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While “green mining” aims for a more ecological approach to mining metals, The Iron Ring explores how contaminated mining grounds may benefit from the mining of metals.

For The Iron Ring, 24 kg of iron-tainted grass was removed from contaminated mining grounds and transformed into a ring of 2 g metallic iron.


Animatronics refers to the use of cable-pulled devices or motors to emulate a human or an animal, or bring lifelike characteristics to an otherwise inanimate object.

Modern animatronics tend to use robotics and have found widespread applications in movie special effects and theme parks and have, since their inception, been primarily used as a spectacle of amusement.[1][2]

Animatronic figures are often powered by pneumatics, hydraulics, and/or by electrical means, and can be implemented using both computer control and human control, including teleoperation.

Figures are covered with body shells and flexible skins made of hard and soft plastic materials and finished with details like colors, hair and feathers and other components to make the figure more lifelike.

Autonomatronics was also defined by Walt Disney Imagineers, to describe a more advanced audio-animatronic technology featuring cameras and complex sensors to process information around the character's environment and respond to that stimulus.[9]

The 'figure' was described as able to walk, pose and sing, and when dismantled was observed to consist of anatomically accurate organs.[20]

The 5th-century BC Mohist philosopher Mozi and his contemporary Lu Ban are attributed with the invention of artificial wooden birds (ma yuan) that could successfully fly in the Han Fei Zi[21]

and in 1066, the Chinese inventor Su Song built a water clock in the form of a tower which featured mechanical figurines which chimed the hours.

Approximately 1220–1230, Villard de Honnecourt wrote The Portfolio of Villard de Honnecourt which depicts an early escapement mechanism in a drawing titled How to make an angel keep pointing his finger toward the Sun and an automaton of a bird, with jointed wings which led to their design implementation in clocks.

One of the earliest of these large clocks was the Strasbourg Clock, built in the fourteenth century which takes up the entire side of a cathedral wall.

In 1454, Duke Philip created an entertainment show named The extravagant Feast of the Pheasant, which was intended to influence the Duke's peers to participate in a crusade against the Ottomans but ended up being a grand display of automata, giants, and dwarves.[29]

While some of these robots were, in fact, animatronics, at the time they were thought of simply as robots because the term animatronics had yet to become popularized.

Walt Disney is often credited for popularizing animatronics for entertainment after he bought an animatronic bird while he was vacationing, although it is disputed whether it was in New Orleans[32]

In 1951, two years after Walt Disney discovered animatronics, he commissioned machinist Roger Broggie and sculptor Wathel Rogers to lead a team tasked with creating a 9' tall figure that could move and talk simulating dance routines performed by actor Buddy Ebsen.

Two Muppet characters, Dr. Bunsen Honeydew and his assistant, Beaker, pilot the vehicle through the park, interacting with guests and deploying special effects such as foggers, flashing lights, moving signs, confetti cannons and spray jets.

Laffing Sal is one of the several automated characters that were used to attract carnival and amusement park patrons to funhouses and dark rides throughout the United States.[39]

Animatronics are used in situations where a creature does not exist, the action is too risky or costly to use real actors or animals, or the action could never be obtained with a living person or animal.

Its main advantage over CGI and stop motion is that the simulated creature has a physical presence moving in front of the camera in real time.

The 1993 film Jurassic Park used a combination of computer-generated imagery in conjunction with life-sized animatronic dinosaurs built by Stan Winston and his team.

Since the first game's release in August 2014, the franchise has expanded to include five sequels, two spin-off games, three full-length novels, two informational guidebooks, and a theatrical film currently in development.

To provide further strength a piece of fabric is cut to size and embedded in the foam rubber after it is poured into the mould.

Once the mould has fully cured, each piece is separated and attached to the exterior of the figure providing the appearance and texture similar to that of 'skin'.[53]

Foam latex is a lightweight, soft form of latex which is used in masks and facial prosthetics to change a person's outward appearance, and in animatronics to create a realistic 'skin'.[57]

Disney has a research team devoted to improving and developing better methods of creating more lifelike animatronics exteriors with silicone.[59]

RTV silicone (room temperature vulcanization silicone) is used primarily as a molding material as it is very easy to use but is relatively expensive.

To create more realistic movement in large figures, an analog system is generally used to give the figures a full range of fluid motion rather than simple two position movements.[63]

FACS defines that through facial expression, humans can recognize 6 basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise.

Animatronics has been developed as a career which combines the disciplines of mechanical engineering, casting/sculpting, control technologies, electrical/electronic systems, radio control and airbrushing.

Individuals interested in animatronics typically earn a degree in robotics which closely relate to the specializations needed in animatronics engineering.[67]

The fusion of animatronics with artificial intelligence results in androids, as is usually known, robots that imitate human behavior.

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