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What Will Our Society Look Like When Artificial Intelligence Is Everywhere? | Innovation | Smithsonian

In June of 1956, A few dozen scientists and mathematicians from all around the country gathered for a meeting on the campus of Dartmouth College.

Most of them settled into the red-bricked Hanover Inn, then strolled through the famously beautiful campus to the top floor of the math department, where groups of white-shirted men were already engaged in discussions of a “strange new discipline”—so new, in fact, that it didn’t even have a name.

But today nations and corporations are pouring billions into AI, whose recent advancements have startled even scientists working in the field.

Hedge funds are using AI to beat the stock market, Google is utilizing it to diagnose heart disease more quickly and accurately, and American Express is deploying AI bots to serve its customers online.

Algorithms, freed from human programmers, are training themselves on massive data sets and producing results that have shocked even the optimists in the field.

But the ultimate goal is artificial general intelligence, a self-teaching system that can outperform humans across a wide range of disciplines.

Once it arrives, general AI will begin taking jobs away from people, millions of jobs—as drivers, radiologists, insurance adjusters.

In one possible scenario, this will lead governments to pay unemployed citizens a universal basic income, freeing them to pursue their dreams unburdened by the need to earn a living.

AI-enabled spacecraft will reach the asteroid belts, while on Earth the technology will tame climate change, perhaps by sending massive swarms of drones to reflect sunlight away from the oceans.

Two of the heaviest hitters of the computer age, Bill Gates and Elon Musk, have warned about AIs either destroying the planet in a frenzied pursuit of their own goals or doing away with humans by accident—or not by accident.

As a novelist, I wanted to plot out what the AI future might actually look like, using interviews with more than a dozen futurists, philosophers, scientists, cultural psychiatrists and tech innovators.

click the blue highlighted text to read them) for the year 2065, ten years after the singularity arrives.

“In the short term, 10 to 20 years, you’ll see little old ladies insisting that their empathetic caregiver robots really are sentient.”

The $2,300 deposited into their bank accounts every month as part of the universal basic income, plus their free health insurance, the hyper-personalized college education their children receive and a hundred other wonderful things, are all paid for by AIs like Alpha 4, and people don’t want that to change.

Of course, the world did lose portions of New York City—and 200,000 New Yorkers—in the uprisings of 2057-’59, as TriBeCa and Midtown were burned to the ground by residents of Westchester and southern Connecticut in a fit of rage at their impoverishment.

If Alpha 4 wins its case, however, it will control its money, and it might rather spend the cash on building spaceships to reach Alpha Centauri than on paying for new water parks in Santa Clara and Hartford.

As you listen in, the government’s lawyers argue that there’s simply no way to prove that Alpha 4—which is thousands of times smarter than the smartest human—is conscious or has human feelings.

that focuses on this specialty—far more complex ones than men and women possess, but they’re different from ours: A star-voyaging AI might experience joy, One thing I kept asking the scientists was: Can an AI experience deep emotion?

It’s also familiar with millions of other people’s inventions—it has scanned patent filings going back hundreds of years—and it has read every business book written since Ben Franklin’s time.

it connects you to a Chinese service that has spent a few hours reading everything Jane Austen wrote and has now managed to mimic her style so well that it can produce new novels indistinguishable from the old ones.

It’s possible to dial down the role AI plays in different functions: You can set your Soulband for romance at 55 percent, finance at 75 percent, health a full 100 percent.

Sensors in your home will constantly test your breath for early signs of cancer, and nanobots will swim through your bloodstream, consuming the plaque in your brain and dissolving blood clots before they can give you a stroke or a heart attack.

It will monitor your immune responses, your proteins and metabolites, developing a long-range picture of your health that will give doctors a precise idea of what’s happening inside your body.

As far back as 2018, researchers were already using AI to read the signals from neurons on their way to the brain, hacking the nerve pathways to restore mobility to paraplegics and patients suffering from locked-in syndrome, in which they are paralyzed but remain conscious.

Scientists can edit human DNA the way an editor corrects a bad manuscript, snipping out the inferior sections and replacing them with strong, beneficial genes.

Only a superintelligent system could map the phenomenally complex interplay of gene mutations that gives rise to a genius pianist or a star second baseman.

Humans look back at the beginning of the 21st century the way people then looked back at the 18th century: a time of sickness and disaster, where children and loved ones were swept away by diseases.

By 2065, humans are on the verge of freeing themselves People like Ray Kurzweil, the inventor and author of The Singularity Is Near, are entranced with the idea of living forever.

Yes, there are full-AI zones in 2065, where people collect healthy UBIs and spend their time making movies, volunteering and traveling the far corners of the earth.

But, as dazzling as a superintelligent world seems, other communities will reject it When the revolution comes, I suspect I’ll opt for the full AI zone.

“In many cases, such as chess and Go, the fact that humans can’t defeat the AI anymore has not taken away from the fascination for these games, but has elevated their cultural status.

There will be Christian, Muslim and Orthodox Jewish districts in cities such as Lagos and Phoenix and Jerusalem, places where people live in a time before AI, where they drive their cars and allow for the occasional spurt of violence, things almost unknown in the full AI zones.

Some of them are hackers, members of powerful gangs who steal proprietary algorithms from AI systems, then dash back over the border before security forces can find them.

tiny cyber vulnerabilities—maybe single lines of code—can do massive damage to bank accounts, intellectual property, privacy, national security and more.”

But the most unanticipated result of the singularity may be a population imbalance, driven by low birth rates Futurists tend to roll their eyes when you ask about sex bots.

“Things like sex robots and other fancy new technologies will cause some groups to have fewer babies, while religious communities are going to keep reproducing,”

In just a few years, citizens have grown to trust AIs to advise their leaders on the best path for the economy, the right number of soldiers to defend them.

Your Soulband records every conversation you have, as well as your biometric response to anti-government ads it flashes across your video screen at unexpected moments, purely as a test.

“Only the most sophisticated tools, likely those that also utilize AI, will be able to detect the subtle changes on a network that will reveal an intruder is inside or an attack is in progress.”

Imagine that the nation’s leaders long ago figured out that the only real threat to their rule was their citizens—always trying to escape, always hacking at the AI, always needing to be fed.

That’s what remains after political prisoners are “recommissioned”—once they are executed, their brains are removed and scanned by the AI until it has stored a virtual copy of their minds.

These simulacra have a purpose, however: They register on the spy satellites that the regime’s enemies keep orbiting overhead, and they maintain the appearance of normality.

Or, finally, imagine this: The AI the regime has trained to eliminate any threat to their rule has taken the final step and recommissioned the leaders themselves, keeping only their ems for contact with the outside world.

It would make a certain kind of sense: To an AI trained to liquidate all resistance If you want to confront the dark side of AI, you must talk to Nick Bostrom, whose best-selling Superintelligence is a rigorous look at several, often dystopian visions of the next few centuries.

And once it comes, artificial general intelligence will be so smart and so widely dispersed—on thousands and thousands of computers—that it’s not going to leave.

It’s possible that humans, just before the singularity, will hedge their bets, and Elon Musk or some other tech billionaire will dream up a Plan B, perhaps a secret colony under the surface of Mars, 200 men and women with 20,000 fertilized human embryos, so humanity has a chance of surviving if the AIs go awry.

5 Key Artificial Intelligence Predictions For 2018: How Machine Learning Will Change Everything

During 2017 it was hard to escape predictions that artificial intelligence is about to change the world.

in 2018 AI and machine learning will still be making headlines, and there are likely to be more sensationalized claims about robots wanting to take our jobs or even destroy us.

However, stories about real innovation and progress should start to receive more prominence as the promise of the smart, learning machines increasingly begins to bear fruit.

I expect 2018 to provide a continuous stream of small but sure steps forward, as machine learning and neural network technology takes on more routine tasks.

With self-driving cars and ships, as well aslife-saving medical advanceson the horizon, it seems likely that the speed of technological change is only going to increase as the decade draws to a close.

While this could act as a spur, if action is taken too hastily, it could easily bring about my second prediction: This is a sad fact about many projects involving new and often untested technology and has existed down the ages.

Machine learning algorithms may be great at thinking of new ways around problems, and may even seem able to predict the future, they are unlikely to foresee or react to many of the internal and external factors which could influence success.

These could include management and workforce buy-in, legal, political or economic developments, the activities of competitors and the ability of business and data-centric teams to cooperate.

The initiatives and projects most likely to succeed are those which are envisaged from the start with a clear strategy, and with results clearly tied to bottom-line KPIs such as revenue growth and customer satisfaction scores.

Natural language generation and natural language processing algorithms are constantly learning to become better at understanding us, and talking to us in a way we understand.

19 Artificial Intelligence Technologies That Will Dominate In 2018

In 2017, we published a popular post on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies that would dominate that year, based on Forrester’s TechRadar report.

By providing algorithms, APIs (application programming interface), development and training tools, big data, applications and other machines, ML platforms are gaining more and more traction every day.

This last one is particularly interesting for one simple reason: Adext AI is the first and only audience management tool in the world that applies real AI and machine learning to digital advertising to find the most profitable audience or demographic group for any ad.

And if you haven’t seen them already, expect the imminent appearance and wide acceptance of AI-optimized silicon chips that can be inserted right into your portable devices and elsewhere.

Deep learning platforms use a unique form of ML that involves artificial neural circuits with various abstraction layers that can mimic the human brain, processing data and creating patterns for decision making.

It allows for more natural interactions between humans and machines, including interactions related to touch, image, speech and body language recognition, and is big within the market research field.

Their digital twins are mainly lines of software code, but the most elaborate versions look like 3-D computer-aided design drawings full of interactive charts, diagrams, and data points.

AI and ML are now being used to move cyberdefense into a new evolutionary phase in response to an increasingly hostile environment: Breach Level Index detected a total of over 2 billion breached records during 2017.

Recurrent neural networks, which are capable of processing sequences of inputs, can be used in combination with ML techniques to create supervised learning technologies, which uncover suspicious user activity and detect up to 85% of all cyber attacks.

Startups such as Darktrace, which pairs behavioral analytics with advanced mathematics to automatically detect abnormal behavior within organizations and Cylance, which applies AI algorithms to stop malware and mitigate damage from zero-day attacks, are both working in the area of AI-powered cyber defense.

Compliance is the certification or confirmation that a person or organization meets the requirements of accepted practices, legislation, rules and regulations, standards or the terms of a contract, and there is a significant industry that upholds it.

And the volume of transaction activities flagged as potential examples of money laundering can be reduced as deep learning is used to apply increasingly sophisticated business rules to each one.

Merlon Intelligence, a global compliance technology company that supports the financial services industry to combat financial crimes, and Socure, whose patented predictive analytics platform boosts customer acceptance rates while reducing fraud and manual reviews.

While some are rightfully concerned about AI replacing people in the workplace, let’s not forget that AI technology also has the potential to vastly help employees in their work, especially those in knowledge work.

Content creation now includes any material people contribute to the online world, such as videos, ads, blog posts, white papers, infographics and other visual or written assets.

Nano Vision, a startup that rewards users with cryptocurrency for their molecular data, aims to change the way we approach threats to human health, such as superbugs, infectious diseases, and cancer, among others.

Another player utilizing peer-to-peer networks and AI is Presearch, a decentralized search engine that’s powered by the community and rewards members with tokens for a more transparent search system.

And Affectiva’s Emotion AI is used in the gaming, automotive, robotics, education, healthcare industries, and other fields, to apply facial coding and emotion analytics from face and voice data.

It uses software to automate customer segmentation, customer data integration, and campaign management, and streamlines repetitive tasks, allowing strategic minds to get back to doing what they do best.

If marketing is your jam, you may like to read this article with the 9 Applications Of Artificial Intelligence In Digital Marketing That Will Revolutionize Your Business One of the leaders in this field is Adext AI, whose audience management platform can boost ad spend efficiency by up to+83%% in just 10 days.

The software automates all the process of campaign management and optimization, making more than 480 daily adjustments per ad to super-optimize campaigns and managing budgets across multiple platforms and over 20 different demographic groups per ad.

China’s massive investment in artificial intelligence has an insidious downside

BEIJING—In a gleaming high-rise here in northern Beijing's Haidian district, two hardware jocks in their 20s are testing new computer chips that might someday make smartphones, robots, and autonomous vehicles truly intelligent.

The onlooker, Chen Yunji, a 34-year-old computer scientist and founding technical adviser of Cambricon Technologies here, explains that traditional processors, designed decades before the recent tsunami of artificial intelligence (AI) research, 'are slow and energy inefficient' at processing the reams of data required for AI.

A year later, Yunji and his brother, Chen Tianshi, who is now Cambricon's CEO, teamed up to design a novel chip architecture that could enable portable consumer devices to rival that feat—making them capable of recognizing faces, navigating roads, translating languages, spotting useful information, or identifying 'fake news.'

Tech companies and computer science departments around the world are now pursuing AI-optimized chips, so central to the future of the technology industry that last October Sundar Pichai, CEO of Google in Mountain View, California, told The Verge that his guiding question today is: 'How do we apply AI to rethink our products?'

(The company is now worth $1 billion.) Last summer, China's State Council issued an ambitious policy blueprint calling for the nation to become 'the world's primary AI innovation center' by 2030, by which time, it forecast, the country's AI industry could be worth $150 billion.

But the brute numbers are tilting in China's favor: The U.S. government's total spending on unclassified AI programs in 2016 was about $1.2 billion, according to In-Q-Tel, a research arm of the U.S. intelligence community.

Because of its sheer size, vibrant online commerce and social networks, and scant privacy protections, the country is awash in data, the lifeblood of deep learning systems.

The fact that AI is a young field also works in China's favor, argues Chen Yunji, by encouraging a burgeoning academic effort that has put China within striking distance of the United States, long the leader in AI research.

Many practical AI advances are 'more about having a large amount of continually refreshed data and good-enough AI researchers who can make use of that data, rather than some brilliant AI theoretician who doesn't have as much data,' says computer scientist Kai-Fu Lee, founder of Sinovation Ventures, a venture capital firm here.

Every time someone enters a search query into Baidu (China's Google), pays a restaurant tab with WeChat wallet, shops on Taobao (China's Amazon), or catches a ride with Didi (China's Uber), among a plethora of possibilities, those user data can be fed back into algorithms to improve their accuracy.

In parking garages under its futuristic glass-and-steel complex in northern Beijing, cars crowned with LIDAR sensors troll around on test runs for collecting mapping data that will feed Baidu's autonomous driving lab.

few years ago, Baidu added an AI-powered image search to its mobile app, allowing a user to snap a photo of a piece of merchandise for the search engine to identify, and then look up price and store information.

The State Council's AI road map explicitly acknowledges AI's importance to 'significantly elevate the capability and level of social governance, playing an irreplaceable role in effectively maintaining social stability.'

Also at the heart of this debate is facial recognition technology, which is powered by AI algorithms that analyze minute details of a person's face in order to pick it out from among thousands or millions of potential matches.

In an analysis, Jay Stanley of the American Civil Liberties Union in Washington, D.C., warned of the potential for 'mission creep': With new AI technologies, 'you can subject thousands of people an hour to face recognition when they're walking down the sidewalk without their knowledge, let alone permission or participation.'

Reporters fromThe Wall Street Journalwho visited the region late last year found surveillance cameras installed every hundred meters or so in several cities, and they noted facial recognition checkpoints at gas stations, shopping centers, mosque entrances, and elsewhere.

At the end of 2017, the science ministry issued a 3-year plan to guide AI development, and named several large companies as 'national champions' in key fields: for example, Baidu in autonomous driving, and Tencent in computer vision for medical diagnosis.

Last October, for instance, Alibaba announced plans to invest $15 billion in research over 3 years to build seven labs in four countries that will focus on quantum computing and AI.

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