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Amazon (company)

(/ˈæməzɒn/), is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle that focuses on e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming, and artificial intelligence.

The company initially started as an online marketplace for books but later expanded to sell electronics, software, video games, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry.

The company began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany.

The following year, the organization also sold video games, consumer electronics, home-improvement items, software, games, and toys in addition to other items.

In 2006, the organization grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service (S3), that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available.

That same year, the company started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site.

In 2000, U.S. toy retailer Toys 'R' Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys 'R' Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, and the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys &

In 2004, Toys 'R' Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys 'R' Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys 'R' Us had been granted exclusivity.

The service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, Houston, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014.[34]

Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media (books, DVDs, music CDs, videotapes and software), apparel, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial &

scientific supplies, kitchen items, jewelry, watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, sporting goods, tools, automotive items and toys &

CreateSpace, which offers self-publishing services for independent content creators, publishers, film studios, and music labels, became a subsidiary in 2009.[55][56]

It is expected to take up to a decade to fully deploy all 3,236 satellites planned for the full constellation in order to provide internet to 'tens of millions of people who lack basic access to broadband internet.'[60]

Kuiper will work in concert with Amazon's previously announced large network of 12 satellite ground station facilities (the 'AWS Ground Station unit') announced in November 2018.[64]

Amazon filed communications license documents with the U.S. regulatory authorities the FCC in July 2019, which included information that the wholly owned Amazon subsidiary that intended to deploy the satellite constellation was Kuiper Systems LLC, based in Seattle, Washington.[65]

The Kuiper System will consist of 3,236 satellites operating in 98 orbital planes in three orbital shells, one each at 590 kilometers (370 mi), 610 km (380 mi), and 630 km (390 mi) orbital altitude.[66]

The site's rapid growth had been boosted primarily by the prominence of major esports competitions on the service, leading GameSpot senior esports editor Rod Breslau to have described the service as 'the ESPN of esports'.[76]

As it progressed, Junglee started to use its database technology to create a single window marketplace on the internet by making every item from every supplier available for purchase.

It curated and enabled searching for a diverse variety of products such as clothing, electronics, toys, jewelry and video games, among others, across thousands of online and offline sellers.

Amazon has several types of distribution facilities consisting of crossdock centers, fulfillment centers, sortation centers, delivery stations, Prime now hubs, and Prime air hubs.

A computer that records the location of goods and maps out routes for pickers plays a key role: employees carry hand-held computers which communicate with the central computer and monitor their rate of progress.

The company has also invested heavily on a massive amount of server capacity for its website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the December Christmas holiday season.[92]

Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicate the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a credit card account) or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity.

Instead, it returns a picture of the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing and puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access.

In June 2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be internally called 'Project Genesis') to provide more transparency to sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon.

In 2019, Amazon launched a bigger local online store in Singapore to expand its product selection in the face of intensifying competition with competitors in the region.[105]

Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers—we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy.

Amazon started by focusing on business-to-consumer relationships between itself and its customers and business-to-business relationships between itself and its suppliers and then moved to facilitate customer-to-customer with the Amazon marketplace which acts as an intermediary to facilitate transactions.

In addition to an affiliate program that lets anyone post-Amazon links and earn a commission on click-through sales, there is now a program which lets those affiliates build entire websites based on Amazon's platform.[111]

These meta sellers may have millions of products listed, have large transaction numbers and are grouped alongside other less prolific members giving them credibility as just someone who has been in business for a long time.

Amazon takes a small percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its website while also allowing companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products.[116]

For the fiscal year 2018, Amazon reported earnings of US$10.07 billion, with an annual revenue of US$232.887 billion, an increase of 30.9% over the previous fiscal cycle.

Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy for its actions, including: supplying law enforcement with facial recognition surveillance tools;[132]

Criticism has also concerned various decisions over whether to censor or publish content such as the WikiLeaks website, works containing libel and material facilitating dogfight, cockfight, or pedophile activities.

One effort to squeeze the most vulnerable book publishers was known within the company as the Gazelle Project, after Bezos suggested, according to Brad Stone, 'that Amazon should approach these small publishers the way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle.'[93]

In July 2014, the Federal Trade Commission launched a lawsuit against the company alleging it was promoting in-app purchases to children, which were being transacted without parental consent.[142]

In November 2018, a community action group opposed the construction permit delivered to Goodman Group for the construction of a 160,000 square metres (1,700,000 sq ft) logisitics platform Amazon will operate at Lyon–Saint-Exupéry Airport.

In February 2019, Étienne Tête filed a request on behalf of a second regional community action group asking the administrative court to decide whether the platform served a sufficiently important public interest to justify its environmental impact.

Proponents of forcing Amazon.com to collect sales tax—at least in states where it maintains a physical presence—argue the corporation wields an anticompetitive advantage over storefront businesses forced to collect sales tax.[145]

Many U.S. states in the 21st century have passed online shopping sales tax laws designed to compel Amazon.com and other e-commerce retailers to collect state and local sales taxes from its customers.

Amazon.com originally collected sales tax only from five states as of 2011[update], but as of April 2017[update], Amazon collects sales taxes from customers in all 45 states that have a state sales tax and in Washington, D.C.[146]

Amazon paid no federal income taxes in the U.S. in 2017 and 2018, and actually received tax refunds worth millions of dollars, despite recording several billion dollars in profits each year.[23]

CNN reported that Amazon's tax bill was zero because they took advantage of provisions in years when they were losing money that allowed them to offset future taxes on profits, as well as various other tax credits.[147]

In early 2018, President Donald Trump repeatedly criticized Amazon's use of the United States Postal Service and its prices for the delivery of packages, stating, 'I am right about Amazon costing the United States Post Office massive amounts of money for being their Delivery Boy,' Trump tweeted.

Some workers, 'pickers', who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner 'picking' customer orders can walk up to 15 miles during their workday and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded.

The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards, themselves being employed by a third party company, who apparently either had a neo-Nazi background or deliberately dressed in neo-Nazi apparel and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centers.

In March 2015, it was reported in The Verge that Amazon will be removing non-compete clauses of 18 months in length from its US employment contracts for hourly-paid workers, after criticism that it was acting unreasonably in preventing such employees from finding other work.

Even short-term temporary workers have to sign contracts that prohibit them from working at any company where they would 'directly or indirectly' support any good or service that competes with those they helped support at Amazon, for 18 months after leaving Amazon, even if they are fired or made redundant.[170][171]

In an effort to boost employee morale, on November 2, 2015, Amazon announced that it would be extending six weeks of paid leave for new mothers and fathers.

This change includes birth parents and adoptive parents and can be applied in conjunction with existing maternity leave and medical leave for new mothers.[174]

In response to criticism that Amazon does not pay its workers a livable wage, Jeff Bezos announced beginning November 1, 2018, all US and UK Amazon employees will earn a $15 an hour minimum wage.[178]

The Daily Beast reported in March 2019 that emergency services responded to 189 calls from 46 Amazon warehouses in 17 states between the years 2013 and 2018, all relating to suicidal employees.

The workers attributed their mental breakdowns to employer-imposed social isolation, aggressive surveillance, and the hurried and dangerous working conditions at these fulfillment centers.

On July 15, 2019, during the onset of Amazon's 'Prime Day' sale event, Amazon employees working in the United States and Germany went on strike in protest of unfair wages and poor working conditions.[183][184]

The incentives include '$102 million in combined grants and tax credits for a scaled-down Amazon office building' as well as 'a $65 million cash grant for capital expenditures' in exchange for the creation of 5,000 jobs over seven years.[189]

In February 2019, another $15.2 million in infrastructure was approved by the council, although it was voted down by three council members, including Councilwoman Angie Henderson who dismissed it as 'cronyism'.[194]

While Amazon has publicly opposed secret government surveillance, as revealed by Freedom of Information Act requests it has supplied facial recognition support to law enforcement in the form of the Rekognition technology and consulting services.

Amazon lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection and intellectual property.

Data Daily | Data News

A new press release reports, “Odaseva, the award-winning unified cloud data compliance, protection, and operations platform for enterprises running Salesforce as a business-critical application, today announced several new enhancements to its platform including increased compliance automation applications as well as support for the Salesforce Marketing Cloud and Ultra High Availability for Salesforce… For the past […]

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