TV or not.

So again, a small but highly curated and very specialized data set was used to greatly increase the value of the larger Big Data set.

Godfrey Harold Hardy Another example where small but highly curated data is crucial for data science, are data sets that contain scientific information, which otherwise is not inherent in the data.

Detection of relevant content with ngram ranking, or text comparison based on cosine vector distance are the most powerful tools to analyze texts even in unfamiliar languages or alphabets.

However, all the quantitative text mining procedures require the text to be preprocessed: All vocabulary with only grammatical function that would not add to the meaning has to be stripped off first.

It is also useful to bring the words to their root form (picture verbs into infinitive, nouns into nominative singular).

fractals as an art-thing where certainly more a fad, not well suited to turn into real art, generative art as such has since then become a strong branch in the Arts.

science is said to be useful if its development tends to accentuate the existing inequalities in the distribution of wealth, or more directly promotes the destruction of human life.

Ethical data is relevant for people’s lives: To control traffic, to make agriculture more sustainable, to supply energy, to help plan cities and administer the states.

Thus, it does not come as a surprise that we start to see the development of the communication platforms that are genuinely meant to support and at the same time to experiment with new forms of political participation, like Proxy-Voting or Liquid Democracy, which had been hardly conceivable without the infrastructure of the Web.

Since these new forms of presenting, debating, and voting for policies have been occurring just recently, we can expect that many other varieties will appear, new concepts to translate the internet paradigm into social decision making.

Nonetheless, I already see that using data for quantitative simulation is a good approach to approximate the complex dynamics of future data-driven political decision-making.

Politics as defined by Aristotle means to have the freedom to make decisions based on ethics and beliefs, and not driven by necessities, the latter is what he calls economics.

Godfrey Harold Hardy Now returning to Hardy’s quote from the beginning, when I was studying mathematics, I was puzzled by the strange aestheticism that many mathematicians would force upon their train of thoughts.

Kepler could dismiss the simple heliocentric model because Tycho Brahe had measured the movements of the planets to such accuracy that the model of circular orbits could no longer be maintained.

Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity relies on the data of Michelson and Morley who had shown that light would travel at constant speed, no matter the angle to the direction of our earth’s travel around the sun it was measured.

Finally, while mathematics is turning partially into syntax, the core of physics at the same time unfolds in the strange blossoms of the most beautiful mathematics imaginable.

the entirety of the cosmos, and quantum physics on the smallest scale lies the alien world of black holes, string theory, and quantum gravity.

The scale of these phenomena, the fabric of space-time is likely defined by relating Planck’s constant to Newton’s constant and the speed of light is so unimaginably small –

However, I hope that we will see many examples of valuable data, of data that helps people, that creates experiences unseen, and that opens the doors to new worlds of our knowledge and imagination.

Occupational employment projections to 2022

Total employment in the U.S. economy is projected to grow to 161 million, or 10.8 percent, over the 2012–2022 decade and add 15.6 million jobs to the 2012 employment level of 145.4 million.

In addition to projecting growth, BLS projects the number of job openings that will stem from the need to replace workers who change occupations or leave the labor force and tracks the typical level of education that is needed for entry-level positions in each occupation.

Subsequent sections provide more detail of the projections, including information about drivers of occupational growth and decline, employment by education, and growth or decline within each of 22 major occupational groups.

Additional information about occupations may be found in the Occupational Outlook Handbook.1 The Handbook contains 334 occupational profiles with information on typical job duties, work environment, education, training, licensure requirements, median pay, and the job outlook.

The projections process begins with high-level labor force and macroeconomic projections, makes use of an input–output framework to convert final demand into industry output, and ends with detailed projections that are released for 818 detailed occupations in 329 detailed industries.2 The Employment Projections program’s methodology page includes a detailed recounting of the entire process, including the final occupational-projections step.3 Current projections data cover the decade from 2012 to 2022.

Industry employment is allocated among occupations on the basis of distributions from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey.4 Projected occupational employment is based on projected industry employment.5 BLS projections are a measure of how employment in industries and occupations grow if the economy were to operate at its full potential a decade from now.

In addition to projecting occupational growth—that is, the number of new jobs expected—BLS provides estimates of the number of jobs that will need to be filled in each occupation as workers change occupations, retire, or leave the labor force and need to be replaced.

These projections of job openings from replacement needs, when combined with projected job openings from occupational growth, provide a more complete picture of the opportunities jobseekers will encounter in the coming decade than is provided by projected employment alone.

So if an occupation is projected to gain 1,000 new jobs, and 2,000 people who currently work in the occupation are expected to leave it over the next 10 years, then the total number of positions projected to be available to jobseekers is the sum of the two sources of openings, or 3,000.

Across the economy as a whole, job openings from replacement needs are projected to account for about twice as many openings as those from growth.6 This means that 2 out of every 3 job openings are expected to be for replacing workers who leave an occupation.

These education and training assignments are based on a review of available data, interviews with occupational experts and people who work in an occupation, and reading of specific job postings.

The education and training discussion in this article focuses mainly on the education category assignments for entering an occupation.7 The education categories BLS assigns to occupations are Education assignments provide insight on the formal education typical of entry-level jobs in a field and how they compare with other similar occupations.

The projected employment growth rates for these hospitals and the nurses working in them from 2012 to 2022 are 15.2 percent for private general medical and surgical hospitals and 16.6 percent for registered nurses working in those hospitals.

The projected employment decline from 2012 to 2022 is 21.5 percent for textile product mills and 21.2 percent for sewing machine operators in textile product mills.

Paralegals and legal assistants are projected to handle more job responsibilities that were previously assigned to other legal support staff, causing this occupation to have expected growth that is more than twice as fast as that of the legal services industry.

The faster growth is due in part to the changing job responsibilities that will cause paralegals and legal assistants, who accounted for 17.7 percent of the legal services industry in 2012, to account for 19.9 percent of the industry in 2022.

The second measure, percent change, is the relative number of jobs projected to be gained or lost and is calculated by dividing the projected numeric change by base-year employment.

In contrast, the nursing assistants occupation is much larger, and the same projected growth rate in that occupation is expected to result in 312,200 new jobs added to the economy by 2022.

With base-year employment of 1.4 million jobs, the maids and housekeeping cleaners occupation is projected to grow 12.8 percent during the 10-year period ending in 2022.

These occupations’ starting employment levels were unusually low, resulting in higher growth rates than historically seen in these occupations as they return to long-term trends by 2022.

In 2012, 49.0 million jobs were in occupations that typically require at least some postsecondary education for entry—education beyond a high school diploma or equivalent—compared with 96.4 million that require a high school diploma or less.

Although a growing proportion of jobs is projected to require a postsecondary education, occupations that typically require no more than a high school diploma or equivalent are expected to add more jobs, 8.8 million, than the 6.8 million jobs projected for those requiring at least some postsecondary education.

Although occupations requiring a high school diploma or less are projected to add more new jobs, the following table for wage and salary workers shows that these occupations usually have lower wages than do postsecondary occupations.

This growth is largely due to the concentration of these occupations in the fast-growing healthcare and social assistance industry, which is projected to add a combined 255,000 of the 448,500 new jobs in occupations requiring a master’s degree.

Another major area of projected growth for people with a high school diploma or equivalent is construction, which is expected to add almost 1 million jobs as construction regains jobs lost during the 2007–2009 recession.

This section discusses each of the 22 SOC major occupational groups and includes projected employment change, the factors expected to drive the change, information about the education that is typically needed to enter occupations within the group, and wage data.

Jobs in 2012: 8,861,500 Projected jobs in 2022: 9,498,000 Numeric change: 636,600 Percent change: 7.2 percent (slower than average) Job openings: 2,586,700 Large employers in 2012: ·Manufacturing: 681,400 ·Education: 661,500 General and operations managers is projected to add 244,100 new jobs over the 2012–2022 period, accounting for more than one-third of new jobs in management occupations.

However, the number of management jobs that typically require a high school diploma is expected to decrease over the decade, primarily because of the projected decline in employment of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers.

Jobs in 2012: 7,167,600 Projected jobs in 2022: 8,065,700 Numeric change: 898,100 Percent change: 12.5 percent (as fast as average) Job openings: 2,351,500 Large employers in 2012: ·

Government: 1,050,000 The business and financial operations occupations group includes business operations specialists such as human resources specialists, fundraisers, and market research analysts, and financial specialists such as financial analysts, credit counselors, and tax preparers.

While both business operations specialists and financial specialists are projected to grow about as fast as average, business operations specialists is much larger and will account for nearly two-thirds of the 898,100 jobs added.

In 2012, about 3 in 4 jobs in business and financial operations were in occupations that typically require a bachelor’s degree for entry, but the faster growth rate of these occupations requiring a 4-year degree means they are projected to account for 87.6 percent of new business and financial operations jobs.

Jobs in 2012: 3,814,700 Projected jobs in 2022: 4,500,500 Numeric change: 685,800 Percent change: 18.0 percent (faster than average) Job openings: 1,308,500 Large employers in 2012: ·

Although projected growth for information security analysts, at 27,400 new jobs, is smaller than for software developers and programmers, the rate of growth for information security analysts is expected to be 36.5 percent, making this the fastest growing occupation in this group.

Through 2022, more than 3 in 4 new jobs occurring in this group are projected to be in occupations that typically require at least a bachelor’s degree, with the fastest projected growth among occupations that need a master’s degree.

(See table 5.) The median annual wage for computer and mathematical occupations in May 2012 was $76,270, more than twice the median annual wage for all wage and salary workers of $34,750 and the second highest of any major occupational group.

All of the occupations in this group pay above the median wage for all occupations, and two occupations, computer and information research scientists and mathematicians, had median wages of more than $100,000 per year.

Jobs in 2012: 2,474,500 Projected jobs in 2022: 2,654,000 Numeric change: 179,600 Percent change: 7.3 percent (slower than average) Job openings: 763,900 Large employers in 2012: ·

Occupations that typically require a bachelor’s degree accounted for about 7 out of 10 jobs in 2012, but they will account for more than 9 out of 10 projected new architectural and engineering jobs.

In May 2012, the four highest paying occupations in this group were all engineering jobs that typically require a bachelor’s degree: petroleum engineers ($130,280), nuclear engineers ($104,270), aerospace engineers ($103,720), and computer hardware engineers ($100,920).

Jobs in 2012: 1,249,100 Projected jobs in 2022: 1,374,800 Numeric change: 125,700 Percent change: 10.1 percent (as fast as average) Job openings: 488,200 Large employers in 2012: ·

Education: 208,900 All three scientist groups—life scientists, physical scientists, and social scientists and related workers—are expected to grow at an about-average rate over the 2012–2022 period.

Nearly 4 in 5 new jobs created among the life, physical, and social services occupations group will be in occupations that typically require a bachelor’s degree or higher, and more than 2 in 5 will be at the graduate degree level.

Jobs in 2012: 2,374,700 Projected jobs in 2022: 2,783,400 Numeric change: 408,800 Percent change: 17.2 percent (faster than average) Job openings: 962,900 Large employers in 2012: ·

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations: 496,500 Community and social services occupations consist of two groups: (1) counselors, social workers, and other community and social service specialists and (2) religious workers.

Strong growth will be led by substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors at 31.4 percent, marriage and family therapists at 30.6 percent, and mental health counselors at 28.5 percent.

Jobs in 2012: 1,247,000 Projected jobs in 2022: 1,379,900 Numeric change: 132,900 Percent change: 10.7 percent (as fast as average) Job openings: 333,800 Large employers in 2012: ·

This faster growth is expected among paralegals and legal assistants as many law firms are shifting some duties that were traditionally performed by lawyers to these workers in an effort to reduce costs.

The median annual wage for legal occupations in May 2012 was $75,270, with every occupation in this group earning more than the median annual wage for all wage and salary workers ($34,750).

Jobs in 2012: 9,115,900 Projected jobs in 2022: 10,131,700 Numeric change: 1,015,800 Percent change: 11.1 percent (as fast as average) Job openings: 2,896,900 Large employers in 2012: ·

Health care and social assistance: 484,700 Over the next decade, employment of postsecondary teachers is expected to increase 16.6 percent, while employment of preschool, primary, secondary, and special education school teachers is projected to increase 10.4 percent.

Nearly half of the new education, training, and library jobs created will be in occupations that typically require a bachelor’s degree, and 95.7 percent of new jobs are projected to be in occupations that require some form of postsecondary education.

Ambulatory health care services: 2,340,900 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations are projected to add more than 1.7 million new jobs from 2012 to 2022, the most of any major occupational group.

Unlike most occupational groups, more than half of new job openings for healthcare practitioners will be new jobs, rather than jobs arising from the need to replace workers who change occupations or leave the labor force.

Although registered nurses is projected to grow 19.4 percent, nearly double the 10.8-percent rate of growth projected for total employment, this large occupation is expected to grow at a slower rate than the other, smaller and often specialized nursing occupations.

Education requirements vary by occupation within this group, with 20 occupations typically requiring a doctoral or professional degree and 5 typically requiring a high school diploma.

(See table 12.) While all education categories are expected to experience employment growth, about 45.8 percent of new jobs in the group over the 2012–2022 decade will be found in occupations that typically require an associate’s degree.

Nursing and residential care facilities: 1,195,100 Employment of healthcare support occupations is projected to increase 28.1 percent from 2012 to 2022, the fastest growth of any major occupational group.

Home health aides is a major driver of this fast growth, as the occupation is projected to grow 48.5 percent and account for more than one-third of the jobs added within this occupational group between 2012 and 2022.

Of the 17 occupations in this group, the two highest earners were in occupations that typically require an associate’s degree: occupational therapy assistants had a median wage of $53,240, and physical therapist assistants had a median wage of $52,160.

Most new protective service jobs will be created in local government and investigation and security services, which are the two largest employers and are projected to account for 65.2 percent of new security guard jobs.

(See table 15.) Food preparation and serving, with its nearly 1 million new jobs, is the occupational group with the largest number of jobs being created for people without a high school diploma.

Self-employed workers: 718,400 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations includes janitors and cleaners as well as maids and housekeeping cleaners, both of which are expected to be in the top 20 occupations in terms of the number of jobs created.

The number of self-employed building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers is expected to grow 12.4 percent, slightly slower than the 15.4 percent for wage and salary workers in services to buildings and dwellings.

Wholesale trade: 1,521,800 Sales and related workers, the second largest occupational group, are found in nearly every industry, although almost two-thirds are employed in the retail and wholesale trade industries.

Sales and related occupations included 4 of the 20 largest occupations in 2012, including the 2 largest, retail salespersons, with 4.4 million workers, and cashiers, with 3.3 million workers.

The other sales occupations among the 20 largest occupations are first-line supervisors of retail sales workers (1.6 million) and sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products (1.5 million).

This group of occupations is expected to grow slower than average, at 6.8 percent, but will still add 1.5 million new jobs by 2022, the second most behind healthcare practitioners and technical occupations.

Of the 20 occupations expected to add the most new jobs, 5 are office and administrative support occupations: Because this occupational group is growing slowly, the large majority of job openings, about 4.9 million, will result from employers replacing workers who change occupations or leave the labor force.

The three office and administrative support occupations with the highest median wages were postal service workers: postal service mail carriers ($56,490), postal service clerks ($53,090), and postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators ($53,090).

About 8 out of 9 jobs in farming, fishing, and forestry in 2012 were in occupations that did not typically require a high school education, while most of the rest require a high school diploma or equivalent.

In spite of the 531,200 additional jobs projected, opportunities in installation, maintenance, and repair largely will result from the need to replace workers who change occupations or leave the labor force.

(See table 22.) The fastest growing occupation within installation, maintenance, and repair is medical equipment repairers, which will add 12,800 jobs that typically require an associate’s degree.

The two highest paid occupations were electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay workers, with a median wage of $68,810 and electrical power-line installers and repairers, with a median wage of $63,250.

(See table 23.) The three occupations requiring a postsecondary education—semiconductor processors, first-line supervisors of production and operating workers, and prepress technicians and workers—are all projected to have declining employment.

The three highest paying jobs were in power production: nuclear power reactor operators ($74,990), power distributors and dispatchers ($71,690), and power plant operators ($66,130).

Over half of new transportation and material moving jobs are projected to be in the occupations laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand and heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers.

Personal care aides differ from home health aides in that home health aides may provide some basic medical services, while personal care aides cannot provide any medical services.

Because projections for many of the construction occupations include recovery from lower employment levels resulting from the 2007–2009 recession, several of these occupations are expected to grow much faster than average from 2012 to 2022.

The projected loss of 139,100 postal jobs is due to more reliance on email and online bill pay services and to technological advances that allow for automatic mail sorting.

The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists

'I feel torn between asking questions that I know will lead to statistical significance and asking questions that matter,' says Kathryn Bradshaw, a 27-year-old graduate student of counseling at the University of North Dakota.

To Smaldino, the selection pressures in science have favored less-than-ideal research: 'As long as things like publication quantity, and publishing flashy results in fancy journals are incentivized, and people who can do that are rewarded … they’ll be successful, and pass on their successful methods to others.'

It’s the way money is handed out that puts pressure on labs to publish a lot of papers, breeds conflicts of interest, and encourages scientists to overhype their work.

Yet as John Pooley, a neurobiology postdoc at the University of Bristol, points out, the biggest discoveries usually take decades to uncover and are unlikely to occur under short-term funding schemes.

In the US, the largest source of funding is the federal government, and that pool of money has been plateauing for years, while young scientists enter the workforce at a faster rate than older scientists retire.

Another worry: When independent, government, or university funding sources dry up, scientists may feel compelled to turn to industry or interest groups eager to generate studies to support their agendas.

That puts pressure on scientists to pick 'safe' topics that will yield a publishable conclusion — or, worse, may bias their research toward significant results.

Or, as a 2014 piece in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences put it: 'The current system is in perpetual disequilibrium, because it will inevitably generate an ever-increasing supply of scientists vying for a finite set of research resources and employment opportunities.'

'Although we recognize that some scientists will cringe at the thought of allocating funds by lottery,' the authors of the mBio piece write, 'the available evidence suggests that the system is already in essence a lottery without the benefits of being random.'

Recently, in PLOS Medicine, Stanford epidemiologist John Ioannidis suggested that pharmaceutical companies ought to pool the money they use to fund drug research, to be allocated to scientists who then have no exchange with industry during study design and execution.

The daily incentives facing biomedical scientists to bring new drugs to market are different from the incentives facing geologists trying to map out new rock layers.

The problem here is that truly groundbreaking findings simply don’t occur very often, which means scientists face pressure to game their studies so they turn out to be a little more 'revolutionary.' (Caveat: Many of the respondents who focused on this particular issue hailed from the biomedical and social sciences.) Some of this bias can creep into decisions that are made early on: choosing whether or not to randomize participants, including a control group for comparison, or controlling for certain confounding factors but not others.

Increasingly, meta-researchers (who conduct research on research) are realizing that scientists often do find little ways to hype up their own results — and they’re not always doing it consciously.

In a recent study, which tracked the misuse of p-values in biomedical journals, meta-researchers found 'an epidemic' of statistical significance: 96 percent of the papers that included a p-value in their abstracts boasted statistically significant results.

It suggests the biomedical community has been chasing statistical significance, potentially giving dubious results the appearance of validity through techniques like p-hacking — or simply suppressing important results that don't look significant enough.

An estimated $200 billion — or the equivalent of 85 percent of global spending on research — is routinely wasted on poorly designed and redundant studies, according to meta-researchers who have analyzed inefficiencies in research.

Our respondents suggested that the two key ways to encourage stronger study design — and discourage positive results chasing — would involve rethinking the rewards system and building more transparency into the research process.

I'd like attitudes to change so people focus less on the race to be first to prove a particular theorem, or in science to make a particular discovery, and more on other ways of contributing to the furthering of the subject.'

When it comes to published results, meanwhile, many of our respondents wanted to see more journals put a greater emphasis on rigorous methods and processes rather than splashy results.

'I think the one thing that would have the biggest impact is removing publication bias: judging papers by the quality of questions, quality of method, and soundness of analyses, but not on the results themselves,' writes Michael Inzlicht, a University of Toronto psychology and neuroscience professor.

(The site now holds information for more than 180,000 studies in 180 countries.) Similarly, the AllTrials campaign is pushing for every clinical trial (past, present, and future) around the world to be registered, with the full methods and results reported.

Again, this goes back to incentives: When researchers have to publish frequently and chase positive results, there’s less time to conduct high-quality studies with well-articulated methods.

This has plagued science with a problem called 'publication bias' — not all studies that are conducted actually get published in journals, and the ones that do tend to have positive and dramatic conclusions.

If institutions started to reward tenure positions or make hires based on the quality of a researcher’s body of work, instead of quantity, this might encourage more replication and discourage positive results chasing.

He also suggested more regularly adding supplements at the end of papers that get into the procedural nitty-gritty, to help anyone wanting to repeat an experiment. 'If I can rapidly get up to speed, I have a much better chance of approximating the results,' he said.

'It is better to do this in an organized fashion with buy-in from all leading investigators in a scientific discipline,' he explained, 'rather than have to try to find the investigator in each case and ask him or her in detective-work fashion about details, data, and methods that are otherwise unavailable.'

Researchers could also make use of new tools, such as open source software that tracks every version of a data set, so that they can share their data more easily and have transparency built into their workflow.

some journals have double-blind reviews, while others have moved to triple-blind review, where the authors, editors, and reviewers don’t know who one another are.) It sounds like a reasonable system.

The process frequently fails to detect fraud or other problems with manuscripts, which isn't all that surprising when you consider researchers aren't paid or otherwise rewarded for the time they spend reviewing manuscripts.

But this means it's not always easy to find the best people to peer-review manuscripts in their field, that harried researchers delay doing the work (leading to publication delays of up to two years), and that when they finally do sit down to peer-review an article they might be rushed and miss errors in studies.

'The issue is that most referees simply don't review papers carefully enough, which results in the publishing of incorrect papers, papers with gaps, and simply unreadable papers,' says Joel Fish, an assistant professor of mathematics at the University of Massachusetts Boston.

Since the default in the process is that editors and peer reviewers know who the authors are (but authors don’t know who the reviews are), biases against researchers or institutions can creep in, opening the opportunity for rude, rushed, and otherwise unhelpful comments.

Several suggested that all journals should move toward double-blinded peer review, whereby reviewers can't see the names or affiliations of the person they're reviewing and publication authors don't know who reviewed them.

'So rather than judging a paper by the gender, ethnicity, country, or institutional status of an author — which I believe happens a lot at the moment — it should be judged by its quality independent of those things.'

Yet others thought that more transparency, rather than less, was the answer: 'While we correctly advocate for the highest level of transparency in publishing, we still have most reviews that are blinded, and I cannot know who is reviewing me,' writes Lamberto Manzoli, a professor of epidemiology and public health at the University of Chieti, in Italy.

Some respondents wanted to think of peer review as more of a continuous process, in which studies are repeatedly and transparently updated and republished as new feedback changes them — much like Wikipedia entries.

'Posting preprints would allow scientific crowdsourcing to increase the number of errors that are caught, since traditional peer-reviewers cannot be expected to be experts in every sub-discipline,' writes Scott Hartman, a paleobiology PhD student at the University of Wisconsin.

As Michael Eisen, a biologist at UC Berkeley and co-founder of the Public Library of Science (or PLOS), put it, scientific journals are trying to hold on to the profits of the print era in the age of the internet. Subscription prices have continued to climb, as a handful of big publishers (like Elsevier) have bought up more and more journals, creating mini knowledge fiefdoms.

'Large, publicly owned publishing companies make huge profits off of scientists by publishing our science and then selling it back to the university libraries at a massive profit (which primarily benefits stockholders),' Corina Logan, an animal behavior researcher at the University of Cambridge, noted.

(In 2014, Elsevier reported a profit margin of nearly 40 percent and revenues close to $3 billion.) 'It seems wrong to me that taxpayers pay for research at government labs and universities but do not usually have access to the results of these studies, since they are behind paywalls of peer-reviewed journals,' added Melinda Simon, a postdoc microfluidics researcher at Lawrence Livermore National Lab.

'Research should be made available online immediately, and be judged by peers online rather than having to go through the whole formatting, submitting, reviewing, rewriting, reformatting, resubmitting, etc etc etc that can takes years,' writes Bruno Dagnino, formerly of the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience.

Rachel Harding, a genetic researcher at the University of Toronto, has set up a website called Lab Scribbles, where she publishes her lab notes on the structure of huntingtin proteins in real time, posting data as well as summaries of her breakthroughs and failures.

If you ever want to see a perfect example of this, check out 'Kill or Cure,' a site where Paul Battley meticulously documents all the times the Daily Mail reported that various items — from antacids to yogurt — either cause cancer, prevent cancer, or sometimes do both.

Indeed, one review in BMJ found that one-third of university press releases contained either exaggerated claims of causation (when the study itself only suggested correlation), unwarranted implications about animal studies for people, or unfounded health advice.

Other respondents pointed out that scientists themselves often oversell their work, even if it's preliminary, because funding is competitive and everyone wants to portray their work as big and important and game-changing.

'You have this toxic dynamic where journalists and scientists enable each other in a way that massively inflates the certainty and generality of how scientific findings are communicated and the promises that are made to the public,' writes Daniel Molden, an associate professor of psychology at Northwestern University.

The 'toxic dynamic' of journalists, academic press offices, and scientists enabling one another to hype research can be tough to change, and many of our respondents pointed out that there were no easy fixes — though recognition was an important first step.

(Some variations of this are starting to pop up: The Genetic Expert News Service solicits outside experts to weigh in on big new studies in genetics and biotechnology.) Other respondents suggested that making research free to all might help tamp down media misrepresentations.

'Being able to explain your work to a non-scientific audience is just as important as publishing in a peer-reviewed journal, in my opinion, but currently the incentive structure has no place for engaging the public,' writes Crystal Steltenpohl, a graduate assistant at DePaul University.

Reducing the perverse incentives around scientific research itself could also help reduce overhype. 'If we reward research based on how noteworthy the results are, this will create pressure to exaggerate the results (through exploiting flexibility in data analysis, misrepresenting results, or outright fraud),' writes UC Davis's Simine Vazire.

But on the flip side, we heard from a number of researchers — many of them graduate students or postdocs — who were genuinely passionate about research but found the day-to-day experience of being a scientist grueling and unrewarding.

Today, many tenured scientists and research labs depend on small armies of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers to perform their experiments and conduct data analysis.

Postdocs typically work long hours and are relatively low-paid for their level of education — salaries are frequently pegged to stipends set by NIH National Research Service Award grants, which start at $43,692 and rise to $47,268 in year three.

'Oftentimes this is problematic for individuals in their late 20s and early to mid-30s who have PhDs and who may be starting families while also balancing a demanding job that pays poorly,' wrote one postdoc, who asked for anonymity.

This lack of flexibility tends to disproportionately affect women — especially women planning to have families — which helps contribute to gender inequalities in research.

(A 2012 paper found that female job applicants in academia are judged more harshly and are offered less money than males.) 'There is very little support for female scientists and early-career scientists,' noted another postdoc.

'In the biomedical sciences,' wrote the first postdoc quoted above, 'each available faculty position receives applications from hundreds or thousands of applicants, putting immense pressure on postdocs to publish frequently and in high impact journals to be competitive enough to attain those positions.'

'Too many [PhD] students are graduating for a limited number of professor positions with minimal training for careers outside of academic research,' noted Don Gibson, a PhD candidate studying plant genetics at UC Davis.

Laura Weingartner, a graduate researcher in evolutionary ecology at Indiana University, agreed: 'Few universities (specifically the faculty advisors) know how to train students for anything other than academia, which leaves many students hopeless when, inevitably, there are no jobs in academia for them.'

The fact that university faculty and research labs face immense pressure to publish — but have limited funding — makes it highly attractive to rely on low-paid postdocs.

It would make scientists more confident in designing robust tests and not just convenient ones, in sharing their data and explaining their failed tests to peers, and in using those null results to form the basis of a career (instead of chasing those all-too-rare breakthroughs).

Again and again, we also heard from researchers, particularly in social sciences, who felt that their cognitive biases in their own work, influenced by pressures to publish and advance their careers, caused science to go off the rails.

If more human-proofing and de-biasing were built into the process — through stronger peer review, cleaner and more consistent funding, and more transparency and data sharing — some of these biases could be mitigated.

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