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Python (programming language)

Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python's design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant whitespace.

Its language constructs and object-oriented approach aim to help programmers write clear, logical code for small and large-scale projects.[27]

Python 2.0, released in 2000, introduced features like list comprehensions and a garbage collection system capable of collecting reference cycles.

Python 3.0, released in 2008, was a major revision of the language that is not completely backward-compatible, and much Python 2 code does not run unmodified on Python 3.

Language developer Guido van Rossum shouldered sole responsibility for the project until July 2018 but now shares his leadership as a member of a five-person steering council.[29][30][31]

Python 2.7.x, is 'sunsetting' on January 1, 2020, and the Python team of volunteers will not fix security issues, or improve it in other ways after that date.[32][33]

Van Rossum continued as Python's lead developer until July 12, 2018, when he announced his 'permanent vacation' from his responsibilities as Python's Benevolent Dictator For Life, a title the Python community bestowed upon him to reflect his long-term commitment as the project's chief decision-maker.[38]

Python 2.0 was released on 16 October 2000 with many major new features, including a cycle-detecting garbage collector and support for Unicode.[40]

Python 2.7's end-of-life date was initially set at 2015 then postponed to 2020 out of concern that a large body of existing code could not easily be forward-ported to Python 3.[44][45]

Object-oriented programming and structured programming are fully supported, and many of its features support functional programming and aspect-oriented programming (including by metaprogramming[46]

It also features dynamic name resolution (late binding), which binds method and variable names during program execution.

Van Rossum's vision of a small core language with a large standard library and easily extensible interpreter stemmed from his frustrations with ABC, which espoused the opposite approach.[35]

Python's developers strive to avoid premature optimization, and reject patches to non-critical parts of the CPython reference implementation that would offer marginal increases in speed at the cost of clarity.[55]

When speed is important, a Python programmer can move time-critical functions to extension modules written in languages such as C, or use PyPy, a just-in-time compiler.

This is reflected in the language's name—a tribute to the British comedy group Monty Python[56]—and in occasionally playful approaches to tutorials and reference materials, such as examples that refer to spam and eggs (from a famous Monty Python sketch) instead of the standard foo and bar.[57][58]

To say that code is pythonic is to say that it uses Python idioms well, that it is natural or shows fluency in the language, that it conforms with Python's minimalist philosophy and emphasis on readability.

From Python 2.5, it is possible to pass information back into a generator function, and from Python 3.3, the information can be passed through multiple stack levels.[70]

A particular case of this is that an assignment statement such as a = 1 cannot form part of the conditional expression of a conditional statement.

This has the advantage of avoiding a classic C error of mistaking an assignment operator = for an equality operator == in conditions: if (c = 1) { ...

Python methods have an explicit self parameter to access instance data, in contrast to the implicit self (or this) in some other object-oriented programming languages (e.g., C++, Java, Objective-C, or Ruby).[81]

Despite being dynamically typed, Python is strongly typed, forbidding operations that are not well-defined (for example, adding a number to a string) rather than silently attempting to make sense of them.

New instances of classes are constructed by calling the class (for example, SpamClass() or EggsClass()), and the classes are instances of the metaclass type (itself an instance of itself), allowing metaprogramming and reflection.

The syntax of both styles is the same, the difference being whether the class object is inherited from, directly or indirectly (all new-style classes inherit from object and are instances of type).

Python has the usual symbols for arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /), and the remainder operator % (where the remainder can be negative, e.g.

5**3 == 125 and 9**0.5 == 3.0, and a new matrix multiply @ operator is included in version 3.5.[87]

The behavior of division has changed significantly over time so that division between integers produces accurate floating point results:[90]

However, maintaining the validity of this equation means that while the result of a%b is, as expected, in the half-open interval [0, b), where b is a positive integer, it has to lie in the interval (b, 0] when b is negative.[91]

Integers are transparently switched from the machine-supported maximum fixed-precision (usually 32 or 64 bits), belonging to the python type int, to arbitrary precision, belonging to the Python type long, where needed.

this behavior is now entirely contained by the int class.) The Decimal type/class in module decimal (since version 2.4) provides decimal floating point numbers to arbitrary precision and several rounding modes.[97]

Due to Python's extensive mathematics library, and the third-party library NumPy that further extends the native capabilities, it is frequently used as a scientific scripting language to aid in problems such as numerical data processing and manipulation.[99][100]

It includes modules for creating graphical user interfaces, connecting to relational databases, generating pseudorandom numbers, arithmetic with arbitrary-precision decimals,[102]

Some parts of the standard library are covered by specifications (for example, the Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI) implementation wsgiref follows PEP 333[103]), but most modules are not.

Most Python implementations (including CPython) include a read–eval–print loop (REPL), permitting them to function as a command line interpreter for which the user enters statements sequentially and receives results immediately.

Python's development is conducted largely through the Python Enhancement Proposal (PEP) process, the primary mechanism for proposing major new features, collecting community input on issues and documenting Python design decisions.[120]

Python's development team monitors the state of the code by running the large unit test suite during development, and using the BuildBot continuous integration system.[126]

An empirical study found that scripting languages, such as Python, are more productive than conventional languages, such as C and Java, for programming problems involving string manipulation and search in a dictionary, and determined that memory consumption was often 'better than Java and not much worse than C or C++'.[134]

SageMath is a mathematical software with a notebook interface programmable in Python: its library covers many aspects of mathematics, including algebra, combinatorics, numerical mathematics, number theory, and calculus.

Python has been successfully embedded in many software products as a scripting language, including in finite element method software such as Abaqus, 3D parametric modeler like FreeCAD, 3D animation packages such as 3ds Max, Blender, Cinema 4D, Lightwave, Houdini, Maya, modo, MotionBuilder, Softimage, the visual effects compositor Nuke, 2D imaging programs like GIMP,[148]

As a scripting language with modular architecture, simple syntax and rich text processing tools, Python is often used for natural language processing.[158]

10 Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2019 (for Job Future)

The most important skill to learn in today’s world is to know how to write a computer program.

Be it the autopilot in an aircraft or digital speedometer in your bike, computers in various forms surround us.

Various new programming languages are coming up that are suited for different categories of developers (beginners, intermediate, and experts) as well as for different use cases (web application, mobile applications, game development, distributed system, etc).

Let us take a look at best Programming Languages to learn in 2019 for a job and for future prospects:

Python is fast, easy-to-use, and easy-to-deploy programming language that is being widely used to develop scalable web applications.

A lot of startups are using Python as their primary backend stack and so, this opens up a huge opportunity for full-stack Python developers.

If you are looking for a development based job at a large organization, Java is the language that you should learn.

This opens up a huge opportunity for Java developers given the fact that Google has created an excellent Java-based Android development framework - Android Studio.

C++ is also widely used by competitive programmers owing to the fact that it is extremely fast and stable.

STL is a pool of ready-to-use libraries for various data structures, arithmetic operations, and algorithms.

The library support and speed of the language make it a popular choice in the High-frequency trading community as well.

Node.js lets developers use JavaScript for server-side scripting—running scripts server-side to produce dynamic web page content before the page is sent to the user's web browser.

If you are looking for that cool tech job at your favorite startup, you should seriously consider learning JavaScript.

Go provides excellent support for multithreading and so, it is being used by a lot of companies that rely heavily on distributed systems.

Those who wish to join a reasonably well old organization as a backend developer should aim to learn PHP programming.

C# is widely used for backend programming, building games (using Unity), building Window mobile phone apps and lots of other use cases.

Unreal Engine C++ Developer: Learn C++ and Make Video Games

This 'critically-acclaimed' and 'insanely successful' Unreal Engine course was created in collaboration with Epic Games.

The course now hashigh quality hand written subtitles throughout, available as closed captions so you can turn them on or off at your convenience.

Learn how to create and mod video games using Unreal Engine 4, even if you're a complete beginner.

Unreal is a free-to-use game development engine used by AAA studios and indie developers worldwide.

You will have access to a course forum where you can discuss topics on a course-wide basis, or down to the individual video.

By the end of the course you'll be very confident in the basics of coding and game development, and hungry to learn more.

If you're a complete beginner, we'll teach you all the coding and game design principles you'll need.

Note:access to this course comes with an optional, freecommunity site where you can share games and 3D models, as well as connect with other students.

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